Sydney

From Intro to Human Geography 2014

Jump to: navigation, search

Chris Mandzy -- Katie McGinnes -- Sydney Stavina -- Tommy Schram

Image:Sydney-Australia-5-672x372.jpg

Contents

[edit] Introduction

Key Facts:[1]

Geographical area: 12,144.50 sq. km

Total population: 4,575,532

Percentage of total national population living in the city: 20.5%

Education level – percentage with degree level or higher: 35%

GDP per capita in 2008 (PPP): US$48,900

Percentage creative industries employment: 5.3%

Image:80077pi.jpg [2]

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. [3] New South Wales is Australia’s oldest and most populated state. It was originally settled as a penal colony on the shores of Port Jackson where the bustling capital city of Sydney now stands. More than a third of Australians live in New South Wales, and Sydney is the nation’s largest city.[4]. The local area is made up of many diverse communities – people from a wide variety of cultural and socio-economic backgrounds. It is home to many tourist events that are well-known across all of Australia.[5] Sydney is a vibrant, cosmopolitan city with a diverse population featuring a rich history. [6].

Sydney’s cultural life is a blend of the formal and iconic, represented by its major cultural institutions and the informal, sometimes gritty and challenging activities of its artists and creative communities. Its natural beauty and climate shape Sydney’s thriving, distinctive and sometimes surprising cultural life.[7]

Aboriginal peoples have always lived in Sydney . The original Aboriginal inhabitants of the City of Sydney local area are the Gadigal people. The territory of the Gadi (gal) people stretched along the southern side of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) from South Head to around what is now known as Petersham. Their southern boundary is unclear.[8]

[edit] Globalization

Almost 75% of the Australian population live in 17 major cities with populations over 100,000, and over 50% live in five cities with populations of over one million: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane,Adelaide and Perth [9]. For 15 years, Australia has grown at an average 3.7 percent clip without any sign of recession. The stock market is up 37 percent this year. The boom has slashed unemployment, doubled the country's wealth, and taken care of all but pocket change on its debt [10]. The success has bolstered the political fortunes of Prime Minister John Howard, who just marked 10 years in power. Few countries have better leveraged globalization than Australia, transforming a once isolated market into one that's taking full advantage of Asia's, and particularly China's, dynamism [11]. Sydney is one of the world’s most green, global and connected cities. As Australia’s leading global city and the gateway to Asia, Sydney is the destination of choice for international corporations, business leaders, tourists and students.[12] Sydney provides headquarters for almost 40% of the top 500 Australian corporations. Digital, financial, educational and creative businesses are all thriving in Sydney. [13]


[edit] Economy

Sydney is Australia's financial, commercial, shipping, and industrial capital. Sydney primarily has a service economy, fueled by government, commerce, retailing, transport, entertainment, finance, and tourism. Oil refining is another major industry in the region. About half of Sydney's work force is employed in manufacturing. [14]

Sydney is recognized as Australia's only global city and th eliding knowledge-based economy in the nation [15]. More than $100 billion is generated each year within the local area of Sydney representing over 7% of Australia's economy and providing over 437,000 jobs across all skills levels that offer diverse opportunities for diverse communities [16]. The local workforce grew 13.6% – an extra 52,306 workers – and the number of businesses grew 10.5% despite the onset of the global financial crisis in late 2007[17].

[edit] Trade/Imports and Exports

Australia was ranked 19th for imports and exports in the world in 2010. As a member of numerous organisations such as APEC, the G20, WTO and OECD, Australia has multiple free trade agreements with numerous countries such as the US, Singapore, Chile and Thailand [18]. In 2009, china became Australia's largest export market. China is also Australia's largest source of imports. These major imports include clothing, communications equipment, computers, toys, sporting goods, and furniture and televisions[19].

