Accessibility Information

From Information about Isaak, Brock University's Sakai-Based LMS

Jump to: navigation, search

This page is provided for persons using Isaak, Brock University's Sakai-Based LMS, with the help of assistive technology.

Contents

[edit] Known accessibility issues

It is highly recommended to use JAWS version 8.0 and Window-Eyes version 5.5 or later, as performance will be significantly better. Download the JAWS upgrade at: http://www.freedomscientific.com/fs_downloads/jaws.asp Check for Window-Eyes upgrades at: http://www.gwmicro.com/Window-Eyes/Upgrades/

Sakai contains a number of accessibility issues yet to be resolved:

  • Frames are used extensively.
  • Tool headings are often redundant due to separate page title and content frames.
  • JavaScript must be enabled for the software to function.
  • Items in drop-down menus in Gradebook, Profile, Preferences, Syllabus, Tests and Quizzes, Presentation, Roster, Wiki, and Section load when pressing the up or down keys. Press Alt-up arrow or Alt-down arrow to scroll through a menu instead.

[edit] Tips and tricks for navigation

  • Scroll in drop-down lists: press ALT + DOWN ARROW to open the combo box, then UP/DOWN ARROW to view choices.
  • Move the focus on tool content: select a tool and press ALT + C.
  • Return the focus to the top of the tool: press ALT + C.
  • Go to a page’s bottom buttons (e.g. Cancel): press INSERT + F5 to open a dialogue, then press CTRL + END.
  • Navigate using headings: press H.
  • View a list of all headings on the page: press INSERT + F6 and use the UP/DOWN ARROW to scroll.
  • Repeat the text: press INSERT + DOWN ARROW.

Please note: if links to tools, content, or worksites do not work, navigate using headings.

[edit] How to configure JAWS and Window-Eyes settings

You can execute most of the recommended settings in Internet Explorer through the Insert-v command, followed by the relevant letter for MSAA commands (such as h for headings), and then using the up arrow or down arrow.

To access HTML settings within JAWS itself (for example, to change default settings for JAWS), follow the steps below:

  1. Go to Utilities by pressing Alt-u .
  2. Select JAWS Configuration Manager by pressing c .
  3. Select Set Options by pressing s .
  4. Choose HTML Options by pressing h .
  5. . Press Ctrl-Tab to move between pages.

To access HTML settings within Window-Eyes:

  1. Choose Control panel by pressing Ctrl-\ .
  2. Select the Global Menu by pressing Alt-l .
  3. Choose the Verbosity Menu by pressing v .
  4. Select MSAA by pressing m .

[edit] Headings

Text Editor Tips

Click Here

This tool makes use of the Sakai Text Editor.

Our Text Editor article includes a number of tips including how to add images or paste content from MS Word.

Use headings to navigate. Links to sites, tools, and content appear as headings to facilitate navigation. Content within tools is also structured hierarchically using <h1>, <h2>, and <h3> tags.

JAWS and Window-Eyes enable headings announced with level by default.

It is strongly encouraged that instructors make use of the built-in Text Editor's headings and bulleting/numbering functions.

[edit] Frames

Because frame titles are frequently repeated, it is recommended that you do not have them announced by screen readers unnecessarily. The default setting for JAWS is not to say frame names.

If you wish to set JAWS to "Say Frame Name at Beginning and End" anyway:

  1. While in Internet Explorer, press Insert-v to go to the MSAA menu.
  2. Type f f , and then e to execute.

Window-Eyes enables frame names by default.

[edit] Accesskeys

Accesskeys follow the UK e-commerce standards wherever possible, and are mnemonic otherwise. If an accesskey is available for a given link or button, the accesskey will be announced by a screen reader when that link or button receives focus. To invoke accesskeys:

  • In Internet Explorer and Chrome on Windows, use Alt plus the indicated letter or number.
  • In Firefox for Windows, use Alt+Shift plus the indicated letter or number.
  • In Safari or Firefox for Mac OS X, use Ctrl plus the indicated letter or number.
  • In Chrome for Mac OS X, use Ctrl+Alt plus the indicated letter or number.

