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Hi Connor and Stephen (I'm a little concerned because I haven't heard from Stephen - I've sent possible edits to him, but have not heard a response. I also haven't heard any feedback from him on other sections)

Connor - I still have to look at the rest of your section on culture - I skipped ahead to the conclusion. I have concerns about your last statement which reads as follows:

However, people of Lima appear to be happy enjoying the many outdoor opportunities available to them such as surfing, biking, beach sports, sightseeing of ancient ruins, art, market and the many casinos. As many countries have gone through economic changes in the last few years, Lima seems to have survived the worst and is using its many assets to work through its downfalls.

From what I've researched, these are things that only the wealthy and the tourists enjoy. If you read this article from the University of Ohio, the largest population is the poor and there are still real problems - and only the wealth are happy, and they really haven't survived....... I would suggest the following for the conclusion. Let me know what you think. It ties in all the categories and I think, paints a concluding summary of what we've said overall and ties into Fouberg (Place, Landscape, Region, Movement)

It does incorporate much of what you originally said - with adjustments - Again, I'm open if you disagree, let me know

SUGGESTED CONCLUSION REVISION FOR CONSIDERATION Lima Peru is a coastal city that has undergone a major population shift since the late 1930's. Originally inhabited by the Incas in the 1500's, Spanish rule, European influence, and migration to Lima over decades has now created a multicultural city inhabiting a number of nationalities. Lima’s historical and cultural architecture attracts tourists from around the world to the wealthiest part of Lima. There is, however, a most distinct difference between the people of Lima in terms of class. There is quite a difference between the upper and lower with little in the middle affecting the rights to health care, education, language and religion. Poor political management and government policy has left the population in a crisis. Migration to Lima was uncontrolled, and housing policy highly irresponsible leading to spontaneous shantytowns. [1] “Much greater coordination is necessary.” [2] Globalization has had a positive impact economically on Lima, opening new markets and increasing trade opportunities, but on the other hand, has had a negative impact on the largest population, the poor, and the place they live (Fouberg, 2012, p. 8). “Major public programs are required at every social level and infrastructure investment and planning for future re-structuring and growth of the city to improve living conditions.” [3] Stephen - what are your thoughts?


Connor After the Culture title Line 2 of this paragraph there is a quotation mark in the wrong spot – and there is a period missing Line 4 reads “ ........therefore that have.....” - grammatically, I think you can remove the word “therefore” The quotation mark after the word “rainforests” seems to be misplaced Line 10 – the period after country seems misplaced – should be before your reference number Line 7 – I am confused as to why you are saying that Lima is not very multi-cultural. Perhaps you could rephrase this: As discussed in the Social Geography section, there are various ethnic and racial groups in Lima. Each influences the culture of Lima. For example, “although the Inca civilization was oppressed, the Flag of Peru and the Inca Flag are often used in parallel” Then maybe tie in something about tourism and the Inca Pyramid ruins? Fouberg states, “dominant cultural beliefs, norms and values are reflected in the cultural landscape” (Fouberg 2012, p. 218). The Spanish cultural influence can be seen in the architecture of mansions, churches, and palaces. Blacker, 2013 describes “devotion to the Catholic doctrine, introduced by the Spanish, means there is a Baroque-Renaissnace, or Rococo-inspired church or convent on almost every street corner.”

Then maybe talk about China Town and the Afro-Peruvian Culture (perhaps this is music) Afro-Peruvian culture? Music

I apologize, I’m a bit confused by the rest of the paragraph you have here. I’m having trouble with the flow, how your quotes string together, and how it ties into culture and then back to what we learned in Fouberg.

Sorry Connor. I’ll finish working through media, religion, entertainment, and economics later tonight.

Hi Stephen - Could you confirm that you received my feedback on Globalization.

In terms of the section on Political Geography -

I like what you have so far, but I’m concerned that it isn’t enough. I wonder if you should/could take the spatiality of governance a step further (beyond local) to the presidential problems that have impacted Lima and help from the world bank at an international level. Following are some rough thoughts and the websites I got info from.

Lima’s economy is growing, but the political challenges of 49 different districts (at a local level) along with political scandal and corruption at the presidential level for the last 20 years has left Lima vulnerable and struggling. Fouberg states that political power refers to the ability to influence others to achieve your goals. This, combined with economic might, aids the country’s diplomatic efforts.” (p.69)

1985-1990 Garcia left Peru in economic ruin

1995-2000 Fujimori – Supreme court found guilty of human rights abuses

2001 – Toledo – a series of scandals, corruption and political mis-steps

2006 – Garcia – oil corruption scandal

2011 – Humala –

This political controversy has created a paradox. A city with a growing economy, but filled with poverty, overcrowding and the gap between the rich and the poor is still a huge issue.

