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[edit] Creativity and Individual Differences in the Education System

Creative environments, activities, and experiences allow an individual to explore their personal strengths and capabilities across numerous contexts. Since every individual has their own unique set of strengths, creative environments are able to foster a variety of learning experiences that are meaningful to a majority of individuals. Recently there has been particular interest regarding the lack of creativity within the elementary curriculum and education system (kindergarten to grade 8). This clear lack of creative incorporation within the academic sphere prevents children from reaching their optimal achievement. The following sections acknowledge the importance to incorporate numerous elements of creativity, and to recognize the importance of individual differences within students of the elementary education system.

[edit] Learning Pace within an Elementary Curriculum and Its Effect on Creativity

[edit] Curriculum Based Learning

Elementary schools in Ontario have left little time for children to find creative ways to learn and express themselves creatively. Davis [1] argues through his model of creativity development that to become a creative person, one must increase one’s creativity consciousness (i.e., one’s readiness to think creatively), understand the topic of creativity (having inventive and differing ideas), use personal and standard creative thinking techniques, and (d) reach one’s potential (ex. self-actualize). Unfortunately, Brown[2], Kaufman and Sternberg[3], Majhanovic,[4] and Wood[5] argue that there is often too much information given within a heavily focused academic curriculum conveying that there is not a lot of time given within the school day for an individual to develop themselves creatively. This type of curriculum results in lessons being presented in quick segments to cover more academic information, making it almost impossible to deliver information in a meaningful way for every individual. Consequently, due to a strict schedule in the curriculum teachers often feel exhausted and unwilling to go above and beyond their already heavy weighted curriculum to further foster creativity[4]. This can an issue because teachers are the stepping stone for children to foster their creativity, and as Fasko Jr.[6] states, teaching techniques that encourage divergent thinking are an essential part of inspiring creative thought. In addition, Csikszentmihalyi[7] argues, “It is easier to enhance creativity by changing conditions in the environment than by trying to make people think more creatively” (p.1). This refers to the idea that the curriculum and the teaching environment could be due for a change in order to enhance creativity.

[edit] Learning Pace

The pace of learning is a concept that can be defined as the amount of time given to a student to learn the content presented to them [8]. This can be shown in practice on two extreme ends of a continuum with regards to an educator’s method [8]. One end is when a teacher controls the amount of time spent learning the material (often outlined through the curriculum), and due dates are defined as strict and given at the beginning of term in the school year. At the opposite end of the Betrus' ideas can be applied to additional research that has shown that children (specifically in elementary school) need longer school days with more time in each subject in order to foster learning, understanding and creative learning [8][5][6][9]

[edit] Divergent Thinking

Divergent Thinking and Education

Robinson[10] describes divergent thinking as, “an essential capacity for creativity. It’s the ability to see lots of possible answers to a question, lots of possible ways to interpret a question, to think laterally, to think not just in linear or convergent ways, to see multiple answers, not one” (8:00). Research has shown that divergent thinking decreases as an individual ages, and there are many reasons to explain as to why that occurs. One example is displayed through Robinson[10] in which a study is referred to in a book called Breakpoint and Beyond by George Land and Beth Jarman (1998). This study observed children’s creative capacity throughout their childhood, starting at the age of three. When tested as kindergarteners, 98 percent of the study's subjects scored at the genius level in divergent thinking. When tested again at ten years old, 32 percent of the same group scored as high, and by age fifteen, only 10 percent scored as high divergent thinkers. This is unfortunate because divergent thinking is an essential element to the development and maintenance of creativity and creative thought. Both Robinson[10] and Geist and Hohn[9]argue that it is the education system and curriculum and their avoidance of the questions “why?” and “how?”, focusing on strict and repetitious tasks, as well as staying quiet, focused and “on task” that can dampen divergent thinking. These requirements discourage an individual from growing as a creative learner and becoming a divergent thinker as strict regulations and restriction constrains students to a certain method of learning and thinking[9]. However, Fasko Jr .[6] found that teachers who are responsive to change and who themselves model divergent thinking, seem to be the most successful in motivating development of creativity in their students

