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[edit] Creativity and University

The ability to exhibit creativity is a quality which many strive to accomplish. It is a quality which universities across North America attempt to foster in their students. Though it is also evident that creativity is a broadly defined term, that takes on many different forms as it is analyzed, applied, praised and taught across multiple disciplines within the university setting [1]. A study conducted by Marquis & Vajoczki (2012) looked at the variability in the instructors’ definitions of creativity among the six disciplines at MacMaster University. Their results showed that the instructors within all disciplines agreed that it is important to foster creativity in students. There was also an agreement that creativity also means novelty, originality and utility [1]. The only variations were primarily within the Humanities and Health Sciences. Those in the Humanities emphasised that expressiveness was central to their definition of creativity, whereas those in Health Sciences emphasized flexibility [1]. Understandably, instructors and course content play a large role in students’ understanding of creativity. Although, individual differences and constructs within the university setting may show to help or hinder students’ ability to perform creatively.

[edit] Lectures


[edit] History of Lecture Use WIthin the University

Lectures are an informative and affordable means of disseminating content to a large group of people that has its roots deep within human oral history itself.[2] Oral learning via one human speaking to many is thought to be at least ten thousand years old.[2] Initial topics could involve environmental dangers, information about food sources or animal behaviour.[2] The lecture has always been a method of conceptual transmission from those who have knowledge to those who are without it.[2]

[edit] Tacit and Explicit Knowledge from the Lecture Paradigm

The lecture method is particularly effective for teaching content that is mostly factual or perceptual.[3] In terms of explicit knowledge, students are able to intake large amounts of information, generally in a contextual timeline that covers an in depth overview of the topic at hand.[3] Tacit knowledge gained from the lecture paradigm, when properly administered, includes effective creation of learning material (via note-taking), drawing logical conclusions from stated facts, and conditioning for students to the atmosphere of academic approach.[3]

[edit] Stifling the Creative Group Atmosphere

The lecture has been criticized for its lack of critical contribution for the students involved. [4] Many professors are not aware of their audience, and do not actively engage them whilst lecturing.[4] Proponents of the lecture describe this as the aim or strength of the lecture [2][3], as it creates incredibly efficiency and is highly flexible. This is at the cost of participation by the students, however.

[edit] Fostering Individual Creativity and Adding to the Lecture

Many Universities are seeking to energize their courses’ lecture components by adding to the lecture paradigm. Researchers such as Weibel, Stricker, & Wissmath (2010) have examined the use of a Virtual Learning Centre (VLC) to help improve students’ performance and satisfaction.

  • VLC- A virtual learning centre (VLC) is an online addition to the lecture that supports the learning process by exploring questions related to the material discussed in lecture.[5] Weibel et. al. found that their VLC improved performance on trained material vs. untrained material, while also providing feedback to instructors on usefulness of the VLC and attitudes about the course material.
  • ESRS- Another development growing in popularity in University lecture halls has been the advent of “clicker” use. Clickers, or Electronic Student Response Systems (ESRS), allow students to provide a real-time answer to a question posed by a professor during lecture within the very same hall.[6] Professors can use an ESRS to determine class attendance and to complete quizzes or exams. More importantly, professors can use ESRS to measure student comprehension of material in real-time.[6] Responses from students are gathered and compiled immediately, and their answers can be demonstrated to the class in a graph or chart quickly- something that could modify the lecture experience immensely.[6]

[edit] Changing the Lecture

As technology and research on effective teaching methods progresses, the traditional lecture paradigm is experiencing changes. Major changes to the lecture format include the following:

  • PowerPoint Use - Use of Microsoft PowerPoint presentation software in addition to standard oral lecturing has become almost the standard in Universities.[7] In addition to providing clear objectives of the lecture, many professors incorporate videos and pictures into their lecture content using presentation technology to improve the entertainment value as well.[7]
  • Video Lectures - Many professors and high school senior teachers are opting to use video lectures instead of the traditional lecture style. Many professors will record a YouTube video of their lecture and post it online for students to view on their own time or even during class time. Though this new lecture method is highly distributable and online videos can last years, there has been a substantial amount of criticism concerning the large amount of depersonalization of these “video classes”.
  • Online Education - Some Universities are offering more exclusively online classes than ever before. Online education essentially constructs the classroom on the internet, with students and teachers participating in online “blackboard” sessions and “webinars”. Discussions are held in chatrooms and questions are posted to be answered at later times. Though this is still achieving the same goal of (extremely widespread and affordable) conceptual transmission via lecture, it still does not foster any sort of creativity or personal human interaction whatsoever.

