From Intro to Human Geography 2014

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Linda Kalmikov, Stephen Lazich, Connor MacTaggart



Cathedral of Lima
Cathedral of Lima

Lima is the capital of Peru and is the largest city in Peru. It is located on the West coast of South America overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Migration to Lima from the Andean Mountains was a big driving force to it's early population. Globalization has deeply affected Lima by opening and exposing its markets to free trade. The political geography of Lima is one that favors the higher socioeconomic classes of the population with its various districts and has suffered for years from political scandals and corruption. As a result there has been a large inequality amongst the population across the various semi-peripheral and peripheral regions of Lima. The social geography of Lima consists of various ethnic groups that divide the population into different social classes of Limenos. The cultural geography of Lima is one that has experienced significant change over years as the population has increased. Lima in its entirety can be seen as a city with great economic prosperity while suffering from an increasing gap between the rich and poor.


This section discusses globalization within Lima, Peru. It will begin by developing an idea of what globalization is and how globalization exists in Lima. Also, this section will discuss the pros and cons associated with globalization and how it works across time and space. Finally, this chapter will provide examples of how the opposition of globalization deals with these inequalities on a regional and national scale with Lima, Peru.

Although the concept of globalization is very subjective, to start off discussing globalization, one should first develop a common understanding as to what exactly globalization is. In doing so Fouberg (2012) defines globalization as “The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales" (Pg. 31).[2] Peru is considered to be a semi-periphery region while Lima and it's surrounding areas are a mix of semi-periphery and periphery.

[edit] Free Trade

On February 1, 2009 the Peru Trade promotion Agreement became law. This agreement opened the door for free trade zones within Peru, which reduced barriers. This agreement in its entirety can be seen here. Some of the highlights include, removing all tariffs for U.S. exported consumer and industrial products, while providing protection for U.S. foreign investment within Peru. Clearly as a result of these agreements, there will be winners and losers. Lima, a city that accounts for more than two thirds of Peru’s industrial production, has been affected by this agreement. As mentioned earlier, the idea of globalization can have positive and negative perspectives. Fouberg (2012) argues that some oppose neoliberal policies because they benefit only the global economic core by protecting their own countries and forcing the periphery and semi-periphery to open their economies for foreign direct investment as well as remove protection on domestic production (Pg. 46).[3] After reading Lima's free trade agreement, there is evidence to support this argument. For example, the U.S. have been given protection for foreign direct investment, which creates an agreement that clearly benefits this core global economy. Tavern (n.d.) concluded that foreign direct investment within Peru did not actually increase employment (Pg.142).[4] Therefore, as a result of this foreign direct investment, what kind of positive impact did it actually exhibit to Peru and more specifically Lima.

There is an argument to be made with respect to the positive aspects of globalization. Poverty and extreme poverty have declined significantly over the years since the introduction of these free trade agreements. Poverty has dropped in half from 42.4% in 2007 to 22.7% in 2014( Limaeasy ).[5] Also, extreme poverty has been on the decline from 17.4% in 2005 to 6% in 2012( Limaeasy ).[6] But there still exists an income inequality within Peru and more specifically, Lima and its surrounding periphery region. As Brown (2008) states, these societal inequalities within Lima are strengthening spatial segregation by not providing the proper access, or infrastructure to the peripheral residents (Pg.18).[7] Brown (2008) argued that individuals in the poorer periphery areas of Lima are not equipped with the same social, economical, political resources, and in fact, some barter rides to the centre of Lima just to buy meat to be sold in their poorer periphery neighbourhoods (Pg. 18).[8]

[edit] Placelessness

Fouberg (2012) describes placelessness as ""The loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next" (Pg. 44)..[9] Domenic Termine described his MEDLIFE experience to Lima as "I arrived in a city with Starbucks, casinos, fine dining, and nightclubs".[10] The introduction of these global chains has lead to a "loss of heterogeneity between places" (Pg. 44)[11] represents an ongoing concern that every place begins to look the same and the unique cultural landscapes that give places like Lima their uniqueness, begin to fade into a landscape that looks the same no matter where you travel.

[edit] Participatory Development

Participatory development is one alternative to dealing with the negative impacts of globalization. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) offer reforms to address the inequalities that result from globalization. In Lima, they have began to include the public into a process know as participatory budgeting. This process, with the aid of NGO representatives, is designed to allow the public to be involved in planning meetings and “vote on capital investment projects of social interest” ( Bethani, 2013).[12] This type of approach allows the public to be more involved and hopefully have a voice that can have an impact for the short term and long term goals of equality within Lima, Peru amongst the semi-peripheral and peripheral regions.