“With help of the World Bank, the government has drawn up a new anti-poverty strategy. Ìvan Hidalgo, the official in charge, accepts that a lack of good managers, especially in local governments, is hindering this effort.”

For your consideration



I made a couple of small edits in Social Geography – I bulleted the timeline and moved up the opening line to the next paragraph to reflect “current” on the timeline. I just realized this may have gotten mixed up a bit. I also made it so that your titles will show up in the “Table of Contents” by adding three equal signs to either side of your titles. I shouldn’t have just changed this....I should have had you change this – I apologize – I got ahead of myself.

In terms of other feedback, 1. For the Changing Landscape section, I think the first sentence should read something like “There is evidence of how the changing Social Geography has impacted 2. Consider changing the title for the last section to: Ethnicity – Impact on National Cultural Identity (just so people don’t think we should have put this in the section on culture 3. I think your opening line to lead into this paragraph should be; Despite the ethnic diversity of Lima and issues of inequality........”Peruvians......” 4. I think Education should be a separate title and paragraph. As I read this paragraph, I’m having trouble understanding it and how it ties into Social Geography. You need to tie this into Social Geography – for example, why do some finish and not others? Does education tie into class, and therefore, influence who has power. 5. Great job revising the sections, but I would suugest having each section tie directly into what we learned in Fouberg 6. Need a conclusion, take a look at Stephen’s on globalization – it really ties everything together into what we’ve learned from Fouberg. Just an idea to help get you started: Fouberg discusses the idea of “intersectionality” – “the complex connections and relationships that exist between those various social categories......How we understand others depends on the intersection of race, class, gender, and age, among other factors”(Fouberg, 2012, p.191). In terms of Lima, the “intersection” of class and ethnicity reveals .........(Connor this would be for you to come up with – what are your overall conclusions).

Stephen - the Globalization section looks really good. I would suggest the following edits:

1. Consider using the word "section" instead of "chapter" - this is just a suggestion. If it is more appropriate to use the word "chapter" in WIKI - then, of course leave this alone. I used the word section so I think we need to use the same term throughout the document. let me know your thoughts.

2. Paragraph 3 Line 3 - grammatically - I think you can remove the word "however"

3. Paragraph 3 Line 4 - need a comma before the word "while"

3. Paragraph 3 Line 7 - consider changing to "after reading Lima's...." (adding the possessive "Lima's"

4. In the sentence that follows in Line 7 and 8 that reads -

The U.S. having been given protection for foreign direct investment and creating an agreement that clearly benefits one of the core global economies.

I would suggest the following change to make it flow better grammatically

"For example, the U.S. have been given protection for foreign direct investment, which creates an agreement that clearly benefits this core global economy" (So adding, "for example", "which creates" and "this")

5. In the last sentence in Paragraph 3 - need a comma after the word "investment"

6. Paragraph 4 - Line 4 add a comma after the word "states" and take out the word "that" - so instead of "that these" - it would read "As Brown 2009 states, these....."

7. Paragraph 5 - Line 4 should we add the long form to NGO - (this rule of thumb is, the first time you use and acronym use the long form with the short form in brackets - after that you can use the short form on its own)

Also, need to add an "s" to goal.

Let me know if you have any questions on these. I'm now going to read through your next section. I'm looking forward to any feedback you have on my sections (Population and Migration).


[edit] WIKI GROUP ASSIGNMENT - PROJECT MANAGEMENT SCHEDULE Linda Kalmikov, Stephen Lazich, Connor MacTaggart


Oct. 27 ALL Assign Chapters/Project Sections to each Group Member
Oct. 27 ALL Set Dates for completion
Dec. 3-8 Linda Editing
Dec. 8-9 ALL Final Review
Nov. 12 ALL Group Check-In/Discussion/Questions/Feedback
Nov. 19 Stephen Globalization (Chapter 2)
Nov. 26 Stephen Political Geography (Chapter 3)
Nov. 19 Linda Population (Chapter 4)
Nov. 26 Linda Migration (Chapter 5)
Nov. 19 Connor Social Geography (Chapter 6)
Nov. 26 Connor Cultural Geography (Chapter 7)
Nov. 27 ALL Group Check-In/Discussion/Questions/Feedback
Dec. 3 Connor CONCLUSION

Hi Connor

I've read through the section on Social Geography, and I have a couple of concerns. Although you've done a great job describing the history, I'm concerned that this overshadows the key components that we learned about and need to talk about in terms of ethnicity, race (and discrimination issues), gender issues, and how this impacts the sense of place for those in Lima as well as the changing landscape.