[edit] Reimagining Creativity in the Classroom

There are curriculums that do exist that take a different approach to teaching while implementing creativity throughout a school year. Maker et al.[11] designed a three year study that aimed to measure the impact of the Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities through Observation Curriculum Model (DISCOVER) on creativity in elementary school children. This was measured by the Test of Creative thinking‐Drawing Production (TCT‐DP).[11] The TCT‐DP is a screening instrument that is meant to be used in a group setting to assess creativity. [11] Teachers from 4 elementary schools were observed in order to determine whether the high, medium or low application of a curriculum model incorporating theories of Multiple Intelligences and of the Triarchic Mind, research on creativity, and principles for education of gifted students. [11] The purpose of this study was in identifying the fact that children have many different learning abilities and styles of learning and teachers need to be able to implement a model that recognizes that.[11] The DISCOVER Curriculum Model is used by teachers to create learning units based on abstract themes such as systems, relationships, patterns or invention. [11]

Results from Maker et al.’s[11] study showed that as grade level increased, students’ performance on TCT‐DP increased with teachers who have medium or higher implementation levels over those with teachers who have a low implementation level. This result has the ability to show that there is a correlation between the developmental levels of the children and the effect of the DISCOVER Curriculum Model.[11] In contrast, those who were in the low implementation classrooms had decreased TCT‐DP scores.[11] This result shows an alarming negative impact on the creativity of children in traditional classrooms that focus on lecture, large group work, and emphasize convergent thinking processes. Overall, Maker et al.’s[11] results from this study have shown that the DISCOVER Curriculum Model is a step in a positive direction as an encouraging educational tool for inspiring creativity elementary schools.

See Additional Resources for more information on more creative inclusive curriculum models

[edit] Creativity and Motivation

[edit] Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation and Creativity

The term motivation has been defined as a force that drives behaviour towards a specific goal to achieve unmet needs. [12] From this definition, we understand that motivation is a psychological construct that moves us into action in order to achieve a goal. Motivation can further be broken down into two distinct types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is described as motivation that creates personal enjoyment, and it occurs because of the interesting qualities of the task itself, rather than pressure from an external source [13]. Put more simply, intrinsic motivation can be described as motivation that comes from within us, without any outside influences. In contrast, extrinsic motivation is engaging in an activity in order to achieve a separate outcome or instrumental reward. [14] Therefore, the motivation is coming from a source of motivation is coming from outside of the individual.

Creativity is a construct that is defined as a set of personal qualities or traits that allow a person to behave in new and adaptive ways in different contexts. [15] This tells us that creativity involves new, original ideas & behaviours and then using them in non-conventional ways.

Intrinsic motivation and creativity are related to each other. Specifically, creativity is greater if one is intrinsically motivated on a task. [16][17][13][18][14][19]. Intuitively, this is a logical connection. As Selart et al. (2008)[19] state, “Intrinsic motivation encompasses exploration, spontaneity, autonomy and interest in one’s surroundings.” Those various characteristics that encompass intrinsic motivation are the same characteristics that will also help foster creativity in general.

[edit] Motivation and Creativity: The overjustification hypothesis

Boy taking a test, low intrinsic motivation, low thinking/creativity
Boy taking a test, low intrinsic motivation, low thinking/creativity

To relate motivation and the education system (i.e., creativity in the education system), research in psychology suggests that the education system stifles creativity. A psychological theory termed the overjustification hypothesis explains the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and future interest/motivation on that topic. The hypothesis states that when extrinsic motivators are applied to activities that were previously done for intrinsic reasons, than the intrinsic motivation for those activities will be decreased in the future. [18] Having lowered intrinsic motivation through extrinsic rewards would, in turn, lower creativity.

