From Intro to Human Geography 2014

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Jake (Introduction)

This City Has Been Claimed by Group 3 Victoria Christopher Dominic Jake


[edit] Management Schedule

Introduction: Jake

Globalization (Chapter 2): Christopher

Political Geography (Chapter 3): Dominic

Population (Chapter 4): Victoria

Migration (Chapter 5): Victoria

Social Geography (Chapter 7): Dominic

Cultural Geography (Chapter 8): Jake

[edit] Introduction

Google Maps Vienna.
Google Maps Vienna.

Welcome to Vienna, the City of Music and Dreams! Vienna is one of the nine states, the Capital, and the largest city of Austria. This 415 km2 mass of land is home to more than 1.7 million people, which is a considerable portion of Austria’s entire population of approximately 8.5 million. [1] Vienna is also noted, by population, as the 10th largest city of the European Union. [2]Vienna is a beautiful metropolis where fine dining, music, and architectural wonders all contribute to such a high quality of life. [2] From 2009-2012, and again in 2014, Vienna acquired first place in a “Quality of Living” survey" led by Mercer, a human resource consulting firm. [3]

Vienna is commonly referred to as “The City of Music” for its many illustrious musical events, practices, and famous musicians. Vienna is host to over 300 Balls, both private and public, every year. [4]

Vienna is also referred to as “The City of Dreams” as it is also considered to be the birthplace of Psychotherapy through the heritage of men like Sigmund Freud, Frankl. [5]

All of these aspects of Vienna have naturally caused the city to exist as the cultural, political, and economic center of Austria.

[edit] Globalization

Vienna Coat of Arms.
Vienna Coat of Arms.
Vienna is a prime example of Globalization. Vienna has contributed much to the world culturally and in trade. Vienna has also been the center of major political changes and treaties, and the headquarters of international charity organizations. With all that it has given the world Vienna has also embraced cultural past times from around the world including sports. The influences of Vienna’s culture and the culture of the rest of the world on Vienna can be seen in many places and forms.

[edit] Networks[6]

[edit] Economic Network

Vienna is a major producer of Austria’s capital goods and also produces almost half of its consumer goods. The main industries include the manufacture of electrical machinery and transportation equipment, electrical products, chemicals, and metal products. Some Specialty Viennese products include silk, ceramics, scientific and musical instruments, watches, cutlery, leather goods, and carpets. [7]

Some of the trade partners that Austria deals with are Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United States, and France [8] Austria is ranked 21st in the world by the United Nations Development Programme with a GDP of 110.48% [9] and Vienna plays a big part of that success.

[edit] Government Networks

 Representative Offices of Vienna.
Representative Offices of Vienna.
Today Vienna has government networks throughout Europe which are represented through COMPRESS representative offices in eleven countries/towns:

Belgrade, Serbia

Bratislava, Slovakia

Budapest, Hungary

Bucharest, Romania

Krakow, Poland

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Moscow, Russia

Prague, Czech Republic

Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina

Sofia, Bulgaria

Zagreb, Croatia

The City of Vienna also has a network of special branches abroad in; Brussels, Belgium, where they hold the Vienna House to help promote Vienna’s business sector, and Tokyo, Japan and Hong Kong, China, to help improve trade and tourism with Asia. [10]

[edit] Political

UN Headquarters, Vienna.
UN Headquarters, Vienna.

Vienna is home of the third United Nations Headquarters, after New York and Geneva, the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV). It was established on 1 January 1980. Performing representation and liaison functions with permanent missions to the United Nations (Vienna), and hosting Government, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in Vienna. [11]

The UN Headquarters has been involved with formation of many international laws and treaties including the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a part of world trade law in regards to international treaties between states [12] and also the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which laid out guidelines of military presence in Europe to establish security and cooperation in Europe [13]

[edit] Cultural

Commanding one of central Europe's most important land and water routes, Vienna first prospered as a trading center and achieved international recognition as the capital of the Hapsburg realm. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Vienna became a center of music, art, architecture, and education. Vienna today, remains among the world's outstanding cultural centers [14]. It also boasts an impressive list of well know historical figures that resided in Vienna. This list includes;

Statue of Mozart in Vienna.
Statue of Mozart in Vienna.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who wrote to his father that Vienna was just the place to be. His years in Vienna would prove this to be true as they were very successful years for him. Nearly half of all his works were composed during his ten years in Vienna. [15]

Statue of Beethoven in Vienna.
Statue of Beethoven in Vienna.