[edit] Seminars

[edit] Background

Seminars were first introduced in Germany in the early 19th century.[8] Seminars stemmed from orally taught lectures in class, to an assignment based system involving workshops aimed at writing essays based on research and investigations done by the students.[8] The aim was for students to be able to apply the knowledge they learned in lectures and be able to produce written works in their field of study by working on essays during seminar time.[8] Similar to the seminar setting, laboratory classes were also introduced as a way for students to become familiar and comfortable with experimentation.[8] The seminar and lab systems lead to the initiation of assignments such as the research report and essays as the students developed their writing skills within their seminars.[8]

[edit] Organization of Seminars in University

Seminars are commonly known as secondary systems of teaching within universities as they often occur after the lecture portion of class. Seminars are often aimed at reinforcing the information learned in lecture and enable students to apply the knowledge they have learned in a group conversation amongst their peers. The term “tutorials” is used at Oxford University, where students will prepare material before the session itself in order to be able to participate effectively.[9] This is one example of how seminars/tutorials can operate. The tutorials are composed to two to six students and are led by tutors or teaching assistants; however, tutorials within the social sciences tend to be larger in size as there is a higher population of students.[9] The tutorials are primarily student-focused, where students are given the opportunity to ask questions and discuss any material covered in lecture.[9]

The following is a video from Birmingham University on how their seminars operate:

[edit] Tutorials

Seminars and tutorials operate in a similar fashion in Universities within Canada. Insert non-formatted text hereTutorials are often popular in the math and economics departments where students go over math problems, while seminars tend to be prevalent in studies of psychology and sociology. In both cases, the groups are comprised of fifteen to twenty students. Seminars often involve weekly presentations by the students. Lab sessions are similar to tutorials, however they typically comprise of students within the science departments. Students are in a laboratory setting; often working on an experiment they will later write a report on. All seminars, tutorials and labs are lead by teaching assistants, professors or instructors, designated to facilitate discussion amongst the students on the specific lecture content for the week. Refer to the link below to see how the seminar system in the Psychology department at Brock University operates through facilitation of discussion, debates, and discussion of any questions or concerns with the material. Brock University Seminars (Psychology Department)

[edit] Purpose and Effectiveness

The University of Leichester in the UK provides a great description on the purpose and effectiveness of their seminars and how they are organized. This provides a beneficial description of how seminars operate within their institution and behaviours which are appropriate. University of Leichester Seminar System

Seminars have shown to be beneficial, not only for the reinforcement of lecture material, but also for applying the knowledge in a real-life setting. For example, at the University of Auckland, the classes have grown to be so large the Professors barely have time to interact with the students [10]. This illustrates how large classes can be a detriment to the students interaction and help their receive from their professors. Seminars have shown to have significant benefits in reducing stress as well as enabling the students develop the skills to apply the knowledge they have learned in a stimulating and interactive setting [10]. Students are able to address any confusion they have with the material, as well as elaborate on how applicable the material is outside of the classroom. Burton, Bamberry and Harris-Boundy's (2005) [11] studies support the notion that seminars help facilitate learning by allowing students to engage in discussion that professors may not be able to provide. Some professors may not have experience teaching, or perhaps lack the skills necessary to engage students in the covered material; therefore the studies have shown that seminars allow students to actively participate in the lecture material, which in turn, reinforces the material and allows the students to remember it better [11]. Seminars provide an environment for students to engage in active learning amongst one another and have proven to have positive effects on the retention of course material and instructions [11].