Within the education system, extrinsic rewards are nearly inescapable due to the standards of grading that must be applied (i.e., teachers must apply grades to school work in order to provide feedback and determine if the student “passes” the requirements of that course) in order to measure academic achievement and success. However, it is the system of grading that leads students to become disinterested and less creative in their work. The research supporting the overjustification hypothesis is extensive, as there are many studies, across many different age groups that have shown relatively consistent results. A classic study that is often cited, by Lepper et al.[18] was conducted with children completing a drawing activity. The results had shown that children in the “expected reward” condition had shown less future intrinsic interest on that activity compared to children in the “no reward” condition and “unexpected reward” condition [18]. The results further suggested that the “expected reward” condition group had less creative drawings than the other conditions [18]. In the real world, this means that when people are given rewards for tasks they previously had done for interest, then the reward becomes attached to the tasks and the individual will no longer complete the task in the absence of a reward. These findings have been replicated in other groups of children [17], in college & university students [20][19], and even in work environments [13].

[edit] How to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

There are a number of ways to increase intrinsic motivation (consequently, will increase creativity). First, give extrinsic rewards unexpectedly, not consistently [16]. When extrinsic motivators are expected, it will automatically decrease intrinsic motivation, achievement, and creativity. Second, appeal to the values of the person you are trying to motivate, rather than trying to get them to conform to your values, methods, or techniques [21]. For example, a student is not interested in intellectual knowledge but they are interested in life skills, so orient and explain the task so it appeals to life skill values [21].

There are several other ways to ensure the tasks are intrinsically motivating. According to McGuiness,[22] to increase intrinsic motivation make sure the work is:

An artists' depiction of "Creative Flow"
An artists' depiction of "Creative Flow"
  1. Challenging, but not beyond the participants abilities
  2. Interesting for the participant
  3. Facilitates learning
  4. Creates “flow” (See "flow" section below)
  5. Has significance/purpose to the individual

Finally, flow is described as being completely focused on the task we are working on and find it easy to perform at peak performance, while accompanied by feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. [23]. This occurs when there are clear goals, immediate constructive feedback (NOT grading or pressure), when the challenge is equal to skill, there are no distractions, the individual is not worried about failing, the task it autotelic (i.e., enjoyable in itself), and individual is not self-conscious about their task performance. With those methods for “flow” in mind, creating an activity that will facilitate intrinsic motivation and flow will create better quality work, more original ideas and overall positive effects on work [23].

[edit] Teaching and Learning

[edit] Teaching

Traditionally the education system has primarily focused on direct instruction, a very basic method of teaching and learning. Although this technique has been fairly effective for some students; it is not appropriate or successful for all. This method has been widely used across age groups in attempt to facilitate the ‘most’ information processing or learning across the majority of students within the learning environment. However this method lacks elements of creativity, and neglects to engage the students within the learning process, both important factors of meaningful learning.[24]

According to Hoerr, Direct Instruction is:[25]
Direct Instruction
  • Lecture Based (verbal explanation and direction given by an instructor)
  • Fast Paced
  • Simple Direction & Instruction (question and answer type learning)
  • Use of overheads, note-taking, textbook, lecture based learning

While this method is simple and direct, teaching should instead focus on students strengths, and the incorporation of different skill sets or 'intelligences' in which individuals can effectively learn, as various creative methods and elements are used to efficiently address one's strongest 'intelligence type'. The incorporation of a variety of unique learning techniques and practices would greatly enhance creativity within the learning environment, further establishing meaningful and valuable learning.[26] The multiple intelligence theory[27] gives a new interpretation to learning and intelligence, breaking down skills or "intelligences" into categories based on areas of strength, and ways of learning.

Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligence Wheel
Multiple Intelligence Wheel

Gardner[24][28] outlines eight types of intelligence:

  • Visual Spatial: the capacity to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately, to visualize space and modify or move that representation.
  • Bodily Kinesthetic: the ability to control and skillfuly move objects and one's body, and knowledge regarding body functions and organs.
  • Musical-Rhythmical: the ability to perform, compose or appreciate music and rhythm; and distinguish between pitches and tones.
  • Interpersonal: the ability to understand other individuals wants, needs, desires, motivations, actions and emotions.
  • Intrapersonal: the ability to recognize and cope with one's own feelings, desires, strengths and weaknesses.
  • Logical-Mathematical: the capacity to use logic and reasoning to make sense of numerical problems, patterns.
  • Verbal-Linguistic: the ability to successfully speak, define and write language, recognize rhythm, recognize functions of various components of language.
  • Naturalistic: the capability to recognize, differentiate and discriminate characteristics of living and non-living things, and using an understanding of living things and nature to make sense and further disctinctions of the world.