Ludwig van Beethoven, who moved to Vienna in 1792 and made his first public appearance as a pianist in Vienna in 1795. During the years that his hearing was starting to get worse, which would eventually lead to deafness, he would spend the months from May to October in one or another of the little villages near Vienna and the first performance of his Ninth Symphony was given in Vienna. He died from cirrhosis of the liver in Vienna on March 26, 1827. [16]

Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis. In 1873, Freud began attending the University of Vienna and his studies of medicine. Following his graduation, Freud began his work at the Vienna General Hospital and from there went on to develop his theories on the human mind and Psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud is regarded as one of the most influential and controversial figures of the 20th century. [17]

The Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna.
The Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna.

[edit] Social

Vienna boasts many different social activities ranging from world charity organizations to world renowned boys Choirs.

SOS Children's Villages.
SOS Children's Villages.
The Vienna Boys' Choir.
The Vienna Boys' Choir.

One such charity in Vienna is the network of SOS Children's Villages, founded in Vienna by Hermann Gmeiner in 1949. Currently there are SOS Children’s Villages in 133 countries worldwide, including Canada. They provide food, health care, education and shelter to abandoned orphans and children. [18]

Vienna is also home to one of the best known boys' choirs in the world, The Vienna Boys' Choir, which in German is Wiener Sängerknaben, their choir singers also come from all over the world. The Vienna Boys' Choir has toured China, Germany, Switzerland, United States, Russia, Japan, and other countries all over the world. They have also recorded their own records and even Ring tones for LG electronics. [19]

Vienna Rathaus.
Vienna Rathaus.
Vienna also regularly hosts international conferences. One of which was the International Making Cities Livable LLC conference in July of 2000, at the Vienna Rathaus, of which the main theme was the situation of children and young people in cities. The International Making Cities Livable LLC’s mission is to improve community, social and physical health, and generally enhance the well-being of the inhabitants of cities and towns all over the world. [20]

[edit] Local currencies

Prior to the Euro being introduced in January 2002, Austria’s currency was the Austrian schilling , first established in December 1924 and aside from a short period from 1938 to 1945 was the primary currency for Vienna until 2002 when the Euro became the main form of currency. [21]

Austria has a rich collection of collectors' coins, with face values ranging from 5 to 100 euros. In Austria, these coins represent an old national practice of the minting of silver and gold coins. These coins are not normally circulated as they are not intended to be used as a means of currency, as they are more of a collector’s item. [22]

Austrian Currency

[edit] Sports

 2005 World Ice Hockey Championship.
2005 World Ice Hockey Championship.

Vienna has been introduced to, and participates, in many sports that can been seen played around the world. These sports include Hockey, Baseball and soccer.

Vienna has hosted the 2005 Ice Hockey World Championships, which took place in Austria, where many games, including the final, were played at the Wiener Stadthalle arena, one of Vienna’s sports venues [23] They also have teams, including UPC Vianne Capitals, in the National Austrian Hockey league or Erste Bank Eishockey Liga (EHL) [24]

 Vienna Metrostars, ABL Champions.
Vienna Metrostars, ABL Champions.

Baseball was introduced after World War II by U.S forces, however after the troops left Austria in 1955, baseball stopped being played until about 1982. Vienna had 3 baseball clubs in the league at that time and currently one of those original teams still exist, the Vienna Homerunners. Most recently, Vienna's Metrostars, became the 2014 ABL Champions. [25]

 Ernst Happel Stadium, Vienna.
Ernst Happel Stadium, Vienna.