Here is a fact sheet on Queen’s University’s seminar system: Queen's University Seminar Fact Sheet

Studies have shown that students not only benefit, but also enjoy the seminar sessions on the basis that they provide them with the opportunity to engage with one other and discuss the knowledge they have gained [12]. Students feel that working in smaller groups enables them to use each other as resources for the understanding and clarification of the course material [12]. However, individual differences may show to have negative effects on what students take away from seminar. Some do not do well on small group assignments, given that they may not cooperate with the rest of the group [12]. Additionally, students may also feel pressured for answers or input, which has adverse affects on their participation and may result in answers which are inaccurate [12]. The fact that students may not want to participate has also shown to have negative effects on fostering creativity in a seminar setting [13]. The pressure to quickly respond with a coherent answer hinders the ability to be creative when contributing to the conversation in seminar [13]. Students are unable to be creative as originality or any innovative answer may deviate from what the rest of the group agrees with, and thus results in the student withdrawing from the discussion. Chirumbolo and colleagues (2004) [13] concluded that the potential for creativity is lost within the process of conforming to the opinion of the seminar group, as well as the stress associated with lack of time to come up with a suitable answer. Although some students may thrive in this seminar setting as their opinion may coincide with others, however it shows to be more of a detriment to creativity rather than an environment which fosters it.

[edit] Extracurricular Activities

An extracurricular activity is an umbrella term which encompasses those activities performed by students that are outside the realm of academia. The type of activity varies among individuals and locations. The extracurricular activities rewarded by the post-secondary education system involve time spent within the arts, religion, clubs, community activity, governance (student government), hobbies, media, military, music, sports, volunteer and community service [14].

[edit] Extracurricular Activities, Creativity and the Education System

There is a correctional link between creativity and extracurricular activities. A study done by [15] found that students from Hong Kong who exhibited more creative ways of thinking had higher self-esteem then those who exhibited thinking styles that were simple and favored the norm. Ultimately, those with higher levels of self-esteem and creativity were then positively linked to students’ participation in extracurricular activities [15]. In this study, the correlation between extracurricular activities and creativity is ambiguous. Creative thinking can either be seen as a product of extracurricular activities or extracurricular activities can be seen as a product of an individual who thinks creatively. It is hypothesized that extracurricular activities give students an opportunity to apply curricular knowledge to “real life” situations as well as apply the lived experience to curricular knowledge. Resulting in more creativity in students, given there is much more applicable knowledge to build off of and more connections being drawn between diverse areas of experience.[15] [16]

Even though, extracurricular activities are associated with creative thinking, they do not have an effect on students' ability to successfully complete school work. Results of a meta-analysis conducted by Shulruf (2010) [16] display that extracurricular activities don’t have an overly positive or overly negative outcomes on students’ academic performance. This finding brings forth the question of whether school work requires creative thinking. Also, whether those individuals who do think creatively and take part in extracurricular activities do well in the education system. David (2012) [17] touches on the subject of creativity and the education system by highlighting the work done by Ken Robinson (further information about his work in linked to his name). David (2012)[17] argues that it is in fact the institutionalized education system itself that is detrimental to students’ development of creative thinking or the application of their lived experience. He also emphasizing that the education system encourages standardization and uniformity while the job market the most students go into demands creativity, which is also known as the "creative economy"[17]. Additionally, artist and actor, Nick Soper also approaches issues of creative thinking, extracurricular activities and the education system. Through a talk he's done that focuses on self-awareness, mindfulness, skills gained though extracurricular activity and their effect on students’ future in the “Creative Economy”. In his video below he explains how the education system has negative effects on students’ creative abilities and how extracurricular activities provide valuable skills needed in today’s “Creative Economy”.

[edit] Factors that Influence Students’ Participation is Extracurricular Activities

Considering the link between extracurricular activities and creative thinking. With exposure to extracurricular activities, individuals' have the ability to either foster creativity through extracurricular activities or express and build on their creative thinking though extracurricular activities. Although not everyone has equal access to extra curricular activities and even though the government has grants and programs targeted towards children’s extracurricular involvement, children of immigrants, visible minorities and aboriginal children often do not have access to extracurricular activities [18]. This could be due in part to their financial situations as well as larger sociological factors. Additionally, factors within the family also play a role in determining who has access to extracurricular activities. Results of a Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth show that family income, family size, neighborhood socioeconomic status and parental education are all factors that affect students’ participation in organized sport activities and other structured activities [18].

[edit] Volunteer Work in High School and University

Volunteer work in a community garden.
Volunteer work in a community garden.
Volunteer work done abroad in India.
Volunteer work done abroad in India.