[edit] "Portal-based" or main area accesskeys

Accesskeys available throughout the application include:

  • Help tool: Accesskey-6
  • Skip to content: Accesskey-c
  • Skip to tools list: Accesskey-l
  • Skip to worksites: Accesskey-w

[edit] Tool-specific accesskeys

Accesskeys are available for most form-based tools.

Accesskeys are available for most form-based tools.

  • Delete, remove, or cancel: Accesskey-x
  • Edit or revise: Accesskey-e
  • Refresh: Accesskey-u
  • Save: Accesskey-s
  • View or preview: Accesskey-v

[edit] Screen refresh

Users control page refreshes. To refresh page content, press F5.

To set JAWS to turn off page refresh:

  1. While in Internet Explorer, press Insert-v to go to the MSAA menu.
  2. Type r r , and then e to execute.

To set Window-Eyes, press Alt-Shift-m until you hear "suspend all".

[edit] Title tags

Title tags help comprehension of action buttons and links by providing additional information.

To set JAWS to "Use Title":

  1. While in JAWS, go to Utilities by pressing Alt-u .
  2. Go to Configuration Manager by pressing c .
  3. Select Set Options by pressing Alt-s .
  4. Choose HTML Settings by pressing h .
  5. Select Graphics Verbosity by pressing Ctrl-Tab Ctrl-Tab.
  6. Press Tab once, and then press the up arrow until you hear "Use title".
  7. . Press Enter.

Window-Eyes enables title tags by default.

[edit] Form tags

Forms contain common accessibility elements, including fieldset, legend, label for, and id tags.

[edit] Recommended JAWS and Window-Eyes settings

The first column of the table below contains page elements, the second column provides suggested screen reader settings, and the third column contains shortcut keys in Internet Explorer to create settings.


!JAWS and Window-Eyes Settings by Element
Element Suggested screen reader setting Shortcut keys in Internet Explorer
Headings Headings with level Press Insert-v . Press h and then e to execute.
Titles Read title tag Press Insert-v . Press l l l and then e to execute.
Frames Announcement off Default. Press Insert-v . Press f and then e to execute.
Tables (JAWS) Recognize data tables only Press Alt-u for Utilities, and then press c for Configuration Manager. Select Alt-s for Set Options, and then press h for HTML Options. Press Ctrl-Tab to go to Lists and Tables, and then press Alt-y for Detect Table Type.
Tables (Window-Eyes) Recognize data tables only Press Insert-v to to go to Verbosity Settings. Press t . Press Tab to go to the radio button. Use the up arrow or down arrow until "insert beginning/end message" is selected. Note that this is enabled by default.
Refresh Suppress refreshes Press Insert-v . Press r r , and then e to execute.

[edit] Compliance

The continuing objective of developers is to make the application compliant with Section 508 and WCAG 1.0 Priorities One and Two, and as usable as possible for persons using adaptive technology. Most tools follow W3C accessibility guidelines for headings, forms, tables, links, and images, but do not include non-script alternatives to JavaScript, or user messages for pop-ups or completed actions. Tools following most guidelines include:

JSF (Java Server Faces) tools have not been revised to include all accessibility elements. These include the following:


[edit] Adding Content Accessibly To Isaak/Sakai Sites

A table that should help with adding content accessibly, see following table for textual representation.
A table that should help with adding content accessibly, see following table for textual representation.

This table is intended give a guide to instructors when they are creating/uploading content to the web. Ideally all information should be entered using the methods found toward the right of the table, however instructors should be aware of the compromises they are making when using other methods.

Level of Accessibility: Unacceptable Poor Good Best
File type or Format Images without alternative or descriptive text.

Tables/Images used for decoration not for organizing information.

(assuming no alternative is given)

Files in MS Office format: DOC, DOCX, XLS, PPT The Adobe Portable Document Format can be easily created from most programs (See Making PDF documents). Create or copy content directly in Sakai via options like "Create HTML Page".
Explanation Content cannot easily be searched or read by screen readers. Generates a "Blocked by Internet Explorer!
" alert.

Requires MS office ($120 ~ $600) Inconsistent presentation based on version of Office, IE, etc.


PDFs are generally a good choice.

Try to avoid documents with columns, as they can confuse some software.

The native text editor’s HTML pages are fast to access and accessible to assistive technologies.

Your use of this tool and its headings and bullets option will enhance the experience for all students.