Vienna has also been the host of four Champions League and European Champion Clubs' Cup finals (Soccer) played in the Ernst Happel Stadium in 1964, 1987, 1990, and 1995. They also hosted a few games for the Euro 2008 (soccer) including the final between Spain and Germany. [26]

[edit] Political Geography

Vienna is one of the nine states of Austria, and is the capital of Austria; being the largest city in the country. [2] It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The official language is German, in which most of the population speaks. [27] The political geography of a place implies that the boundaries of a place, the conflicts and relationships a state has, and the actions of the people in power all have an influence in how the people react. The boundaries shape the state not only by identifying who the people are within those boundaries, but also how those people's political views are like. [28] The colonialism of the power has a big impact on the shape of these states. Since many people with great power has tried to take Austria, the history of the battles and wars within the boundaries of the country shows the struggle Austria/Vienna had in keeping their boundaries.

[edit] Political Development

[edit] 500BC-1500AD


The Roman Ruins located in Vienna.
The Roman Ruins located in Vienna.

Around 500BC Vienna was a large area for the Celtic settlement, which later, about 15BC, became a Roman Military base under the Roman Empire's control. They would guard their borders to protect it from foreign tribes nearby. [29]. It is believed that Vienna was an important trading area for the Celts and Romans. [30] The Romans were then driven out in the 5th century when the Barbarians invaded. Later, Langobards got control of the region, then later Slavs and Avars had control, whom later got kicked out by the Magyars many decades later. [2]


After the Babenberg heir died in 1246, the country was invaded by the Bohemian King, who isolated the Germans. Rudolf was elected king and then defeated Ottar in a battle of the Marshfield in 1278, which happens to be one of the largest knight battles in the Middle Ages. This granted him rights to take control over the Austrian areas. [2]


Under the Habsburg rule, they were trying to keep peace, the city became much more popular with the success of the Vienna University (later called Alma Mater Rudolphina) in 1365, which makes it one of the oldest universities in Europe. Vienna eventually became capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1556 after the Habsburgs had gained Hungary and Bohemia. [2]

[edit] 1500-1900

War against the ottomans. Battle of Vienna 1683
War against the ottomans. Battle of Vienna 1683

Ottoman Wars

In 1529, Ottoman forces created a siege on Vienna, but the attempt to seize the city failed, since they were outnumbered by the amount of defenders. In 1683 the City was besieged once again by a large army led by Kara Mustafa. After two months a Polish relief army under Jan III Sobieski was able to defeat the Ottomans decisively in the Battle of Vienna. The Ottoman Empire then let Vienna be at peace for decades, within this time, it allowed for the population of the city to increase drastically.[2]

Napoleonic Wars

Vienna was twice seized by Napoleon, first in 1805 without a battle and then in 1809 after a fierce bombing. Shortly after that, the Austrians won the battle of Aspern, but lost at Wagram soon after. After Napoleon's final defeat at Leipzig, the Congress of Vienna (Sep 1814 till Jun 1815) restored the balance of power in Europe. [2]

Revolution of 1848

Influenced by the French February Revolution, the Austrian citizens pushed for political power in the March Revolution, which forced Chancellor Metternich to resign. The following October Revolution in Vienna was crushed by the Emperors armies. Later, the Arsenal was erected as defensive barracks against possible uprisings within the country.[2]

[edit] 1900-present

April 1945: Russian forces engage in street fighting during The Battle Of Vienna.
April 1945: Russian forces engage in street fighting during The Battle Of Vienna.