[edit] Volunteer Work in High School

Volunteer work is the only extracurricular activity which is mandatory to graduate from high school. According to the Ontario Ministry of Education website, high school students in Ontario are required to complete 40 hours of volunteer work between the summer before grade 9 up till the time they graduate. In her article, Alina Tugend (2010) of the New York Times suggests that volunteer work teaches youth to externalize their focus towards their community and their country. Nancy Griesemer (2010) in her article in the Examiner also suggests that mandatory volunteerism is beneficial because it gives youth a chance to change people’s lives, it motivates their career options, it provides job readiness skills, it extends their network, it challenges their comfort zone, enables the gain of leadership skills, helps with resume building and it makes for insightful essay topics for post-secondary applications.

Volunteerism enables youth to further draw connections between their old and new knowledge. Giving them a greater chance of becoming self-actualized and improves their ability to creatively apply lived experience to academic work and new situations [19]. Though, there may be a problem with the lack of critical discussion and thoughtful guidance being given to youth surrounding their volunteer work. A mandatory in class portion to a volunteer practicum has the potential to empower youth to use the knowledge and skills gained though their volunteerism [20] This lack of critical insight may causes those individuals who decide to go onto post-secondary education to have an objective view of volunteerism, as a means of resume building over a community service or an opportunity to gain implicit knowledge and become self-actualized [20]. This may lead to short volunteer jobs with varying associations, namely those located abroad, which may harm students more than it helps them. Considering that a more in-depth understanding of the self, their community and the application of relevant knowledge is gained though a prolonged local volunteer experience [20][19].

[edit] Co-operative Education in Post-Secondary Institutions in Ontario

[edit] Do Co-op Programs Foster Creativity in Students?

Co-op students can bring creativity and originality to companies and businesses, however many post-secondary Co-op programs in Ontario focus on marketing, critical thinking, and problem solving skills instead of seeking ways to foster creativity and innovation in students. Much attention is placed on the business sector as well as sciences and mathematics with less emphasis on the Arts and Humanities programs. This hierarchy of programs can be seen from student and employer feedback, learning outcomes of Co-op programs, and future earnings of Co-op graduates.

CBC highlights British Columbia’s decision of $6.25 million to support creative minds, offering a variety of programming including Co-op programs.

Huffington Post Article [21]


[edit] What is Co-operative Education?

According to the Canadian Association for Co-operative Education (2009) [22], Co-operative education can be defined as the following:

  • Alternating between academic periods and work periods that directly relate to the field of the specific Co-op program.
  • Each work situation is approved by the institution as a suitable learning experience.
  • The success and development of the student is monitored by the institution.
  • Student performance is supervised and evaluated by the Co-op employer.
  • The work period must be at least 30% of the time spent in the academic setting.

Haddara and Skanes (2007) [23] believe that Co-op programs foster a cycle of reflection, experience, and learning which can translate to lifelong experiential learning. Students can apply what they have learned in the academic setting to the workplace and gain hands-on practical knowledge.

[edit] Brief History of Co-op Programs in North America

Co-operative education began 100 years ago at the University of Cincinnati in the United States after the desperate need for experienced workers during the industrial revolution. [23] Fifty years later, the first Canadian University with Co-op programs was the University of Waterloo. [23]The very first Co-op program in Canada was engineering and launched in 1957 followed by the rapid growth, need, and popularity of Co-op programs in post-secondary institutions offering a variety of programs ranging from Psychology to Computer Science.[23]

Currently, there are 79 post-secondary institutions in Canada enrolled in the Canadian Association for Co-operative Education and there are approximately 80,000 students enrolled in a Co-op Program. [22]

[edit] Benefits of Co-op Programs


  • Many Co-op students earn higher earnings compared to their non-co-op peers where graduates have reported that Co-op helped them achieve their career goals.[23]
  • Academic knowledge can be reinforced within the workplace where both work and academics can be used interchangeably. [24]
  • Students can enhance their critical thinking, problem solving abilities, and professionalism, however there is a lack of creativity that is reported by both students and employers. [23]
  • Co-op graduates are less likely to be overqualified than non-co-op students with a Masters degree.[25]
  • Students gain theory and practicality and gain a competitive advantage compared to non-co-op students putting them a step ahead in the labour market. [22]


  • Hiring Co-op students can reduce recruiting costs and attract bright individuals to the company. [22]
  • Companies can get the best and most enthusiastic and innovative employers to work for them in the future. [23]
  • Co-op students can add a more diverse employment dynamic within the company. [23]
  • Students can alleviate more time for employees to work on larger tasks as Co-op students can work on short-term projects. [22]