I've drafted some thoughts (and have used some of your points) for you to review. Once you read it, please provide feedback as to whether you agree. This is in no way a finished product - if you like and and think it is appropriate to use, you will have to elaborate, put in your own words, and reference properly (I have only provided the links).

Following are my ideas (incorporating some of yours).

“Social Geography” is the interactions and relationships we have with others around us” [26]. This interaction is important to understand how people become grouped together or organized in a certain area or space. “It is the relationship between the spatial and the social with a particular focus on contemporary issues of gender, race, class, ethnicity and sexuality”[27]. (Connor this paragraph was yours)

Social Geography of Lima

Lima accounts for about one fourth of the total population of Peru, it has come together form a large concentration of people, capital, political influence and social innovations. The following brief historical timeline is provided to assist with describing the ethnicity of Lima, the changing landscape, and issues of class and discrimination. Pre-1535 Inca Civilization 1535 – Spanish Rule (Francisco Pizarro), brought over the first African slaves, -Spanish was forced on the indigenous people 1687 – Lima Walls built to protect against attack 1821-1824 – Lima established independence from Spain 1870 – Lima Wall dismanteled 1874 – African Slavery abolished and Chinese immigration as contract workers

Ethnicity and Class It difficult to determine what a true person from Lima is; however, ( there are four major ethnic groups.

There is definitely a divide in the current class in Lima as there is a distinct difference between the white elite and the other ethnic backgrounds and mixtures. “Whites occupy the highest rung of the ladder while the rest of the population clings to the lowest part depending on their skin color and implied cultural status. Class also plays a significant role in the social structure, superimposing itself upon the skewed racial hierarchy of the country. Not surprisingly, whites tend to occupy the highest positions in the country and also possess the greatest amount of schooling.“ Read more:

In Lima, like many other countries, health care comes with class. Higher class citizens can afford the best health care, as lower class citizens receive basic, or no health care. There are around 200 hospitals in the metropolitan area, with only 2 doctors per 1000 citizens. For the most part, the unhealthy living conditions have led to many outbreaks in the country such as cholera. Also, tuberculosis is a big problem in this part of Peru. (Connor - this paragraph was yours)

“Indians above all have faced five centuries of ethnically discriminatory and genocidal practices against its population. Even after independence their general treatment was not radically different. Indians are still portrayed as backwards and inferior and perform the hardest and less remunerative forms of labor. Afro-Peruvians also have suffered the brunt of racial and cultural discrimination since their emancipation in 1854. Through the lack of opportunities to improve their social situations, most Afro-Peruvians have been limited to rural work or domestic work.” Read more:

The Changing Landscape

There is evidence of a changing landscape in Lima. “The pre-Hispanic tradition represents all those indigenous architectural traits existing in the territory before the Spanish conquest” Under Spanish rule, much of this was destroyed and replaced with colonial architecture and Catholic cathedrals. “This colonial architecture brought with it many of the styles in vogue in the European courts of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, including that of the Baroque.” The current architecture of Lima is strongly influenced by the Spanish colonizers however, “modernist tradition has become popular and new construction is much more architecturally modern.”

Gender Issues

International Women’s Day was held in Lima Peru in March of 2013. (Perhaps you can elaborate on this)

National Cultural Identity

"Peruvians maintain a very strong sense of national identity supported by a series of common characteristics such as language, religion, food, and music. Spanish and Catholicism have historically provided a zealous sense of national belonging and cultural identity."

Many Limenos the name that Lima’s refer to them selves are Roman Catholic giving the city a traditional feeling. It is traditional for people of lima to attend religious ceremony’s such as El Senor de los Milagros, Santa Rosa de Lima and San Martin de Porres. The lower class definitely question the church and its position. (Connor this paragraph and the next were yours)

Lima has the highest rate of post secondary learning in the continent of South America. It is the home of the older university of the new world, San Marcos University. Most citizens of Lima are well educated people, and the majority of children attend school. Even though many people are educated, illiteracy rates are still rather high. Only around 33% of student who attend elementary school, move on to secondary education. Lima has many prestige universities, colleges and private universities, reasoning behind being the most educated city in South America.

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