World War I

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, set off the war in 1914 mainly between the Entente Powers France, UK and Russia versus the Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Finally, the defeat of 1918 was also the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which dissolved into many parts.[2]

The Republic

Once World War I was over, Republik Österreich was announced. The Austro-Hungarian Empire (as it was formally known as), was led to a civil war in 1934 because of difficult economic issues.[2]

World War II

Prior to World War II, the Nazi German Army invaded the state of Austria in 1938, and then later was bombed by an Allied aircraft in 1943. These bombings were prior to the Soviet conquest in 1945 which caused much distraction within the city.[2]

Allied occupation

The Soviet Union, USA, UK, and France divided Vienna in 1945 (after World War II). There were three elections held, followed by the reconstruction of the city. The Marshal plan helped the economy which then later on in 1955 the country was given full independence. [30]

[edit] States

Austria is a federal republic comprised of independent federal states:[31]
Map of Austria showing each Individual States
Map of Austria showing each Individual States
  1. Carinthia
  2. Lower Austria
  3. Salzburg
  4. Styria
  5. Tyrol
  6. Upper Austria
  7. Vienna
  8. Vorarlf

A lot of these states boundaries were determined overtime, similar to the districts within Vienna. Throughout history the states borders have been moved accordingly to fit the surroundings. One of the greater influences in creating the borders of the states was the Nazis. They made many districts to be apart of Vienna, but then later became their own state, which today, is known as Lower Austria. [32]

[edit] Districts

Vienna is divided into 23 political districts[2]
Map of Vienna showing each Individual districts
Map of Vienna showing each Individual districts
Many of the districts were added to Vienna over time. This has to do with much land around the city, and having walls built up to protect the area from any attacks. Since these walls were put up in the centre, the city itself could not expand [33]. Thus, allowing room to create districts as a way for expansion; to grow outward. The Nazis also made decisions on putting many villages together as a few districts, but later became their own state (Lower Austria). The shaping of the districts has mainly to do with the walls and fields surrounding the area, this also includes the river banks.
  1. Innere Stadt (Inner City)
  2. Leopoldstadt
  3. Landstraße
  4. Wieden
  5. Margareten
  6. Mariahilf
  7. Neubau
  8. Josefstadt
  9. Alsergrund
  10. Favoriten
  11. Simmering
  12. Meidling
  13. Hietzing
  14. Penzing
  15. Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus
  16. Ottakring
  17. Hernals
  18. Währing
  19. Döbling
  20. Brigittenau
  21. Floridsdorf
  22. Donaustadt
  23. Liesing

[edit] Independence

Occupation zones in Vienna, 1945–55
Occupation zones in Vienna, 1945–55

In the beginning, Vienna was under the power and control of the Roman Empire.[30] Then later was under control by Babenberg, followed by the Habsburgs rule. After it was seized by Emperor Napoleon twice, the council developed in hopes to gain control over their city. After world war one, Vienna was divided into many parts/districts.[29] the German Nazis invaded gaining control, which lead to bombings by the Russians. Allies joined them. So just as it was done for Germany, Vienna was divided into four occupation zones; the central district was administered jointly by the Allied Control Council. The UK, USA, France and Soviet Union split the Vienna among themselves. Molotov, the first deputy premier at the time, had a plan for Austria's independence. However, the USA and UK had great suspicion that it was a trap thinking the soviets were going to use Austria as a military asset.[34] They had to make promises and many agreements not only with them, but the Soviet Union as well so they could gain their trust. This lead to them reaching independence in 1955. [30]

[edit] The Political System

Mayor of Vienna since 1994, Michael Häupl
Mayor of Vienna since 1994, Michael Häupl

Federal constitutional system Austria is a federal country. Meaning the Republic of Austria consists of a federation between the whole country with a typically republican-democratic constitution and altogether nine federal provinces, Vienna among them, which assume a distinctive federalistic position. There is a fundamental division of power between the responsibilities of the entire state and those of the nine federal provinces. Each state is on their own mutually independent competencies which brings them together as a whole. The seperation of powers guarantees that the legislature, the executive and the judiciary can work independently of one another in all departments and at all levels. [35]

Vienna’s Mayor is concurrently Federal Governor The head of the Vienna City Hall, in his capacity as mayor, heads the city government, just as in all other Austrian communities and towns, and is also the federal governor.