Importance of trade
Importance of trade
[20]

Total value of exports: US$210.7 billion

Primary exports - commodities: coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment

Primary exports partners: China (21.81 percent), Japan (19.19 percent), South Korea (7.88 percent), India (7.51 percent), US (4.95 percent), UK (4.37 percent), NZ (4.1 percent) [21]

Total value of imports: US$200.4 billion

Primary imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products

Primary imports partners: China (17.94 percent), US (11.26 percent), Japan (8.36 percent), Thailand (5.81 percent), Singapore (5.54 percent), Germany (5.3 percent) [22]

[edit] Political Geography

Political Geography is "concerned with how the character of political spaces affect social, political, economic, and environmental understandings and practices."[1] For years Sydney has segregated itself in Australia forming their own boundaries and territories within. Not that these boundaries cannot be accessed but to create a more unique experience in the city. Sydney consists of a "vibrant, diverse and inclusive community" which "offers a variety of multicultural programs."[2] This mindset allows Sydney to give off a very accepting feeling to outside cities, states and countries. Image:communities.jpg[3]

Sydney is located in New South Wales and nestled in closely to the ocean on the border of Australia. Neighbouring territories are "Queensland, Northern Territory, South Australia, and Victoria."[4] Although all of these territories are separated, they are all very similar in their political aspect. These territories are simply separated by roads and forests because of how United the country is. The geometric boundaries between Australia and other countries runs through the Indian and Pacific Oceans separating it from India and China. Image:Map_of_Australia.png[5]


Although Sydney is not its own nation, it can be argued that the cultural attributes that they possess gives them a sense of a nation. Sydney is the most well known city in Australia and the festivals, events and villages that can be experienced there attribute to the feeling of being a nation. There is no specific languages or ethnicity in Sydney, however everyone is accepted there. Sydney, although only a city, could be characterized as a "nation-state" theoretically but not literally. The people of Sydney see themselves as one. The position of Sydney within Australia is very important and remains of significant importance in the country. It serves as a great model city within a generally accepted country to the world.

Sydney has created such a dynamic and intriguing city through centripetal forces including their government, ways of life and their heritage. Everyone within the city is on the same page with the general feeling of the city and with the festivities that occur there. There are very few centrifugal forces in Sydney because of how long they have remained unified as a single, strong city. Centrifugal forces can interrupt a cities progress and although there may not be a complete absence of these forces in Sydney, there are enough centrifugal forces to outweigh the negativities.

The structure of the government in Sydney falls under the New South Wales government which operates a under a democracy. There is a "separation of power between The Executive government, The Legislature (Parliament) and The Judiciary (The Courts)"[6]. The Parliament is a very important part of the government who is responsible for the creation of bills that are passed along to be accepted. This style of government has been within Sydney for years now and has been successful since it was implemented. The democracy government in Sydney has been dominant and elected by the people which creates a great sense of community in the city. With everyone on the same page, the government can easily please the population and it limits the problems within the community.

[edit] Social Geography

[edit] Ethnicity

The principal countries of birth of Greater Sydney’s residents by a survey completed in 2011. The Aboriginal population made up around 2% of the population. [23] Australia (59.9%) England (3.5%) China (3.4%) India (2.0%) New Zealand (1.9%) Vietnam (1.6%)

The top responses of ancestry of a survey completed in 2011. English ancestry made up for 20.4% of the population, Australian made up 20.4%, Irish made up 6.6%, Chinese made up 6.5%, and Scottish made up 5.0%. These 6 ancestries are the most common in Sydney. [24] Sydney is also home to the "'Racism. It stops with me" campaign. This campaign acts as a catalyst for change of racism and discrimination in Sydney. [25] Australia is one of the most multicultural places in the world, therefore supports such a campaign. 1 in 7 Australians say to have been discriminated against because of their skin color or background. "Racism. It stops with me" is supported by government and non-government agencies and is led by the Australian Human Rights Commission. [26] The Cultural Diversity Strategy which was developed in 2008 has interests in celebrating and valuing diversity, encourages participation and access, responsive services and support, embraces an inclusive Council, reaches for leadership and advocacy, and to sustain the global city.The program has been translated into Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Russian and Thai. [27]