In conclusion, having an understanding as to what globalizations is and how it works, there are obvious positive impacts to opening up markets as seen by Lima, Peru having their economy grow and poverty decline. However, unless local governments can properly disperse resources in an equal way, inequalities that exist within areas like Lima will continue to grow and spacial segregation will continue to be a problem for the peripheral regions.


The government for the country of Peru is referred to as a Constitutional Republic. While Lima is divided into two provinces, Lima, Callao, and 49 districts (Pg.3).[13] A mayor is elected to these provinces to overlook the budget and districts within these provinces.

Political geography according to Fouberg (2012) is described as being “focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth’s surface. It is concerned with why political spaces emerge in the places that they do and with how the character of those spaces affects social, political, economic, and environmental understandings and practices" (Pg.51).[14]

[edit] Political Spatial Segregation

An example of this concept of political geography is the spatial segregation that exists amongst the various peripheral semi-peripheral regions of Lima, Peru. As a result of this spatial segregation, there exists an inequality amongst these groups that is continuously rising because of ineffective local governments as migration to Lima continues. The government has increased social spending with the aid of the World Bank as part of an anti-poverty strategy targeting the poorest areas but the insufficiency of good managers in local governments are prohibiting the efforts to aid those in need.[15] Also, the barriadas or slums that surround the metropolis area of Lima suffer from access to services such as hospitals. Riofrio states that this form of regionalism attributes to the lack of coordination amongst various districts administrations, and as a result, transportation has been a growing problem (Pg.3).[16] As Wielki states” hospitals are located largely in the higher socioeconomic class populated areas of the city” (Pg.10).[17] Therefore the lower socioeconomic class citizens must travel greater distances without proper transportation for basic services such as healthcare.

[edit] Political Corruption

The country of Peru and Lima, are having economic success despite the political challenges of having 49 districts combined with political scandals and corruption at the presidential level over the past 20 years, leaving Lima vulnerable and struggling for equality. The former president of Peru Alberto Fujimori was convicted in 2009 for human rights abuses, corruption and illegally paying off the former intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos with money taken from Peru.[18] Another former president, Alan Garcia along with his cabinet were forced to resign following yet another scandal of corruption regarding oil in 2008.[19] As a result of all these political scandals, "money for public investment in roads or to help farmers lies unspent at all levels of government, partly because of fears of corruption."[20] This paradox that exists albeit a growing economy, yet the city suffers from overcrowding and poverty. The income gap between higher and lower socioeconomic class citizens remains an important unresolved issue.

The spatiality of governance within Lima and Peru is inadequate. The inequality that exists amongst the various districts, and more specifically the barriadas, clearly favors the higher socioeconomic class citizens. The political lop sided spatial segregation along with the many years of scandals and corruption at the presidential level has left Lima and Peru struggling to fix the gap between the rich and poor.


This section will explore population geography of Lima, Peru. As Fouberg, 2012 states, “population geography focuses on why populations have certain characteristics and why they distribute themselves across space in particular ways” [21] (Fouberg, 2012, p. 88). As human geographers examine population density, distribution, demographic transitions, and characteristics, spatial perspectives become evident as "populations have distinctive locations and regions, they create distinctive landscapes and places, and migrate, relocate, and alter locations (Fouberg, 2012, p. 88). [21] This section will examine population data for Lima Peru to provide information about why people locate where they do, consequences of rapid population growth, and affects of government policy or lack of policy (Fouberg, 2012, p.88).[21]

[edit] Population Density

There are 29.5 million people in all of Peru with just over 8 million of those people living in Lima. Lima is the capital city, which is the “most populous metropolitan area of Peru.” [22] The population density of LIMA is 3,008.8 people per square kilometre (7,793 /sq mi) as of 2007.[23] To provide a comparison, Toronto has 2.6 million people in an area of 630 square km. and has 4,149.5 people per square kilometre.[24]

Looking at Peru as a whole, it is 1,280,000 km2. The Amazon accounts for 57.6% of Peru, 31.8% is considered highlands, and 10.6% of Peru is coastal. Lima is 2,672 km2, and therefore,.2% of Peru.[25] This means that 27% (or approximately one-third) of Peru's population is located on .2% of the land. On the surface, one might compare the figures to Toronto and conclude there are no issues. As human geographers, however, there are differences. Toronto is located in a core country versus Lima being located in a periphery country. In addition, Fouberg (2012) provided insight that high population densities bring about concerns related to a region's vulnerability to poverty and unsophisticated infrastructure - access to water, sanitation, power, education, healthcare, and other resources.

[edit] Population Distribution

Image:LIMA_Population_Pyramid.JPG [26]Copyright Riofrio, G. The Case of Lima Peru

The 1993 census population pyramid for Lima showed 3,232,411 women and 3,089,035 men.[26] “The most populous sections of the age pyramid were the 15-19 and the 20-24-year age groups.”[27] This population group accounts for 1.43 million of the population or 22.6%.