Based on an individual’s unique and personal skill set, strengths or ‘intelligences’, information is best processed and interpreted differently than an individual with a different ‘intelligence’ type of skill set. If an individual is able to recognize their strengths, strongest 'intelligence' or particular skill set, they are further able to determine which learning style best suits them, their individual needs, and understanding in general. This effectively enhances the incorporation of of creative elements and practices within informational processing, learning and overall educational and academic success. Moreover, the more creative elements and techniques that are addressed and used by assuming there are individual differences in multiple intelligences and strength of skill sets, the more efficient and effective a learning environment will be for an individual, especially in an academic setting. If a classroom is able to address numerous intelligence types (through the inclusion of creative elements and experiences), in contrast to that of traditional, direct instruction, students are able to create meaningful understandings and connections of academic lessons, further enhancing their cognitive development and further understanding of the world around them.

[edit] Learning Methods

Learning skills and strategies have been thoroughly investigated in attempts to determine which techniques are used most often, and which are most effective in optimal learning for children within the education system. Weinstein and Mayer[29] outlined five major groups of learning strategies, most commonly used, within the education system, by students (often directed by teachers/instructors). They were:

  • Rehearsal Strategies: identifying and repeating important pieces of information; making lists; highlighting; underlining; reading aloud.
  • Elaboration: involves giving deeper meaning to content, often by providing additional information; summarizing; analogies; metaphors.
  • Organization: includes reviewing information and putting it a meaningful order; connecting pieces/ideas; creating tables or charts; concept maps.
  • Metacognition: involves a students' awareness of their own abilities and skills, and involves alternative ways of learning; self-critique; personal reflection; self-monitoring; changing habits.
  • Motivational: strategies and conscious efforts to perform better; attention focusing; directing anxiety; effective time-management; reducing stress; developing interest.

However, Weinstein and Mayer[29] suggest it is not which learning strategy or method you use, but how many learning strategies you incorporate within your learning experience. Therefore, the more learning skills and strategies that are initiated and used within a lesson (as outlined above), the more creative the techniques and skills used to facilitate such learning are; not only by the teacher, but by students as well. This clearly suggests a greater need for the incorporation of various creative elements and activities to ensure the greatest amount of information transfer and valuable, meaningful learning to take place across a majority and variety of individuals.

Not only would the incorporation of creative elements utilizing various ‘intelligences’ help to enhance the learning experience across individuals, but it would also be a much more engaging environment for children, youth and adults to learn. Rather than the traditional direct method, academic environments should allow a variety of skills to be demonstrated across numerous creative activities. This would allow individuals to incorporate their personal strengths in regards to multiple intelligences, through creative activities further ensuring that valuable and engaging learning takes place. The importance of creativity within the education is clear, as it not only engages individuals within the learning experience, but addresses a number of 'intelligence' types that may learn more effectively through the use and practice of various tools and techniques.

[edit] Creativity in Children with Learning Disabilities

[edit] Stigma

“The creativity of the future will be found in tomorrows adults"[30] . Tomorrows adults are today’s students and surprisingly a significant amount of today’s students have a learning disability of some form. However, there is a negative stigma for children with learning disabilities; often they are viewed as being unintelligent, when this is not the case. Children with learning disabilities may struggle in areas that children without a disability may excel in[31] . Children with learning disabilities can excel in other areas and often have high intelligence regardless of weaknesses they may demonstrate with regards to reading and writing[31]. Students with learning disabilities account for half of students age 6-21[32]. This relates to the importance of creativity and how it should be stressed among students in today’s education system. It would be beneficial for all students to harness their creativity, but it may be particularly helpful for the large number of students with learning disabilities. Contrary to common belief, often the brightest students in the class are not the most creative which may show that intelligence is not the main source of creativity[30].