Vienna is also a political district, subdivided into altogether 23 municipal districts. They each have their own district parliaments with certain competencies. They are directed by elected district chairmen.

In Austria, all citizens are equal no matter what gender, status, class or religion. [36] No one can be discriminated in court based on their identity on who they are as individuals. Thus, making Vienna a very pro-equality city being included in this manner.

[edit] Language in Austria

The official language in Austria is German as the most popular ethnic group in Austria is German. [37] 98% of the population speaks German as it is also taught in schools.

[edit] Population

(Chapter 4) Victoria

Vienna is known as the capital city and largest city in Austria, with a population of 1,766,746 people in 2013.[38]Its large population accounting for 20% of the countries population, makes Vienna the most densely populated city in Austria.[38]

[edit] Demographics:

In Vienna, roughly 850,596 of the population is males and 916,150 are females.[39] 428,213 are foreign citizens, an 629,541 are residents with a migration background,[39] suggesting that a large factor in population growth, is as a result of immigration.

Looking at Figure (Population Pyramid, 2012) [40]

Population Pyramid, 2012
Population Pyramid, 2012

In the year of 2013, Vienna had 18,691 births, and 16,332 deaths.[39] As the number of births and deaths in 2013 are close in number ,Vienna’s population is mostly stationary, and balanced. However, since there are more births than deaths, it’ll still allow Vienna's population to keep increasing.

[edit] History of Population Trends:

According to[41] Vienna is one of top countries since 2001 experiencing continuous growth. From 2002-2012 Vienna’s population development increased 9.3%, following behind four other countries. (See Population Development Chart 2012)[39]
Population Distribution 2002-2012
Population Distribution 2002-2012
From 2004- 2014, Vienna’s population development increased again to 9.7% moving into fourth place (See Population Development Chart 2014)[39]
Population Development Chart, 2014
Population Development Chart, 2014

There was an exponential increase in Vienna’s Population during 1850 and 1920. During this time, Vienna was the capital of of Austria-Hungary. Many Czech’s were the main drive of Vienna’s increase in population, along with other groups apart of the monarchy..[42]

Shortly after World War 1 (1918), even though the area of Vienna increased, the population continued to decrease because of the war, and many Czechs and Hungarians left Vienna, resulting in a decline in population.[42] With many non-citizens acquiring citizenship, and the rate of natural increase, the number of people emigrating outnumbered births and those immigrating. From 1998 onward, there was continuous growth in population as many people migrated from other federal states.[42] In 1995, 6841 people in Vienna applied for Austrian citizenship, and by 1995, there was 300,675 foreigners and refugees registered.[42] Many of those individuals from other federal states immigrated to Vienna for many of the reasons found in Migration. As a result in a significant increase in immigration, many of the people who migrated over began to start a family, which resulted in an increase in population, and an increase in the percentage of children.

[edit] Migration

(Chapter 5) Victoria

Where people decide to live often is influenced by many external factors. Many of these factors include quality of living, employment opportunities, income, climate, languages, culture and religion, and safety and security.

[edit] Quality of Living:

In the past four years, Vienna, Austria’s capital city has been rated the most livable city, with the highest standard of living worldwide.[43]This study was based on 223 cities in which they looked at 39 factors affecting and contributing to one's quality of life. Many of these factors include safety, and public services such as health care, education, training, or traffic and transportation.[43]
Education of the Labour Force, 2013
Education of the Labour Force, 2013

[edit] Employment and Education:

Vienna is the largest centre of employment in austria as it brings in 26% of the GDP for the country.[44]These large numbers suggest that there is plenty of jobs in the area. As of December 2013, 791, 372 people were employed, half of which were woman. [44] Although 90,230 people were unemployed in 2013, more than 50% of those individuals only completed compulsory school.Trends and statistics show that by 2016, employment rates will continue to rise, many of which are the jobs in the science and technology, and healthcare industries.[44] These numbers look very promising to individuals who are looking to live in Vienna, as job security is typically the most important factor when people are deciding where people to live.