Presently alternative or more accessible content for students needs to be created when it is requested. Under then new Ministry of Community and Social Services' Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) transcriptions of everything and full compliance with WCAG2 will be required with the potential for fines to be issued when it is not.

[edit] Electronic Resources

Instructors need to consider the principles of Universal Instructional Design when creating electronic resources. These principles apply to both the content and format of electronic resource. The asynchronous availability, variable pacing and the general flexibility of electronic resources can be of great value to learners with disabilities. Unfortunately electronic resources are not innately accessible, but a little attention to the preparation to electronic resources is all that is needed.

[edit] Understanding the Four Principles of Accessibility: POUR

The technical measure of the accessibility of the format of an web-based resource is the WCAG 2.0 standard from the W3C. The requirements of the WCAG 2.0 are summarized in the four letter acronym POUR:

  1. Perceivable - Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.
    • This means that users must be able to perceive the information being presented (it can't be invisible to all of their senses)
  2. Operable - User interface components and navigation must be operable.
    • This means that users must be able to operate the interface (the interface cannot require interaction that a user cannot perform)
  3. Understandable - Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable.
    • This means that users must be able to understand the information as well as the operation of the user interface (the content or operation cannot be beyond their understanding)
  4. Robust - Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.
    • This means that users must be able to access the content as technologies advance (as technologies and user agents evolve, the content should remain accessible)

The W3C provides more information in their Introduction to Understanding WCAG 2.0.

[edit] Preparing Electronic Resources

The good news is most modern tools that help construct content directly for the web help individuals create accessible content. At Brock University the main web site's Drupal-Based Content Management System (CMS) helps ensure content created in it is accessible, as does Isaak, Brock University's Sakai-Based Learning Management System (LMS). The tools for creating content directly in these systems helps ensure the content is perceivable, operable and robust.

The challenge is in ensuring that content created in desktop applications is accessible, especially when multimedia is used. Content created on a desktop application is often not robust enough to perceivable and operable on the web - often traded for more control of the layout. Content that is "exported" to a web page can prevent individuals that are poorly sighted or individuals with learning disability from using strategies and tools that would normally work on properly created and accessible electronic resource.

Multimedia content is particularly challenging, as it can require the use multiple senses, and unless accommodations such as transcription or description are added, some individuals may not be able to access multimedia content.

This table is intended give a guide to instructors when they are creating/uploading content to the web. Ideally all information should be entered using the methods found toward the right of the table, however instructors should be aware of the compromises they are making when using other methods.

[edit] Accessibility of Office Documents and Office Applications

The Inclusive Design Research Centre at OCAD University, in partnership with UNESCO and the Government of Ontario, has developed consolidated and publicly-reviewed guidance to help ensure the accessibility of office documents and the office applications with which they are created. These guides can be found at http://adod.idrc.ocad.ca/

[edit] Word processing
[edit] Spreadsheets
[edit] Presentations

[edit] Text Editor

CKSource

This article is based on copyrighted content by CKSource under their Terms of Use for non-commercial purposes.

Materials are used solely with permission of CKSource. We thank CKSource for their contributions to the open community.

This content was sourced from the following URL(s): http://docs.cksource.com/CKEditor_3.x/Users_Guide/Accessibility.

Sakai uses a single consistent Text Editor across all areas where text can be input, by students or instructors, that is more than a few lines. This editor is based on the most recent stable version of CKEditor available when our Sakai system was last updated.

CKEditor is compliant with several accessibility standards, including the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), the US Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the IBM Web Accessibility Checklist.

The CKEditor designed to support users with disabilities. You can use it with your mouse, but also with the keyboard as well as a screen reader. The currently supported screen reader solution is JAWS with Firefox 3.6 or Internet Explorer 8.