[28]

[edit] Sexuality and Space

Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras

The SGLMG organization aims to raise the visibility of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex communities through providing the opportunity for LGBTQI individuals and groups to use the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras as a statement of pride and to promote a broader message of diversity and acceptance, anchoring the Parade in a broader program of cultural and social activities for the enjoyment of local audiences and to attract visitors to Sydney, providing resources and opportunities to the community for creative and political expression, embracing individuals and groups from the broader community who share a common communal vision, and constantly improving creativity and production values on their events. [29] Events like the SGLMG make Sydney not gendered, and accepting of everyone, no matter their sexuality. [30]

[edit] Age

The median age of Sydney, Australia is 36 years old. The median age of people in Greater Sydney (Greater Capital City Statistical Areas) was 36 years. Children aged 0 - 14 years made up 19.2% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 12.9% of the population. [31]

Population of Greater Sydney, 2011
Population of Greater Sydney, 2011

Children

There are over 22 schools for children in Sydney, Australia. With around 15 public schools and 7 non-government schools. [32] The city of Sydney offers many services such as Services for school-aged children such as primary schools (public and non-government), high school (public and non-government), Out of school hours (OOSH) care, and recreation activities and programs. They also offer services for families with children such as playgroups, early childhood and community health centers, children with special needs, and aid to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families. [33]

Young Adults

The city of Sydney helps out youth between the ages of 12-24 meet people, become socialized, and get involved. The programs are designed to help youth get their drivers license, get a job, or write a resume. Other Youth programs in Erskineville, Glebe, Millers Point, Pyrmont, Redfern and Woolloomooloo provide a cool space to hang out and have fun. The City of Sydney runs a Youth Week [34] where they complete such activities like weekday drop-in during school term, sports programs and competitions, internet access and PlayStation, arts and crafts, cooking programs, music and dance, life skills, and vocational courses. [35] Syndey being the one of the most multicultural places in the world, it started a youth program called “What’s In Your Name”. [36] This program encourages youth to share and embrace the story of their name, race, religion, and culture.

Older Adults

The community of Sydney also offer adult services that encourage adults to live a healthy and active lifestyle up to and beyond retirement. They have specific programs in exercise and fitness, education and learning, music and dance, and arts and culture. [37] There is also programs which offer podiatry and computer classes. Home and Community Care (HACC) of Australia offers services in parts of Sydney like food delivery, social support, community nursing, and transportation services. [38]

[edit] Gender

The population of Sydney is approximately 4,391,674 (as measured in 2011). Of this population, there was 2,162,221 males (49.2%) and 2,229,453 (50.8%) were females. Gender equality in Sydney is very important. The Australian Government [39] has a section on their website specifically directed towards gender equality titling “Workplace Gender Equality Agency”. The website is research based and focuses on gender equality, equal opportunity, labour markets, flexible work and flexible careers, women in leadership, paid parental leave, child care and caring, and the business case for gender diversity. [40]

[edit] Vulnerable Populations

Homelessness

In February 2010, there were approximately 888 people who were considered “homeless” in the City of Sydney. Sydney has many programs and working with government agencies and non-profit philanthropic organizations and the corporate sector, the City aims to facilitate rough sleepers out of homelessness, prevent people from becoming homeless in the inner-city, help avoid homelessness in other regions, make sure those who do become homeless are assisted out of homelessness quickly, and also enact a compassionate and proactive approach to the management of public space. [41] Programs such as the “Homelessness Brokerage Program” tries to help people before they become homeless by providing transportation services and short term accommodation. The Woolloomooloo Integrated Services Hub (WISH) also provides similar services to help prevent people from becoming homeless and working on their pathway out of it. The City also works closely with many other organizations such as Neami, [42] Connect 100, [43] Inner City Sydney Homelessness Prevention and Support Service for Young People, [44] 90 Homes for 90 Lives, and the [45] Complex Need Coordination Project. [46] The City also holds Homelessness Interagency meetings which aim to attract volunteers from other parts of Australia to speak about related topics and network with each other. Their last check in August of 2014, there were only 717 [47] reported cases of homelessness in Sydney. Sydney’s goal is to have no homelessness by 2017. [48]