According to Fouberg, in countries of economic wealth, the pyramid shape becomes "like a slightly lopsided vase" with the largest components of the population in the middle (Fouberg 2012, p95).[21] The population pyramid for Lima is becoming "like a slightly lopsided vase" with the youth between 15 and 24 bulging, followed by a declining birth rate and/or migration rate. Reviewing the stages of the demographic cycle provided in Fouberg (2012), stage three (of five stages) is described as population explosion, followed by stage four, which is decreasing growth, with the last stage being described as a future declining population. The birth rate in Peru is 18.57/1000 and the death rate 5.00/1000 with an infant mortality rate of 20.21 and the life expectancy is age 73.[28] In comparison, North America's birth rate is 13, the death rate is 8 and the infant mortality rate is 7/1000. [21] What does this mean to human geographers? This population distribution and demographic information could provide evidence that Lima, and therefore Peru, is moving from a periphery country to a semi-periphery country?

It also means that "place" is being affected in terms of access to resources. This includes the need for more jobs, as this population pyramid was 11 years ago, this youth population has become adults. In addition, access to higher education, housing as this group begins to have families, transportation, and healthcare [26]. This is challenging as the economy has declined since the petrol crisis of 1973, manufacturing has declined, and government jobs have been cut. The unemployment rate is 10%, the underemployment rate is 77.6%, and the poverty rate has reached 44%.[27]“The youth that seeks work in Lima today is literate and is no longer satisfied with the unskilled construction work that once employed so many of its migrant forebears.”[27] The rapid population growth, large youth population, economic decline, government policy related to land claims/settling, and lack of funding for renewal of the city, has put great stress on the city’s infrastructure, which continues to deteriorate. [27] In the future, when the 15-24 year age group become elderly, providing adequate elder care may become a concern.[26]

[edit] Population Growth and Decline

[edit] Demographic Transitions

In the 1940s, LIMA’s population was 649,000. From 1940 to 1961 it grew to 1.8 million, which translates into an annual growth rate of 5.1. Then, by 1973, the population grew to 3.3 million – an annual growth rate of 5.5. This was a huge demographic transition with people migrating from the rural areas to the city because of the decline in agriculture and emerging commerce and industry within the city[26]. By 1981 the population grew to 4.6 million, and by 1993 grew to 6.4 million. Between 1981 and 1993 the population growth rate slowed to 2.7. This is slightly above the worldwide average replacement rate of 2.1 (Fouberg 2012, p. 100)[21]. Fouberg 2012 describes Lima as “a less mobile society than Canada and the pattern of internal migration is generally from rural Peru to urban Lima. Migrants leave rural areas and move to Lima, the capital. “ Global and national investment capital is concentrated in Lima, which represents the major focus of economic opportunity for the rural population”(Fouberg 2012, p. 126). [21]

During the major population shift that occurred between 1973 to 1981, many problems arose surrounding housing and infrastructure. There were no controls surrounding how people settled land so it was claimed and built upon before any infrastructure was in place. It was common practice for people to settle land before it was developed. [29] The government housing policy permitted the poor "to invade land and build their own shelters, while the state and the private sector sought to provide housing for the middle class"(Riofrio, 1978, p.4).[30] The government’s solution for the poor, at the time¸ was to allow free land. This resulted in “over 35% of Lima’s population living in squatter settlements called "pueblos jovenes" or "barriadas shantytowns".[31] These neighbourhoods are filled with poverty and labelled as “slums.”[26]

Although the situation is improving, the government in Lima is still struggling to solve the problems related to land claim/settling policies, maintaining and renewing Lima, as well as planning for growth. Consequently, they are turning to international agencies such as the World Bank for assistance.`([32]

[edit] Health

"Governments are often heavily involved in implementing population laws and policies designed to influence population change and composition" Fouberg 2012, p. 120). In 1995 the president of Lima implemented initiatives to control the population including free access to birth control and “forced sterilization of women and men, including 300,000 tubal ligations and 100,000 vasectomies.” This plan was aggressively attacked by women’s rights groups. [33] The World Health Organization, 2004 report recorded a Crude Birth Rate of 22.6 births/1000 population, a Crude Death Rate of 6 per 1000 population; Infant Mortality Rate 32 per 1000 live births; child mortality rate of 42 per 1000 live births, and a Total Fertility Rate of 2.9 World Health Report 2004, WHO [34].

These health indicators demonstrate Lima's healthcare and poverty challenges. Poor pre-natal and peri-natal care is the leading cause of infant death. Over 25% of urban residences lack clean water and proper sewage, resulting in high death rates from infectious diseases.[35] Malnutrition from extreme poverty is another cause of death. [36] HIV and AIDS is considered to be a “low-level epidemic” (Blacker, 2014, p.317) at 12.2%. This translates into approximately 82,000 with 4200 deaths annually. [37].