The average income for residents in Vienna is 3720 eur per month, which averages out to be 44,640 euro a year. In Canadian dollar, this is equivalent to $5202 a month, or $62,424 a year. [45] As this salary is the average salary in Vienna, it is very similar to the average salary of Canadians. One's salary reflects the quality of life that people can experience, so to see that a city on average has a salary like Vienna, the average income that people make is enough to live comfortably.

As education in Vienna is only mandatory for 9 years, children start school by the age of 6 and are done their mandatory education by the age of 15 [38] With the jobs available in Vienna, people with just compulsory education, will be limited to the type, and amount of jobs available for them to work. [44] As grade 9 is the last year for mandatory education it is important that Vienna has the resources and availability for individuals to attend school past grade nine.

Looking at figure (Education of Labour Force)[39], you can see that on average Vienna has a higher percentage of people who attend compulsory school, secondary school, and university, compared to those living in other places in Austria. This is an important statistic to see, as many of the jobs available in Vienna need university education. If Vienna continues to employ educated people, it will result in a better economy.

Mobility Ranking
Mobility Ranking

[edit] Transportation:

With the price of gas, and the trouble of commuting to work, many people are taking means of transportation into account when looking for a place to live. Similar to many large, overpopulated, and busy cities, a city's transportation infrastructure is an imperative way to get around.

Vienna is known to have one of the best transportation infrastructures in Austria, when looking at accessibility and affordability.[41] According to a study done on sustainable urban infrastructure in 2009, Vienna ranked third out of forty- six cities, on complete mobility ranking (see figure Complete mobility Ranking)[39] In Vienna transportation services included, trains, buses, and rail services. On average it costs 1.80 to 2.20 euros to bus around Vienna in the urban areas, and slightly more expensive in the urban areas [38] making it very affordable to get around.

[edit] Climate:

As many people have a hard time living in extreme weather conditions, people often like to live in areas where the climate varies, but at a comfortable level. Vienna has cool winters, and warm summers with average precipitation. Looking at the three figures (Precipitation, Sunshine, Air Temperature)[39]it is clear that Vienna has a climate that will allow for many different activities and experiences all year round.

Air Temperature, 2013
Air Temperature, 2013
Precipitation, 2013
Precipitation, 2013
Sunsine, 2013
Sunsine, 2013

[edit] Language and Religion:

As Vienna is located in Austria, the main language spoken is German, [38] which is mandatory for any jobs, education, and social life within the city. Croatian, Slovenian, and Hungarian are all recognized languages, in many parts of Austria, but are not official languages [38] English is not one of the first languages spoken in Vienna, but it typically the first foreign language taught during compulsory school [38]

Like many European cities, Catholicism is the main religion practiced in Vienna, as ¾ of the population is Catholic [38]

[edit] Social Geography

Social geography has to do with how individuals interact with each other in different places. This can include how they interact with their friends, family, coworkers and strangers. Some factors that play a role in how the people interact with one another are their background, ethnicity, religion and how the society views gender roles can have a great impact on interaction between individuals. One place's social geography will differ from another because every place has different people, and different experiences in their history. [28] When something does not follow the society's normal interactions it will be viewed as odd or 'not normal'.