[edit] Cultural Geography

[edit] Cultural Landscape

Cultural landscape is defined as when culture becomes visible in a city or countries landscape due to human activity [49]. Sydney is split up into two suburbs, inner and outer. [50] Inner suburbs are very small and only is 3 kilometers from Sydney Cove. They are made up of lots of transport hubs [51] for busses, boats, and trains. Many inner suburbs are places of culture tourism, and recreation. [52] Many old buildings from the suburbs were destroyed and turned into residential areas in the 2000’s.[53] The inner suburbs had a bed reputation for drug use, but after the renewals and redevelopment, they have been turning into a more residential and commercial area which is very economically stable. The outer suburbs are more attractive to tourists, as there are many places such as Manly, Australia which scored as one of the most popular holiday destinations of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [54] Outer suburbs are also home to large business districts such as Paramatta, [55] making the outer suburbs a site for tourists and businesses. The outer suburbs in the West underwent gentrification [56] which is defines as a common and widespread controversial topic and term in urban planning – the shift involves increasing the wealthier state of residents and properties.

[edit] Language

Approximately 40% of people who live in Sydney speak a non-English language at home. There are over 250 languages that are spoken in Sydney, making it one of the most multi-cultural places in the whole world. The top migrant language in Sydney is Arabic, with 4.8% of the population who speak it. [57] Some other prominent migrant languages are Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Greek, Italian, Filipino, Hindi, Spanish and Korean.[58] In one in five Sydney suburbs, people who speak a non-English language at home outnumber those who speak English at home.
Languages spoken in Sydney, 2011
Languages spoken in Sydney, 2011
English is less common in central Sydney, and gradually becomes more popular the further away from Cabramatta one is. During the 20th century many places, including Australia had policies of assimilation that did not allow indigenous people to speak their respective languages [59]. Australia has many language families [60] which are groups of languages with a shared but fairly distinct origin. Many of the individual languages are spoken by fewer than 10 million people [61].

[edit] Religion

There are many different religions in Sydney as there is many different ethnicities who reside there. 28.3% of the population view themselves as Catholic, 17.6% practice no religion, 16.1% are Anglican, 4.7% are Islamic, 4.2% are Eastern Orthodox, 4.1% are Buddhist, 2.6% are Hindu, and 0.9% are Jewish. [62]. There are also many Aboriginal traditions and history in Sydney. In the 1700’s Aboriginal people of Sydney believed in a spirit called carahdis. [63] This spirit was capable of healing individuals and extract harmful elements from them.

[edit] Local Culture

Local culture is defined as a group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others. [64]

Chinese New Year

In Sydney there are over 500,000 people who gather in the street to celebrate the Chinese New Year and all things Chinese. The New Year takes place in February and normally lasts for around 15 days. The people give out candy, lucky money, wear red clothes, and set off firecrackers. [65] Each year they have a lantern festival with dragon, which can be as long as 30 meters. Some local cultures, such as the Chinese, rely primarily on community celebrations like the lantern festival to maintain their belief systems. The Chinese New Year celebration helps the Chinese population in Sydney are redefining themselves based on interactions with other cultures by having a public parade every year. [66]

Australia Day

Australia day is January 25, 2015. In Sydney, thousands of people gather at the Sydney Harbour and there are celebrations in the water. There are also town breakfasts, beach parties, concerts, sporting events, cultural and historic exhibitions, and fireworks. [67]

Anzac Day

Anzac day is held on the 25th of April every year. Anzac day is held to remember the first major military action fought by Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. There are marches across the country and the citizens gather to pay their respects. [68]