[edit] Natural Disasters

Two major earthquakes have affected the population and landscape of Lima, Peru. In 1687 an earthquake killed 5000 people, and in 1746 another earthquake completely destroyed the city of Lima and triggered a tsuenomi. Only 1,141 out of the population of 60,000 died in Lima [38]. Other earthquakes occurred in 1966, 1974 (179 killed), 1993, 2007, 2011, & 2013. [39]

[edit] Population Characteristics

[edit] Population Mix

As human geographers, examining Lima's history provides a basis for understanding who lives in Lima and why, as well as how this impacts the landscape of Lima.

Lima was founded by the Spanish, more specifically Francisco Pizario, in 1535. Prior to this, Lima was inhabited by the Incas, who were an agricultural civilization (Riofrio, p.1). LIMA is located along the pacific coast in the mouth of the Rimac River. This location was settled by the Spanish and became the capital of the Spanish Empire in South America [40] (Blacker, 2014, p.63). In the early 1800s, Peru gained independence from Spain. Then, in a war that lasted from 1879 to 1883, Chile captured and occupied Lima (Blacker, 2014, p.54).[40] This war was over “territorial differences” involving mineral rich mines [41], The In 1883 the Treaty of Ancón was signed to resolve these differences. [42] These territorial wars impacted the population in terms of who held power and consequently, what the landscape looked like - hispanic architecture was replaced with colonial architecture.[43]

Another event of historical significance that impacted Lima's population occurred after the termination of slavery around 1874, when 100,000 Chinese migrated to Lima as contract workers in the mines and at the sugar plantations.[44] Several Chinese import companies were established as well as schools and temples. During the War of the Pacific, much of this area was destroyed. More destruction occurred during the riots of 1918, and for “several decades there was a ban on Chinese immigration.”[44] There is a section of Lima called China Town or “Barrio Chino de Lima."[44] Although Chinatown is smaller, it still exists with a distinct landscape including an archway at the entrance of Chinatown that was donated by Tawain.[44]

Lima's current population mix:

  • Approx. 70% Mestizo (mixed European and indigenous Indians)
  • Approx. 15% Whites
  • Approx. 10% Amerindians (African ancestors were initially brought to the region as slaves
  • Approx. 5% Asians and Blacks


[edit] Population Divide

According to an article in Peru This Week for the year 2013-2014:

  • average salary in Lima rose to S/. 1,437.6/month (approx. $513)[46]
  • average salary for men was S/. 1,668.5[46]
  • average salary for women S/. 1,141[46]
  • highest average monthly salary - construction sector S/. 1,809.9[46]
  • lowest average salary - trade sector with S/. 1,136.9. [46]

The Youthful Cities Affordability Index indicates that it is challenging for the large youth population (ages 15 to 25) to find employment, and LIMA rates 16th of 25 cities with a minimum wage of $1.45.[47]

These employment income statistics provide an overall indicator of employment income for Lima, but these statistics are an average, making it challenging to interpret what this really means for the population of Peru. There is a huge divide between the wealthy population and the poor population in Lima. Domenic Termine from Ohio state University participated in a Community Service Project in Lima Peru. His experience describes a wealthy, lavish lifestyle in the heart of Lima, with “Starbucks, casinos, fine dining, and night clubs. Yet, about an hour away on a bus, the people suffer and live in extreme poverty. They have no true drinking water, water is stored in old oil barrels, and they live with no electricity."[48] Termine describes a “collective sense of place.” (Fouberg, 2012, p.8)[21] "The people of Lima do not recognize their countries poverty and just turn a blind eye to all of it. There is a giant wall (they call it the “Wall of Shame”) that separates the poor from the wealthiest.”[48]

In conclusion, as Fouberg 2012 states, "the location of a population or group clearly has an impact on the population's health, survival rate, life expectancy, and quality of life (Fouberg, 2012, p. 120).[21] Although the population growth of Lima has stabilized, they are still struggling with challenges created by previous population explosions. This has impacted the quality of life in terms of divide between class, access to housing, proper sanitation, water, power, employment, transportation, healthcare, and other social services. The population pyramid provides government with future trends for future planning, but unless Lima's government improves coordination and provides "major public programs at every social level, infrastructure investment, planning for future restructuring and growth" [27]and receives help on an international scale, the city's issues will continue to compound and hinder progress.[27]


[edit] Trends

A large wave of migration took place between 1940 and 1961 and again between 1973 and 1981. This was a period of “rapid growth” for Lima as large numbers of people migrated from the Andean Mountain region.[49] People were seeking a better life. Agriculture was no longer viable, and growing export, commerce, industry, trade, and services in Lima provided job opportunities. [49]