[edit] Learning Outcomes

Many assessments are done with Co-op student’s learning outcomes and goals, as many institutions require work term reports, learning objectives, and employer evaluations [22]. Jaekel, Salinitri, Hector, Johrendt, Northwood, Walters, and Benzinger (2011) investigated Co-op students' learning outcomes from their previous Co-op experiences. When Computer Science and Engineering students were asked what skills were developed from being in a Co-op program, students highlighted research and critical thinking skills, interpersonal communication, creativity, and continuous learning. [26] Surprisingly, creativity in the workplace was rated rather low, for both student feedback and employer feedback. [26]

Thirty thousand Gen Y students (born between 1980-1995) across 143 post-secondary institutions across Canada were asked what they wanted as a new graduate due to the misconception that Gen Y students are not hardworking individuals. It was found that Gen Y new graduates had a more positive outlook on their futures and believed that there should be a balance between both a social life and work and both should involve creativity, collaboration, and opportunities for advancement for hard work.[27]The lowest rated score for what new graduates wanted was initial salary, demonstrating that monetary gains are not the most important factor, but instead, creativity and experiential learning in the workplace as being more favoured by new graduates. [27]

[edit] What Students and Employers Have to Say About Co-op Programs

  • Employers like fresh, exciting, and creative ideas from new graduates and Co-op programs help them get their foot in the door. [28]. Co-op students have testified that Co-op prepares them for the real world and the results and success most definitely show through various job opportunities and connections made with employers. [28]
  • When employers are asked what skills are needed to be a successful Co-op student, employers highlight the importance of technological skills and working as a team virtually through different platforms, especially due to the fast paced society in which we now live in. [29]
  • Students report that to be a successful student, it is important to not fear new things and experiment with different technologies to keep up with new and innovative ideas. [27]
  • The importance of professionalism is something that is highlighted by both students and employers; demonstrating the need for a positive attitude and creating a respectful work environment.[29]
  • Many Co-op students report that their Co-op program has greatly increased their confidence levels to enter the job market and many feel farther ahead in the labour market compared to their non-Co-op peers. [30]

[edit] Future Careers and Program Hierarchies

  • Employers want practical experience and previous training, however this can be extremely difficult for new graduates who want experience but do not have the experience to get the opportunity to learn and acquire what is expected of them.[31] Students who have previous Co-op experience increase their employability and marketability to a prospective employer. [31]
  • Across Ontario Universities, many Co-op demonstrations from employers and students focus on mathematics, computer sciences, and business, all which leave very little room for fostering creativity. Co-op programs demonstrate how many programs tend to be career driven and profit-focused rather than the actual skill development of students. [32]
  • There is a great discrepancy between successful Co-op programs and earnings between males and females where a wage gap still exists; where men continue to earn more than women regardless of skills or knowledge. [31]
  • Males gravitate towards Co-op programs in the sciences and mathematics fields like engineering, business, and computer science, whereas females tend to dominate the social sciences, humanities, arts, and health fields. [31] One can see how the hard sciences are dominating over the Arts and Humanities fields, which often tend to be low-paying jobs.
  • Why are employees in fields like Engineering and Computer sciences paid more than those in the Arts and Humanities? Why are certain programs like the Sciences more valued than others like Dramatic Arts? These questions need to be addressed and considered between institutions, employers, and the labour market.

Below is Scott Dobson-Mitchell’s piece from Maclean’s Magazine addressing the war between the Arts and the Sciences and ideas for change to foster creativity:

War between Arts and Sciences [33]