[edit] Popular Culture

Popular culture is defined as cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today’s changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies. [69]

Sydney Festival

This festival begun in 1977 and continues to run every year. It is a rich and diverse program spanning all art forms and including dance, theatre, music, visual arts, film, forums and large-scale free outdoor events. [70] There are over 700 artists in over 30 venues during the festival. There are performances such as burlesque, rap, and Dutch theatre.
Sydney Festival, 2015
Sydney Festival, 2015
[71] This celebration can be mainly recognized as a celebration of Sydney itself. The festival has an international reputation for modern, popular and intelligent programming all while celebrating the culture and diversity of Sydney [72]. This festival is popular culture as each year it incorporates new artists into its repertoire.

Film Festivals

Sydney is also home to many film festivals such as the Mardi Gras Film Festival [73][74], Sydney Film Festival [75][76], Short and Sweet [77][78], and the Flickerfest International Short Film Festival[79][80].

[edit] Folk Culture

Folk culture is defined as cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities. [81]

Gaelic Club

The Gaelic Club of Sydney represents Irish-Australian culture. The club represents entertainment and teaching of Irish music, Irish dance, and learning the Irish language. The National Association of the Irish was formed on July 21, 1915. [82] The club was established in Sydney in 1973 and continues to run today. Respective members get special privileges and discounted admission to events like The Folk Federation [83] featuring Irish artists. The Gaelic Club is a somewhat limiting concept as it requires us to create a lists of traits [11] (220) like only Irish teachings take place at the club and Irish music is listened to there. The Gaelic club takes great pride in their material culture of Irish dance and Setanta sports [84]

[edit] Museums

Australian Museum

The Australian Museum was founded in Sydney in 1857 with the sole purpose to collect and display natural wealth of the colony. It is Australia’s oldest museum. It features collections of vertebrate and invertebrate zoology, as well as mineralogy, palaeontology, and anthropology.[85]

[edit] Population

[edit] Characteristics

The City of Sydney comprises only a small fraction of the larger area that is commonly referred to Metropolitan or Greater Sydney. The Australian Bureau of Statistics provides a population census of 4,672,619 compared to 22,710,352 for the total population of Australia as of 2012.75 To demonstrate the difference in size consider that the population of the City of Sydney is only 187,561 people or 4 percent of the Metropolitan area.76 The usual resident population was 4,391,674 by 2011 census data and is comprised of 49.2 percent male and 50.8 percent female.77 Metropolitan Sydney is a fairly large geographical area with a total land area of approximately 12,367.7 kilometers.78 The overall population density is 377.8 people per square kilometer due to the higher density in certain areas.79

Population Projections
Population Projections

[edit] Population Projections

Sydney is similar to many other developed economies in the fact that it has an aging population. The median age of the population in Sydney has increased over the past five years progressing from 35.7 in 2008 to 36.2 years of age in 2012.80 Over the same five years the working age population has experienced a decrease from 68.8 to 68.3 percent.81 The aging population has become an increasing concern in recent years with an emphasis on maintaining a healthy population replacement rate. Population projections made by the Australia Bureau of Statistics predict Sydney to remain the most populous Sydney is Australia with 6.7 million residents by the year 2051.82

[edit] Economics

Australia is a well-developed economy and Metropolitan Sydney is the largest economic center in the country as its capital. Sydney has one of the largest harbours in the world and is a major shipping route for a number of destinations. Greater Sydney had a Gross Domestic Product of $337.45 Billion in 2013 comprising 22.1 percent of the total GDP for Australia.83 The individual median weekly income in Sydney is slightly higher than the national median at $619 compared to $577.84 Likewise, household median weekly income is $1,447 compared to $1,234 for all of Australia.85