“By 2010 the number of internal migrants reached 6.5 million persons. The population living in Lima’s metropolitan area rose from 800,000 persons in 1940 to eight million today. Peru’s urban dwellers account for 76 per cent of the population.” [49]

Currently, according to an October 2012 Peru Migration Profile document released in Lima, “100,000 Peruvians migrate to Lima each year.” The document also states that 10% of the population emigrates from LIMA to the United States, Spain, Argentina, Chile, Japan, and Venezuala. The largest percentage (35%) move to the United States “to improve their economic situation.”[49]

The years of rapid migration changed the landscape of Lima, as discussed previously, as "Shanty Towns" evolved. In addition, Lima's inability to sustain and improve the infrastructure as well as provide resources still affects the region and the sense of place for the people of Lima. The government "has had very limited success in providing Peruvian citizens with adequate care in terms of health programs, the lack of sufficient doctors and nurses, adequate hospital facilities, competent rural medicine agenda, and general funding has contributed to a deficient health system. Meanwhile, shortages of affordable housing, stable labor conditions, and retirement benefits has also impacted negatively with the increase of informal economy and the construction of shanty towns (pueblos jóvenes) around Lima" [43]

[edit] Diaspora

Forced migration or “Diaspora” occurred in Peru from the early 1500s to 1874 as 94,000 Africans were brought into Peru and forced into the slave trade. [50] In November 2009, an official apology for racial injustice was released to the Afro-Peruvian people by the Peruvian government Peruvian people with the goal of improving relations.[51]

In the 1980s and 1990s, diaspora occurred as people fled to Lima as refugees because of armed conflict and violence from the guerilla insurgent organization “Shining Path.”[52] The Minister of foreign affairs recognizes Peruvian Diaspora and is working to develop policy for “mainstreaming the rights of migrants” and “modifying the current Migration Incentive Law, to provide greater support for the reintegration of migrants wishing to return to Peru.”[49]

[edit] Chinese Immigration

There is a section of LIMA called China Town or “Barrio Chino de Lima."[44] After the termination of slavery around 1874, 100,000 Chinese migrated to Lima as contract workers in the mines and at the sugar plantations.[44] Several Chinese import companies were established as well as schools and temples. During the War of the Pacific, much of this area was destroyed. More destruction occurred during the riots of 1918, and for “several decades there was a ban on Chinese immigration.”[44] Although Chinatown is smaller, it still exists with a distinct landscape including an archway at the entrance of Chinatown that was donated by Tawain.[44]

[edit] Push-Pull Factors

"Just as there are strong "pull" factors that attract persons to Lima and the other major cities, there are also many conditions that "push" people out of their communities."[53] These factors include, but are not limited to lack of farmland, difficulty finding employment and lack of options, and Shining Path terrorist activities [54]

The International Organization for Migration is working in conjunction with Lima developing projects and policies to improve the socioeconomic conditions of migrants. As well, their goal is “to promote informed and regular migration among the youth as well as to empower them with information on the labour market and migration normative and give them proper occupational and educational guidance”[55]

The International Organization for Migration website lists the following Migration projects for Lima:[55] Thematic Window "Youth, Employment and Migration"

  • Regional Training Seminar on the Migratory Agreement between Ecuador and Peru
  • Strengthening of the Administrative System of the Lima Metropolitan Council
  • Technical Assistance for the Execution of the Lima Municipality
  • Technical Assistance for the Execution of Public Works for ESSALUD
  • Capacity Building for Public Ministry Organization Process Management
  • Consolidation of the Process of Reorganization and Modernization of the Public Ministry
  • Strengthening the Institutional Management of the National Penitentiary Institute (INPE)
  • Strengthening the Institutional Management of the Ministry of Education

In conclusion, although there have been waves of regional migration from other parts of Peru to Lima “under neoliberalism, both employment and wages fell to levels that made it difficult for families to sustain themselves.”[56] Lima is an example of what Fouberg (2012) terms as an “island of development” which are “places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated. Islands of development are often coastal cities.”This is "pull" factor for population migration from other regions of Peru to Lima. Although Lima's economy is growing, poverty, overcrowding, and the gap between the rich and the poor is still a huge issue, with some leaving Lima for foreign destination. The international community has responded and this involvement may help Lima's migration challenges. [56]


Social Geography “is the interactions and relationships we have with others around us” [57]. This interaction is important to understand how people become grouped together or organized in a certain area or space. “It is the relationship between the spatial and the social with a particular focus on contemporary issues of gender, race, class, ethnicity and sexuality”[58].