[edit] Creative Thinking

Steffenhagen[31] states that learning disabilities can actually help give birth to creative thinking. By harnessing energy and thinking patterns that are prominent in students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which is a behavioral disorder rather then a learning disability creativity and divergent thinking can be born[33].Crosbie[34]insists that students with disorders such as ADHD should be seen as gifted. If schools were less formal and more open to promoting creativity and multi-tasking in the forms of creative energy, learning disabled children would be at an advantage[34]. Children with disorders like ADHD are seen as hyperactive and distracted. While hyperactivity is only what is seen on the outside of children with ADD. Sometimes it is not understood that children with ADHD tend to be multi-thinkers, they think much faster then children without ADHD[34]. In a study by Shondrick et al[35]it was found that students who have learning disabilities often have less developed social skills then children without a learning disability. Shondrick et al[35] believes that creativity is related to interpersonal problem solving skills, and can be measured by fluency and flexibility interestingly, children with learning disabilities score, equally to children without learning disabilities with regards to interpersonal problem solving skills. Eisen[36]by measuring creativity visually, children with learning disabilities actually outperform children without learning disabilities. This is important because it shows that these children are creative but need to display their creativity in different ways, such as visually as opposed to in writing.

[edit] What Can Be Done

A difficulty for students with learning disabilities is the negative stigma that coincides with having a disability[31]. Teachers and parents need to try to reduce the negative stigma in the classroom and among peers that goes along with having a learning disability, so that students will feel more free to explore their creativity. Learning-disabled children often feel singled out from mainstream students, and can find it difficult to be creative for fear of being seen as even more different from the other students[37]. This leads to students starting to see success as being unattainable and will stop trying to be successful[37]. Children who have learning disabilities are entitled to learning support within their classrooms[33]. In order to ensure this happens teachers can help students to make their own academic goals, and work towards achieving them through a modified learning program[33]. Scofield[30] explains that if teachers were to encourage students to explore and be curious while taking various approaches to problems and promoting trial and error, students would become more in touch with their creative side. Teachers need to feel free to let their students attempt to solve problems using various approaches, and allow students to struggle with problems in order to foster creativity[30]. For instance, Brady[38]discusses schools that offer drama and theatre programs for students with learning disabilities where these classes help students to harness their energy and focus it. Children with learning disabilities need to be placed in an environment that will enhance creative thinking and encourage alternate approaches to solving problems[39].Teachers who are educated on the importance of creativity and have knowledge of how to enhance learning for disabled children can make a difference in the futures adults by encouraging creativity in all students.

[edit] Additional Resources

Ken Robinson's Insight on Changing Education Paradigms - something that the Montessori schools are aiming to do.

  • For more information on creativity based curriculums and schools that foster such creativity, visit Montessori Schools

A great 11-minute video on intrinsic motivation and its effects on creativity and thinking (Posted by the RSA on April 1, 2010)

  • For more information on creativity and motivation, visit Mark McGuinness' website called Wishful Thinking.