[edit] Labour Force

The most recent labour force statistics were collected by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in the 2011 census. The labour force in Metropolitan Sydney was measured at 2,188,855 or a participation rate of 61.7 percent.86 Of the labour force 125,586 were unemployed at the time for an unemployment rate equal to 5.7 percent.87 The labour force is composed of 52.1 percent males and 47.9 percent females as of 2011, a minor improvement from the census four years prior.88 Average total income for all residents of Sydney improved from $51,389.2 in 2008 to $58,827.6 in 2011.89

[edit] Health

The healthcare system in Australia is provided by both public and private sources of funding and is regarded as among the best in the World. The birth rate in Sydney is among the average for most developed cities with high household incomes. The total fertility rate in Sydney was 1.9 per 1000 population by the most recent publicly available census data in 2012.90 The death rate of citizens in Greater Sydney has declined from 5.8 in 2008 to 5.3 per 1000 population in 2012.91

[edit] Migration

[edit] Net Overseas Migration

The population growth in Sydney is a result of both natural increase and net overseas migration (NOM). The fertility rate in Sydney has contributed to the overall increase but much more of the growth is a product of immigration. More than 64 percent of the population growth in the three years prior to 2009 was a result of net overseas migration.92 Historically, less than half of the population growth was a result of the net overseas migration and the fertility rate had a much more significant impact. The increase in immigration is believed to be a result of better economic incentives and more affordable travel. Net overseas migration is calculated by the number of immigrants arriving less emigrants departing. The largest contribution to net overseas migration is people on temporary visas which accounted for approximately two thirds of net migration from 2007 to 2008.93

Migrants in Sydney by Country
Migrants in Sydney by Country

[edit] Immigration

Metropolitan Sydney attracts a large number of people from different countries around the world. Australia in general is a desirable place to live because of the strong economic, political, and social landscape. The fertility rate in Sydney is not high enough to maintain replacement population levels and therefore nearly all of the population growth is a consequence of immigration. The total percentage of Sydney residents who were born outside of the country measures at 40.1 percent as of 2011 data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.94 The number of citizens who came from overseas is greater than 1.5 million representing nearly every country around the world.95 Immigrants travel to every Australian State but the largest component (more than 30%) settle in New South Wales, in which Sydney is the largest city.96

[edit] Internal migration

Residents of metropolitan Sydney change their address as well as it is a fairly large geographical area. Within the Greater Sydney area the internal migration for persons who lived a different address 1 year ago is 11.6 percent as of the 2011 census data.97 In addition the number of persons who lived at a different address 5 years ago is 27.8 percent as of the same time period.98 In the five year prior to 2009 inner Sydney added 33,000 residents remaining the most densely populated city in Australia with 4,641 people per square kilometer.99


[edit] Notes and References

  1. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc
  2. Home- City of Sydney (2013) Retrieved December 6th, 2014 from cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au
  3. Home- City of Sydney (2013) Retrieved December 6th, 2014 from cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au
  4. Maps of Australia - Map of Australia (1998). Retrieved on December 4th, 2014 from http://www.embassyworld.com/maps/Maps_Of_Australia/images/australia_970.jpg
  5. www.embassyworld.com/maps/Maps_Of_Australia
  6. New South Wales Government - Parliament NSW (2013) Retreieved on December 7th, 2014 from nsw.gov.au

[7] Sydney. (2014, May 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney

[8] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/learn/about-sydney/youve-gotta-love-this-city

[9] 2011 Census QuickStats: Greater Sydney. (2011, January 1). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/1GSYD?opendocument&navpos=220

[10] Learn. (2013). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from https://www.wgea.gov.au/lead/our-research-team

[11] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-support/multicultural-communities/racism-it-stops-with-me

[12] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-support/multicultural-communities/racism-it-stops-with-me

[13] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-support/multicultural-communities/racism-it-stops-with-me

[14] Racism: It Stops With Me 2014. (2014, June 1). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mtw5ZAtbaY

[15] Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras. (2014, January 1). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.mardigras.org.au