[edit] Social Geography of Lima

Lima accounts for about one fourth of the total population of Peru. It "has come together form a large concentration of people, capital, political influence and social innovations. Lima’s unique status is but one of the more important consequences of highly centralized, unitary state that from its inceptions in the early 19th century solve inter-regional conflicts by focusing power and prestige on the city”[59]. At one point Lima’s port was the only contact between Peru and the outside world.

Following is a brief historical timeline describing the various ethnic influences to demonstrate the range of ethnicity and to lay a foundation to help understand how this has impacted the changing landscape, and issues of class and discrimination:

  • Pre-1535 - Inca Civilization
  • 1535 - Spanish Rule - Francisco Pizarro, brought over the first African slaves, - Spanish was forced on the indigenous people.
  • 1687 - Lima Walls were built to protect against attack.
  • 1821-1824 - Lima established independence from Spain
  • 1870 - Lima Wall dismantled
  • 1874 - African Slavery abolished and Chinese Immigration as contract workers [60]
  • Current - It is difficult to determine what a true person from Lima really is; however, there are four major ethnic groups:

Mestizo (mixed European and indigenous Indians) Whites (European) Amerindians (African ancestors were initially brought to the region as slaves) Asians and Blacks."[61]

[edit] Ethnicity and Class

There is a distinct divide in the class between the white elite and the other ethnic backgrounds and mixtures. “Whites occupy the highest rung of the ladder while the rest of the population clings to the lowest part depending on their skin color and implied cultural status. Class also plays a significant role in the social structure, superimposing itself upon the skewed racial hierarchy of the country. Not surprisingly, whites tend to occupy the highest positions in the country and also possess the greatest amount of schooling.“[43]

In Lima, like many other countries, health care comes with class. Higher class citizens can afford the best health care, as lower class citizens receive basic, or no health care. "There are around 200 hospitals in the metropolitan area, with only 2 doctors per 1000 citizens. For the most part, the unhealthy living conditions have led to many outbreaks in the country such as cholera. Also, tuberculosis is a big problem in this part of Peru".[62]

“Indians above all have faced five centuries of ethnically discriminatory and genocidal practices against its population. Even after independence their general treatment was not radically different. Indians are still portrayed as backwards and inferior and perform the hardest and less remunerative forms of labor. Afro-Peruvians also have suffered the brunt of racial and cultural discrimination since their emancipation in 1854. Through the lack of opportunities to improve their social situations, most Afro-Peruvians have been limited to rural work or domestic work.” [43]

Fouberg discusses the idea of "intersectionality"- the complex connections and relationships that exist between those various social categories such as race, class, gender and sexuality."[63]. In terms of Lima, the intersection of class and ethnicity reveals is a huge divide in the city. "Even though it is a multicultural city, the white elite are still ranked the highest receiving the best health care, education and jobs. Anyone with colour are treated differently and are considered the lower class".[43]

[edit] The Changing Landscape

There is evidence how the changing Social Geography has impacted the changing landscape of Lima. “The pre-Hispanic tradition represents all those indigenous architectural traits existing in the territory before the Spanish conquest” [64] Under Spanish rule, much of this was destroyed and replaced with colonial architecture and Catholic cathedrals. “This colonial architecture brought with it many of the styles in vogue in the European courts of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, including that of the Baroque. The current architecture of Lima is strongly influenced by the Spanish colonizers however, “modernist tradition has become popular and new construction is much more architecturally modern.”[65]

[edit] Gender Issues

Men and woman of Lima have held different labor positions. " Woman customarily were in charge of weaving and minor agricultural obligation while men took care of road constructions." As more women are becoming educated the barriers are slowly coming down. "However men are preferentially treated in most if not all, aspects of society" [66] International Women's Day was held in Lima Peru in March of 2013. This was a big step for the women of Lima as there are many steps that need to be taken to change the way women are treated and thought of in this society "Machista culture is very deep-rooted here in Peru. It's very difficult to convince men to change their everyday attitudes. One of the big problems is there is a certain resistance among many women to talk about the issue freely. They see it as very private. We have to tell them it's also a public health problem, which damages society, and they can talk about it because they are not alone. Four out of 10 women have been victims of violence at some point on a national level." [67]

[edit] Ethnicity - Impact on National Cultural Identity

Despite the ethnic diversity of Lima and issues of inequality, there still remains "Peruvians maintain a very strong sense of national identity supported by a series of common characteristics such as language, religion, food, and music. Spanish and Catholicism have historically provided a zealous sense of national belonging and cultural identity.[68]

Many Limenos, how people of Lima refer to themselves, are Roman Catholic giving the city a traditional feeling. It is traditional for people of Lima to attend religious ceremony’s such as El Senor de los Milagros, Santa Rosa de Lima and San Martin de Porres. The lower class definitely question the church and its position.