[edit] Basic Navigation

  • Tab and Shift+Tab
    Allow you to move into and out of the editor window from other form elements. For supported browser and screen reader solutions the editor should behave just like any other form element with respect to Tab and Shift+Tab key presses.
    One exception to this rule is when config.tabSpaces is set to a non-zero value. In this case, if you press the Tab key while inside the editor window, spaces will be inserted into the text in the editing area, and the focus will not be moved out of the editing area. The Shift+Tab keyboard shortcut would still work as expected though, even when config.tabSpaces is set to a non-zero value.
  • Alt+F10
    Moves the focus to the editor toolbar when the cursor is in the editing area.
  • Shift+F10
    Opens the context menu of an element inside the editing area.
  • Alt+F11
    Moves focus to the elements path usually located at the bottom of the editor. While the elements path is in focus, pressing the Tab and Shift+Tab keyboard shortcuts will select HTML elements that are parents of the current element. Pressing Esc moves the focus back to the editing area without changing selection. Pressing Enter, on the other hand, selects the element chosen in the elements path in the editing area.

[edit] Navigating Toolbar

  • Tab and Shift+Tab
    Once the toolbar is in focus after you press Alt+F10, Tab and Shift+Tab will move focus forward and backward among the toolbar button groups. Toolbar button group focus is cyclic, so going backwards from the first item will put focus to the last item, and vice versa.
  • Left Arrow and Right Arrow
    The Left Arrow and Right Arrow keys will move focus forward and backward among the toolbar buttons within a group, respectively.
  • Enter and Space
    Activate a selected toolbar feature.
  • Esc
    Puts the focus back to the editing area without executing any commands.


The accessibility shortcuts for toolbar navigation were modified in CKEditor 3.6, when the concept of a toolbar button group was initially introduced. On entering the toolbar you can now use the Tab and Shift+Tab shortcuts to navigate between button groups and the Arrow keys to navigate between the buttons within a group. In CKEditor 3.5.x and before both Tab and Arrow keys were used to navigate between the toolbar buttons.

[edit] Navigating Dialog Windows

  • Tab and Shift+Tab
    When dialog window tabs are not in focus, these keyboard shortcuts move focus among input element of the dialog window. When a dialog window tab is in focus, Tab and Shift+Tab cycle through dialog window tabs.
    Focus order in dialog windows is cyclic, so when the first tab or first input element is in focus, and the Shift+Tab shortcut is pressed, the last tab or last input element will be selected. Dialog window buttons count as input elements as well.
  • Left Arrow and Right Arrow
    When a dialog window tab is in focus, the Left Arrow and Right Arrow keys can be used to cycle between tabs just like Tab and Shift+Tab.
  • Alt+F10
    Puts the tab list in focus, selects the currently active tab, and lets you move to the next or previous one with the Tab/Right Arrow or Shift+Tab/Left Arrow keys when inside the dialog window.
  • Enter
    Pressing Enter while inside the dialog window, when a single-line text input is in focus, is equivalent to pressing the OK button.
    Pressing Enter while inside the dialog window, when a dialog window tab is in focus, puts the focus back to the first input element inside that tab.
  • Esc
    Pressing Esc while inside the dialog window is equivalent to clicking the Cancel or Close buttons.

[edit] Navigating Context Menus

  • Tab, Shift+Tab
    When the context menu is open, press Tab to cycle through menu items forward or Shift+Tab to cycle backwards.
  • Down Arrow and Up Arrow
    When the context menu is open, the Down Arrow and Up Arrow keys can be used to cycle between menu items just like Tab and Shift+Tab, respectively.
  • Right Arrow and Left Arrow
    When the context menu item contains a submenu, the Right Arrow lets you enter the submenu. To return to the parent context menu, use the Left Arrow.
  • Enter and Space
    Activate a menu item or open a submenu.
  • Esc
    Closes a context menu without executing any command. When inside a submenu, closes the submenu and returns focus to the parent context menu. Press Esc again to close it.

[edit] Navigating Toolbar Drop-down Lists

  • Down Arrow, Enter, and Space
    Enter the drop-down list once it is selected on the toolbar.
  • Tab, Shift+Tab
    When the drop-down list is open, press Tab to cycle through list items forward or Shift+Tab to cycle backwards.
  • Down Arrow and Up Arrow
    When the drop-down list is open, the Down Arrow and Up Arrow keys can be used to cycle between list items just like Tab and Shift+Tab, respectively.
  • Enter and Space
    Activate a feature selected from the drop-down list and put the focus back to the editing area.
  • Esc
    Closes a drop-down list without introducing any changes.