[edit] Ethnicity

Austrians mainly consist of mixed Dinaric, Nordic, Alpine, and East Baltic origin. However, most people will just refer to themselves as 'Austrians' being that they are from and living in Austria. Germans are about 88% of the Austrian population, while the minorities include Croatians and Slovenes. Other minorities are Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbians, and Italians. [46]

[edit] Religion

Prior to World War II the jews played a big role in the community, but felt the need to fled to protect themselves from the Nazis. [47] Vienna was mainly composed of people of the Catholic Religion up until the 70s. [48] Since then the Catholic Religion became a minority-majority while other groups came and migrated into the city. Vienna has no longer served religion since 2001, thus, not being able to provide proper stats. There has been some estimated numbers, but no one is actually sure. [49]

41.3 % Roman Catholics

31.6 % no religion

11.6% Muslim

8.4% Orthodox

4.2% Protestant

2.9% others

[edit] Gender Roles

Awareness of reversed roles
Awareness of reversed roles

Vienna begun changing their views of different genders with the 'gender mainstreaming' in 2000, focusing on making this a cross-cutting strategy for the whole municipality. This was to help push for equality. They aimed to “achieve positive socio-political change for all its citizens”. The objective is to better meet the needs and demands of all its citizens to improve quality of public services. This is done through evaluations and by considering all users of public services, not only just from a gender perspective but also from a social, ethnic and health-related perspective. They first planned to make women feel as equal to men as possible. This includes the images to been seen as men working, not only for men, but for women as well.

A few ways they tried to achieve this was by making better lighting on the streets and sidewalks to insure that women felt more safe. In day care they had both genders be the teachers and not just one. One of the greatest part of the plan was to increase the awareness of gender mainstreaming; this included images of work that you would typically see men doing, but reversed the roles. [50]

[edit] Music and Theatre

Vienna is well known for its culture of being the central place of music. Even the Salzburg and Bregenz festivals are dependent on Viennese orchestras, musicians, theatre directors, and actors. Operas, concerts, and theatrical performances have played a major part in Viennese life for centuries, and many world-famous composers lived and worked in the city. The famous Society of Friends of Music, founded in 1812, this was to help sustain music as being part of their culture. They founded the Vienna Boys' Choir in 1498 and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra who both did a lot of musical service for the City. [51]

Burgtheater is one of the most popular theatres
Burgtheater is one of the most popular theatres
Inside the Burgtheater
Inside the Burgtheater

The two major opera houses, the State Opera and the People’s Opera, and the two leading theatres, the Burgtheater and the Academy Theatre, are owned by the Austrian federal government, and their singers and actors enjoy respected civil servant status. The State Opera is one of the leading opera houses in the world. Vienna also has numerous small theatres which provide a lot of opportunities for people to work in music. Musical legends including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schoenberg have worked there.

[edit] Cultural Geography

[edit] Introduction

Cultural Geography is an area of study in the profession of Human Geography that observes the aspects of a community or human relations that project a “personality” or “sense of place” onto a landscape. These “projections” have an impact on the people that experience them in any form that affects the human senses. This can be in the form of power relations, physical man-made characteristics of the landscape, cultural values, or even food and Music. The local culture of a landscape usually creates a sense of authenticity for the location, whereas popular culture are ideas or physical aspects that are adopted worldwide which, when not properly regulated, can lead to a sense of “placelessness” for the landscape. In Vienna we bear witness to both popular and local culture in any of the city’s cultural highlights, such as food delicacies, the cities architecture, dance, and of course, music.

[edit] Viennese Cuisine

Cafe Schwarzenberg.
Cafe Schwarzenberg.[53]

Local Culture

A preserved aspect of Vienna’s imperialistic past can be found in its unique dishes such as “Kaiserschmarrn” or “Kaisersemmel”.

Kaiserschmarrn is most likely the most renowned dishes from Vienna’s Imperial history. The delicacy is served in hotels as a main course throughout Austria under the title which translates to an”Emperor’s omelet”, appealing especially to hikers and skiers. The delicacy is served as a sweet, heavy pancake, with scattered raisons. The pancake is chopped into pieces and is iced with powdered sugar. Stewed plum or apple is an optional accompaniment to the Austrian dish.[52]

Kaisersemmel is a form of bread roll, traditionally comprised of white flour and dough that has been kneaded for a specific period of time. A series of five folds work to make the bread’s unique star-like structure that provides the delicacy with a crustier texture than other rolls.[52]