[edit] Education

Lima has the highest rate of post secondary learning in the continent of South America. It is the home of the oldest university of the new world, San Marcos University. Most citizens of Lima are well educated people, and the majority of children attend grade school. Even though they are encouraged to attend high school, "either lack of money or the need for a child's labor at home persuades many lower-class families to keep their children from attending public schools"[69] "Even though many people are educated, illiteracy rates are still rather high. Only around 33% of student who attend elementary school, move on to secondary education. Lima has many prestige universities, colleges and private universities, reasoning behind being the most educated city in South America."[70] . Improvement in education is still needed in Lima as the elite class is are privileged to a proper education with many attending private schools and universities.

People of Lima
People of Lima



"Cultural geography, also known as human geography, covers a wide swath of human interaction with the land. Cultural geography includes language, religion, medicine, cities, economics, entertainment, and much more[72].”

[edit] Culture

“To understand South American culture one must know about the geography and history of Lima, and the events that came about with the meeting of two worlds, an event that gave birth to the Peruvian nation.[73]” The entire city of Lima is located on the coast. “The province of Lima goes beyond the metropolis. Its southern districts tend to be resorts of deserted beaches that are very popular in the summer, therefore that have plenty of green areas, country houses, rural restaurants, luxurious condos and Recreation Clubs. The motorways that run through the Andes, cross very high mountain passes, the most famous being the Ticlio or Abra de Anticona, a pass you have to take to get to the valleys of the central range and even the high central jungle. In 8 hours on the Carretera Central or PE-22, you can cross the whole Andes range and get to the central jungle with its mountain rain forests.[74]

As discussed in the Social Geography section, there are various ethnic and racial groups in Lima with each being an influence the culture of Lima. For example, “although the Inca civilization was oppressed, the Flag of Peru and the Inca Flag are often used in parallel” [75]

As Fouberg states, “dominant cultural beliefs, norms and values are reflected in the cultural landscape” (Fouberg 2012, p. 218). The Spanish cultural influence can be seen in the architecture of mansions, churches, and palaces. Blacker, 2013 describes “devotion to the Catholic doctrine, introduced by the Spanish, means there is a Baroque-Renaissnace, or Rococo-inspired churches and cathedrals. [40] Spanish culture is also evident during the bullfighting season, which convent on almost every street corner.” which starts in late October and runs through to December. [40]

The area of Lima known as Barrio Chino is one of the earliest known “Chinatowns.” Chinese immigrants “fiercely guard their cultural identity and traditions.” [40] They opened many small businesses and Chinese restaurants called chifas. [40] Maintaining their culture, "having their own neighbourhood enables members of a local culture in an urban area to set themselves apart" (Fouberg, 2012, p. 8). [21]

Miraflores is both a commercial and cultural hub. This area is the“address of Lima’s upper echelons.” [40] There are theaters, art galleries, restaurants, cinemas, clubs, and shops. Also highlighted here are the ancient adobe pyramids. Miraflores is also the centre of tourism for Lima. [40]

[edit] Media

Peru has a variety of different media sources, like Canada. They have television, which is usually available to the middle and upper class people, newspapers, magazines, and Internet, much like North America and other parts of the world. [76]Peru’s oldest newspaper, El Peruano, was founded in 1885. Much like the rest of the world, have their own television networks, and shows. Magazines and Internet are the same as everywhere else; they cover gossip, economics, up to date news and any other media, that is available and connected to the rest of the world. [77]

[edit] Entertainment

Besides the traditional sightseeing in Peru, there are a number of cultural activities that the people of Lima may do. They may go paragliding near the southern shores of Lima. There are bike lanes in Lima that run about 5 miles allowing people to see the city by bike. Skateboarding is very popular in Lima with a number of parks found in the city. The people of Lima enjoy going to the beach to play pick up sports such as volleyball or soccer. The beach is also a place where locals can be seen surfing. “In the center of Miraflores, in the center of the tall multi-story apartment buildings, in the center of what looks like any other neighborhood in Lima, is the Huaca Pucllana pyramid. This ancient pyramid, which dates back to about 400 AD is built of thousands and thousands of adobe bricks and was only recently unearthed. In fact, they are still excavating the site and don’t plan to have the entire excavation finished for at least another 20 years. Before it’s unearthing in the late 1980’s the people of Lima used to picnic on top of and ride motorbikes across the top of this hidden ancient site. Today, there is a small entrance fee and guided tours of the pyramid in both English and Spanish.[78]”. Finally, casinos for entertainment and gambling are very popular among the locals and tourists.