[edit] Notes and References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Marquis, E., & Vajoczki, S. (2012). Creative Differences: Teaching Creativity Across the Disciplines. International Journal For The Scholarship Of Teaching & Learning, 6(1), 1-15.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Jones, S. E. (2007). Reflections on the lecture: Outmoded medium or instrument of inspiration? Journal of further and higher education, 31 (4), 397-406.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Pritchard, K.W. (1994). Handbook of college teaching: Theory and applications. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  4. 4.0 4.1 McKenzie, T. (2012, March 19th). The profesor as entertainer: Keeping students captivated and engaged.Community college week, 4.
  5. Weibel, D., Stricker, D., & Wissmath, B. (2010). The use of a virtual learning centre in the context of a university lecture: Factors influencing satisfaction and performance. Interactive learning environments, 20(1)77-87.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Valle, M., & Douglas, C. (2012). Clicking your voice: Use of a student response system in a large lecture class. Allied academies international conference, 69-75.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Gier, V. S., & Kreiner, D. S. (2009). Incorporating active learning with powerpoint-based lectures using content-based questions. Teaching of psychology, 36,134-139.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Kruse, O. (2006). The origins of writing in the discipline: Traditions of seminar writing and the Humboldtian ideal of research university. Written Communication, 23(3), 331-352.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Ashwin, P. (2006). Variation in academics’ accounts of tutorials. Studies of Higher Education, 31(6), 651-665.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Abu-Zidan, F. M., & Windsor, J. A. (2001). Students’ evaluation of surgical seminars in a teaching hospital. Medical Education, (35(7), 673-680.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Burton, J. P., Bamberry, N. J., & Harris-Boundy, J. (2005). Developing personal teaching efficacy in new teachers in university settings. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 160-173.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Clark, K., & Lane, A. M. (2005). Seminar and tutorial sessions: A case study evaluating relationships with academic performance and student satisfaction. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29(1), 15-23.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Chirumbolo, A., Livi, S., Mannetti, L., Pierro, A., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2004). Effects of need for closure on creativity in small group interactions. European Journal of Personality, 18(4), 265-278.
  14. Grove, Allen. (2013). What Counts as Extracurricular Activity for College Addition? About. Retrieved from
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Zhang, L. (2001). Thinking styles, self-esteem, and extracurricular experiences. International Journal Of Psychology, 36(2), 100-107.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Shulruf, B. (2010). Do extra-curricular activities in schools improve educational outcomes? A critical review and meta-analysis of the literature. International Review Of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift Für Erziehungswissenschaft, 56(5/6), 591-612.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 David, Nigel. (2012, April 23). Education System Stifles Creativity, Survey Says. The Journal. retrieved from
  18. 18.0 18.1 Li, X., Gauthier, A. H., & Strohschein, L. (2009). Why are some Children Left Out? Factors Barring Canadian Children from Participating in Extracurricular Activities. Canadian Studies In Population, 36(3/4), 325.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Goldman, J. A., & Olczak, P. V. (1975). Self-actualization and the act of volunteering: further evidence for the construct validity of the personal orientation inventory. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 31(2), 287-292
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Tugend, Alina. (2010, July 30). The benefits of volunteerism, if the service is real. New York Times. Retrieved from
  21. CBC (2013, January 31). B.C. liberals announce $6.25M to support “creative minds”. The Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved from
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 Canadian Association For Co-operative Education. (2009).Mission and objectives. Retrieved from
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 Haddara, M., & Skanes, H. (2007). A reflection on cooperative education: From experience to experiential learning. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 67-76.
  24. Munby, H., Taylor, J., Chin, P., & Hutchinson, N. L. (2007). Co-op students' access to shared knowledge in science-rich workplaces. Science Education, 91(1), 115-132.
  25. Frenette, M. (2004). The overqualified Canadian graduate: The role of the academic program in the incidence, persistence, and economic returns to overqualification. Economics Of Education Review, 23(1), 29. doi:10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00043-8.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Jaekel, A., Hector, S., Northwood, D., Benzinger, K., Salinitri, G., Johrendt, J., & Watters, M. (2011). Development of learning outcomes assessment methods for co-operative education programs. Journal of Cooperative Education & Internships, 45(1), 11-32.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Pooley, E. (2006). Hire education. Canadian Business, 79(18), 114-122.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Berman, D. (1998). The real world real fast. (Cover story). Canadian Business, 71(17), 68.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Belanger, A., & McNeil, R. (2012). Getting there from here: Co-op as a growth opportunity. Feliciter, 58(2), 78-81.
  30. Ross, I. (2009). Prepped for reality. Northern Ontario Business, 29(6), 7.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Walters, D., & Zarifa, D. (2008). Earnings and employment outcomes for male and female postsecondary graduates of coop and non-coop programmes. Journal Of Vocational Education & Training, 60(4), 377-399. doi:10.1080/13636820802591863.
  32. Stevenson, M. (1994). Boot camp for the new economy. Canadian Business, 67(6), 20.
  33. Dobson-Mitchell, D. (2011, January 21). The arts are useless and science is uncreative. file://localhost/Macleans on Campus Magazine. Retrieved from http/
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