Explaining Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

[edit] Notes and References

  1. Davis, G. A. (1982). A model for teaching for creative development. Roeper Review, 5(2), 27–29.
  2. Brown, L. (1999, Oct 17). Teachers overwhelmed by new material. The Canadian Press, Toronto, ON
  3. Kaufman, J.C. & Sternberg, R.J. (Eds.). (2010). The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press
  4. 4.0 4.1 Majhanovich, S. (2002). Conflicting visions, competing expectations: Control and de-skilling of education - A perspective from Ontario. McGill Journal of Education; 37(2), Canadian Newsstand Major Dailies, p. 159.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wood, C. (2002). Changing the pace of school: Slowing down the day to improve the quality of learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(7), 545-550.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Fasko Jr., D. (2001). Education and creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13(3/4), 317–327.
  7. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Collins.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Betrus, A.K. (2013). Individualized instruction - Pace, method, content, examples of individualized instruction, final issues. Retrieved February 10, 2013 from
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Geist, E., & Hohn, J. (2009). Encouraging creativity in the face of administrative convenience: How our schools discourage divergent thinking. Education, 130(1), 141-150.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Robinson, K. (2009). Divergent thinking. Talk presented at Royal Society of the Arts, RSA Animate. DGpL4U. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 Maker, C. J., Muammer, O., Serino, L., Kuang, C.C., Mohamed, A., & Sak, U. (2006). The DISCOVER curriculum model: Nurturing and enhancing creativity in all children. Korean Journal of Educational Policy, 3(2), 99-121.
  12. Williams, R. (2012). How to motivate employees. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Hon, A. H. Y. (2012). Shaping environments conductive to creativity: The role of intrinsic motivation. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 53(1), 53-64. doi: 10.1177/1938965511424725
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
  15. Mouchiroud, C., & Lubart, T. (2002). Social creativity: A cross-sectional study of 6- to 11-year-old children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(1), 60-69.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Amabile, T. M., & Kramer, S. (2012). What doesn't motivate creativity can kill it. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from
  17. 17.0 17.1 Hennessey, B. A., Amabile, T. M., & Martinage, M. (1989). Immunizing children against the negative effects of reward. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 14(3), 212-227. doi: 10.1016/0361-476X(89)90011-8
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the 'overjustification' hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28(1), 129-137. doi: 10.1037/h0035519
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Selart, M., Nordström, T., Kuvaas, B., & Takemura, K. (2008). Effects of reward on self-regulation, intrinsic motivation and creativity. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 52(5), 439-458. doi: 10.1080/00313830802346314
  20. Sarafino, E. P., & DiMattia, P. A. (1978). Does grading undermine intrinsic interest in a college course? Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(6), 916-921. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.70.6.916
  21. 21.0 21.1 Reiss, S. (2012). How to motivate someone. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from
  22. McGuinness, M. (2008). Motivating creative people - the joy of work. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from
  23. 23.0 23.1 McGuinness, M. (2006). Creative flow. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from
  24. 24.0 24.1 Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
  25. Hoerr, T. (2002). Applying mi in schools. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from,
  26. Simsek, A. & Balaban, J. (2010) Learning strategies of successful and unsuccessful university students. Contemporary Educational Technology, 1 (1) 36-45.
  27. Gardner, H. (1983) Frames of mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books Inc., New York. USA. P84.
  28. Gardner, H. (1999) Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, BasicBooks.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Weinstein, C. E. & Mayer, R. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C, Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 Scofield, R. W. (1960, October). A Creative Climate. Educational Leadership. pp. 5-49.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Steffenhagen, J. (2009, Jan 07). Program aids learning-disabled; THRIVE provides additional help for students. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved from
  32. Andrea, G. a. (2011, Jul 02). A difference doesn't have to be a deficit. Toronto Star. Retrieved from
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Giangreco, M. F. (2007). Extending Inclusive Opportunities. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 34-37.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Crosbie, S. (2002, Feb 25). ADHD should be viewed as a gift: Kingston Whig - Standard. Retrieved from
  35. 35.0 35.1 Shondrick, D. D., Serafica, F. C., Clark, P., & Miller, K. G. (1992). Interpersonal Problem Solving and Creativity in Boys with and Boys without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, (2), 95.
  36. Eisen, M. L. (1989). Assessing differences in children with learning disabilities and normally achieving students with a new measure of creativity. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 22(7), 462-464, 451.
  37. 37.0 37.1 McCord, K. A. (2004). Moving Beyond 'That's All I Can Do:' Encouraging Musical Creativity in Children with Learning Disabilities. Bulletin Of The Council For Research In Music Education, (159), 23.
  38. Diane Brady, T. S. (1988, Sep 13). Theatre school helps, develop pupils' creativity, confidence. Toronto Star. Retrieved from
  39. Algozzine, B., Putnam, R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Support for Teaching Students with learning Disabilities Academic skills and Social Behaviors within a Response-to-Intervention Model: Why It Doesn't Matter What Comes First. Insights On Learning Disabilities, 9(1), 7-36.
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