Water-place for recreation in Lima
Water-place for recreation in Lima

[edit] Religion

The first religion of Lima was that of the Inca; however, this ancient religion is very rarely practiced in modern day Lima as it was replaced in the 1500's by Catholicism. Even though it is not practiced there is still a great respect for the Inca religion. According to Article 50 of the constitution "within an independent and autonomous system, the government recognizes the Catholic Church as an important element in the historical, cultural and moral formation of Peru and lends it its cooperation. The government respects other denominations and may establish forms of cooperation with them." [79]

Catholic Church in Lima
Catholic Church in Lima


[edit] Economics

“Walk down Calle Gamarra in Lima’s La Victoria district and you might imagine you are in Kowloon. For a dozen blocks, Gamarra and its side streets are packed with multitudes and lined by high-rise buildings, the older ones of rough and ready brick, the newer ones of glass. At ground level every square meter is occupied by shops and galleries selling clothes. The buildings above are an anarchic mixture of offices and workshops[81]” It is unclear how much is taken in the clothing sector each year as many businesses are not registered is estimated at 1.3 to 3 billion a year. However this business is booming and the economy is increasing however, housing has doubled in price with people’s credit growing. The education system is also very weak in Lima compared to the standards. “[82]Even the more sober among analysts reckon that, barring accidents, the country should be able to grow by between 4% and 5% a year for the next five years, more than most of Latin America. Even so, it will take clear heads and strong wills to prevent the party getting out of hand.[83]



Lima Peru is a coastal city that has undergone a major population shift since the late 1930's. Originally inhabited by the Incas in the 1500's, Spanish rule, European influence, and migration to Lima over decades has now created a multicultural city inhabiting a number of nationalities. Lima’s historical and cultural architecture attracts tourists from around the world to the wealthiest part of Lima. There is, however, a most distinct difference between the people of Lima in terms of class. There is quite a difference between the upper and lower with little in the middle affecting the rights to health care, education, language and religion. Poor political management and government policy has left the population in a crisis. Migration to Lima was uncontrolled, and housing policy "highly irresponsible leading to spontaneous shantytowns."[27] “Much greater coordination is necessary.”[27] Globalization has had a positive impact economically on Lima, opening new markets and increasing trade opportunities. Conversely, globalization has had a negative impact on the largest population, the poor, and the place they live (Fouberg, 2012, p. 8).[21] “Major public programs are required at every social level and infrastructure investment and planning for future re-structuring and growth of the city to improve living conditions.” [27]

[edit] Notes and Reference

  2. Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  3. Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  5. Limaeasy
  6. Limaeasy
  7. Brown, Denise. (2008) Marginalization and Segregation in Lima, Peru: A Comparative Analysis
  8. Brown, Denise. (2008) Marginalization and Segregation in Lima, Peru: A Comparative Analysis
  9. Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  10. Termine, Dominic.
  11. Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada
  12. Bethani, 2013
  13. Gustavo, Riofrío. The case of Lima, Peru.
  14. Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  16. Gustavo, Riofrío. The case of Lima, Peru.
  17. Wielki, Jeff. The Development of Barriadas & Access to Medical Services in Lima, Peru
  21. 21.00 21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  22. Lima,retrieved from
  23. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil Sociodemográfico del Perú pp. 29–30, 32, 34. Retrieved from
  24. Toronto, Ontario - Census
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 Riofrio, G.,The Case of Lima Peru, Retrieved From
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.8 Lima - Mega City, Mega Problems Retrieved 9 November, 2014 From
  30. (Riofrio, 1978,as sited in
  32. Robinson, D. Updated 10-2013 retrieved from
  34. WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheet - 2004 Update, Retrieved from,d.aWw
  37. WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheet - 2004 Update, Retrieved from,d.aWw
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 Blacker, M. (2014). Peru Eyewitness Travel.New York: Dorling Kindersley Ltd.
  41. War of The Pacific, Retrieved From
  42. Treaty of Ancon, Retrieved From
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 44.6 44.7
  45. Facts and Figures About Lima, Retrieved From
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 Lima - Average Monthly Salary, Retrieved from
  47. Youth Affordability Index, Retrieved from!affordability-index/c1y19
  48. 48.0 48.1 Termine, D., (06-2014), Medlife in Lima Peru - Service Learning and Community Service, Ohio State University, Retrieved from here
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 Peru Migration Profile, Retrieved From
  51. Lima Apologizes to Afro-Peruvians for Abuses, Retrieved from Associated Press. November 29, 2009
  52. June 2013)
  55. 55.0 55.1 International Organization for Migration, Retrieved From
  56. 56.0 56.1
  57. Fouberg,E.,Murphy, A.,De Blij, H.,& Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition . Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  58. Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition . Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  63. Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., De Blij, H., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture Canadian Edition . Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada
  76. Insert footnote text here
  79. society/a/Religion
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