[edit] Navigating Color Selection Boxes

  • Down Arrow, Enter, and Space
    Enter the color selection box once it is selected on the toolbar.
  • Tab, Shift+Tab
    When the color selection box is open, press Tab to cycle through colors forward or Shift+Tab to cycle backwards.
  • Down Arrow and Up Arrow
    When the color selection box is open, the Down Arrow and Up Arrow keys can be used to cycle between colors just like Tab and Shift+Tab, respectively.
  • Enter and Space
    Apply the selected color from the selection box and put the focus back to the editing area.
  • Esc
    Closes a color selection box without introducing any changes and puts focus back to the toolbar.

[edit] Editor Hotkeys

Many functions in CKEditor have their equivalent keyboard shortcuts. The Keyboard Shortcuts article contains a full list of editor hotkeys along with some common text editing shortcuts, grouped by problem areas.

[edit] JAWS and the Text Editor

JAWS is a popular screen reader whose aim is to make computer content accessible to blind and visually impaired users. CKEditor fully supports JAWS when used in conjunction with Firefox 3.6 and Internet Explorer 8 browsers.

[edit] Editing Mode vs. Non-editing Mode

JAWS distinguishes between editing mode and non-editing mode for text boxes and rich text areas. When JAWS is entering the editing mode, a high pitched 'pop' sound is played to notify the user of the mode switch. Similarly, when JAWS is entering the non-editing mode, a lower pitched 'pop' sound is played.

It is up to JAWS to decide whether to put a text box or a rich text area to editing mode on the initial focus. When it so happens that JAWS has put the initial focus to CKEditor in non-editing mode, you will find that you cannot type in the editor, and no 'pop' sound is played when focus was put into the editing area.

To fix that, press the Enter key once to switch JAWS to the editing mode, and a high pitched 'pop' sound should be played. Pressing Esc inside CKEditor will switch JAWS to the non-editing mode, along with a lower pitched 'pop' sound to indicate the mode switch.

[edit] Refreshing the Virtual Cursor

JAWS keeps an internal model of the browser's view, and along with it, a virtual cursor, to facilitate reading of the contents in a Web browser. However, the internal model kept by JAWS is not always in sync with the contents displayed in the browser window. This is especially true for dynamically generated web contents written in JavaScript that CKEditor depends on.

When JAWS's virtual cursor is out-of-sync with the contents displayed in the browser, you will be unable to move correctly among the contents of the web page. You will also find that JAWS's voice is reading out unpredictable garbage from the Web browser — e.g. it may be reading out the raw HTML code in the website, or it may be reading out the same element over and over despite the user's actions to move the virtual cursor away from that element.

To refresh JAWS's internal model and to keep the virtual cursor back in sync with the browser, you will need to press the Insert+Esc keyboard shortcut. In cases where even the Insert+Esc combination fails to refresh JAWS's virtual cursor correctly, you can press the Insert+Z shortcut twice, slowly, to disable and re-enable the virtual cursor.

There are a few problem areas in using CKEditor where JAWS will get out-of-sync with the contents of the browser window:

  • When an editor is newly created in the middle of a browsing session.
  • When a dialog window is opened.
  • When a dialog window is closed.
  • When a context menu is opened.
  • When a drop-down list is opened.

In all of the above events, it is recommended to press the Insert+Esc shortcut to keep JAWS's virtual cursor in sync with the browser display.

[edit] Arrow Keys

When the virtual cursor mode of JAWS is on, Arrow keys have a special meaning. If JAWS is opened and is running in the virtual cursor mode, Arrow hotkeys (like Left Arrow and Right Arrow used for cycling through toolbar items) will cease to work. If this is the case, use equivalent hotkeys like Tab and Shift+Tab.

[edit] More Information About Accessibility at Brock University

For more information about accessibility at Brock University please visit http://www.brocku.ca/accessibility

This article is intended to help individuals using Isaak, Brock University's Sakai-Based LMS. You can search more help articles either by using the "search" box on the left or clicking here. More help articles can also be browsed here.

This article is based on the equivalent Sakai project help article.

The Sakai Educational Community License is deemed to be compatible with this sites Project:Copyrights which are under the Creative Commons 2.5 Licence. You can view the original Sakai help documentation, unedited, at http://kumu.brocku.ca/sakai/help/

Personal tools
  • Log in / create account
Bookmark and Share