Popular Culture

For those looking to have a meal at a place that feels closer to home, Vienna offers a vast selection of globalized coffee houses. The familiar look and feel of these coffee shops and there staff will have you feeling right at home, while still providing a unique Viennese flare in the way the café “functions”. The Ideal of a coffee house does stay intact, as customers can stay for as long as they desire indulging in the arts of socialization and conversation.[54]

[edit] Viennese Architecture

Local Culture

Vienna is filled with structures rich with history and heritage. Some of Vienna’s traditional forms of architecture include Cathedrals, Palaces, and Wine Taverns. At the heart of Vienna stands the magnificent, St. Stephens Cathedral. Constructed in 11th century, the Roman Catholic place of worship has survived fire architectural additions, and two world wars. In the closing days of the Second World War, the 107 by 34 meter structure suffered severe damage brought on by fire demanded immense repairs including the reconstruction of the collapsed roof. These Restorations lasted from the year 1945 to 1957. It is fully restored and is specifically noted for its colorful roof tiles.[55]

Schönbrunn Palace
Schönbrunn Palace[56]

The city also lays claim to the former summer residence of the imperial family Schönbrunn Palace, which is one of Europe’s most extravagant palaces from the Baroque periods. Much of Vienna’s imperialistic past resides within the walls of this massive structure built in 1642. [57]

Viennese “heurige”
Viennese “heurige”[58]

The authentic Viennese “heurige” are popular in Vienna’s tourism industry for there renowned comfortable atmosphere and acceptable culinary delicacies. Travelers from all over the globe come to these taverns to be served only real Viennese brews. [59]

Popular Culture

Viennese “Seamless Integration between Modern and Gothic Architecture”
Viennese “Seamless Integration between Modern and Gothic Architecture”[60]

The city of Vienna has done an impressionable job of seamlessly integrating more modernized structures into the sea of authentic architectural relics that the metropolis has to offer. An effective example of the co-existence between the old and the new is present in how the modern, glass and steel “Haas Haus” structure faces the Gothic, St. Stephan’s Cathedral. These two structures, though from different eras and building codes, both seem to emit a Viennese flare that plays into the conformity of Viennese architecture.[61]

[edit] Viennese Dance

Local Culture

A pair of dance partners performing the Viennese Waltz at an Opera Ball
A pair of dance partners performing the Viennese Waltz at an Opera Ball[62]

Perhaps the most culturally authentic reference to Vienna is its world renowned leadership in formal Ball Room dance. Over 300,000 participants flock to Vienna’s Palaces and Opera Houses to take part in over 400 balls during Vienna’s Formal Ball season each winter. These incredibly prestigious and intricate dance events demand extreme educate and proper attire at all times.

A common opening to a Viennese Ball Room Dance is the traditional Viennese waltz which is honored as “the king of dances”. This dance was developed for two persons, and naturally, demanded a dance partner of the opposite sex. For this reason, the dance was initially perceived as scandalous and provocative, but was cleared up by the Vienna Congress meeting in 1814/1815.

The traditional bow at the conclusion of a Viennese Waltz
The traditional bow at the conclusion of a Viennese Waltz[63]

Originally these events were put on by royalty and wealthy nobles, in the present however, they are usually organized by groups of dance professors. At times, because of the dance instructor’s infallible demand for excellence during rehearsal performances, these events were excluded to professional dancers and individuals from wealthy families who could afford such dance lessons.

Viennese Waltz
Viennese Waltz[64]

Proper attire for men at Viennese balls (particularly for Opera balls) is a frack or white tie, accompanied by a tailed suit, and a long formal gown for the women. In some cases specific attire is required such as a color code.

Popular Culture

The popular cultural forms of dance such as Hip hop are of course present in Vienna, but it certainly does not have a place at one of Vienna’s prestigious and celebrated Ballroom Dances.

[edit] Notes and References

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