[16] 2011 Census QuickStats: Greater Sydney. (2011, January 1). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/1GSYD?opendocument&navpos=220

[17] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-services/children

[18] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-services/children

[19] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-services/young-people/youth-projects

[20] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-support/multicultural-communities

[21] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-services/young-people

[22] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-services/older-adults

[23] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community-services/older-adults/home-support

[24]Learn. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from https://www.wgea.gov.au/lead/our-research-team

[25]Learn. (2014). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from https://www.wgea.gov.au/lead/our-research-team

[26] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[27] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[28] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[29] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[30] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[31] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[32]De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.203), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[33] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[34] City of Sydney - Council - Home. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/community/community- support/homelessness

[35] Our projects. (November 14, 2013). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.shfa.nsw.gov.au/sydney-Our_places_and_projects-Our_projects.htm

[36] University of Sydney. (2014, March 12). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Sydney

[37] Our people. (2014). Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.shfa.nsw.gov.au/sydney-About_us-Our_people.htm

[38] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[39] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[40] About Us. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.sydneyfestival.org.au/2015/about-us

[41] About Us. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.sydneyfestival.org.au/2015/about-us

[42] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[43] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.216), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[44] Sydney. (2014, May 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney

[45] Sydney. (2014, May 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney

[46] Sydney. (2014, May 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney

[47] Sydney. (2014, May 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney

[48] Sydney. (2014, May 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney

[49] Sydney. (2014, May 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney

[50] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.297), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[51] Sydney's melting pot of language. (2014). Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.smh.com.au/data-point/sydney-languages

[52] Sydney's melting pot of language. (2014). Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.smh.com.au/data-point/sydney-languages

[53] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[54] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[55] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[56] Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. (2014). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.shfa.nsw.gov.au/

[57] Carey, H. (2008). Religion. Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/religion

[58] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[59] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[60] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[61] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[62] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[63] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[64] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[65] Sydney Film Festival 2014. (2014). November 27 2014, from http://www.sff.org.au/

[66] Sydney Film Festival 2014. (2014). November 27 2014, from http://www.sff.org.au/

[67] Queer Screen. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://queerscreen.org.au/

[68] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[69] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[70] Sydney Film Festival 2014. (2014). November 27 2014, from http://www.sff.org.au/

[71] Short Sweet. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.shortandsweet.org/

[72] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[73] Australia's Cultural Events. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.australia.com/explore/australian-events/culture-events.aspx

[74] Home - Flickerfest. (2014). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://flickerfest.com.au/

[75] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[76] The Gaelic Club of Sydney. (2013). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.gaelicclub.com.au/

[77] The Gaelic Club of Sydney. (2013). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.gaelicclub.com.au/

[78] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[79] De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.220), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.

[80] Australian Museum. (2014, March 12). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Museum

[81] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[82] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

City of Sydney - Council - Home. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/learn/research-and-statistics/the-city-at-a-glance/metropolitan-sydney

[83] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[84] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[85] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[86] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[87] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[88] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[89] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[90] City of Sydney - Council - Home. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/learn/research-and-statistics/the-city-at-a-glance/metropolitan-sydney

[91] City of Sydney - Council - Home. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/learn/research-and-statistics/the-city-at-a-glance/metropolitan-sydney

[92] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[93] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[94] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[95] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[96] "Greater Sydney: Basic Community Profile". 2011 Census Community Profiles. Australian Bureau of Statistics. March 28, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2014.

[97] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[98] "Greater Sydney: Basic Community Profile". 2011 Census Community Profiles. Australian Bureau of Statistics. March 28, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2014.

[99] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[100] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[101] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[102] "Greater Sydney: Basic Community Profile". 2011 Census Community Profiles. Australian Bureau of Statistics. March 28, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2014.

[103] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[104] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

[105] Australian Bureau of Statistics. ABS Statistics. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://stat.abs.gov.au

Personal tools
Bookmark and Share