Sao Paulo

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[edit] Introduction


Sao Paulo is located in the south-eastern region of Brazil and is the largest city. [3] Sao Paulo is also the largest city in the Americas and southern hemisphere. Sao Paulo is both a state and a city, and the cities population is over eleven million. Sao Paulo is a diverse city filled with many ethnic backgrounds, although more commonly Italian and Portuguese decent. Sao Paulo’s population continues to grow, with growth over a million in the past decade. [4]

Sao Paulo is extremely globalized, with their economy more focused on services and knowledge than other parts of Brazil. Nineteen of the twenty-five major banks in the world are found in Sao Paulo. It is not only the home of these major banks, but is participates in global trade through exporting materials such as oil, sugars, and fruit to other locations, such as China. [5]

Sao Paulo is known for its weather and multitude of rain. [6] Sao Paulo is often compared to New York City and Los Angeles because of its size, and attraction of people. Sao Paulo gains its fame through the people, and multiple cultures embedded in the city. Sao Paulo does not only hold people of Italian and Portuguese decent, but also multiple minority groups, such as Japanese, Lebanese, and Arab communities. [7]

Sao Paulo has much to offer and its popularity comes from its diverse cuisine, museums, beaches, and a dance-like art called capoeira. [8] Sao Paulo, a well known city also was one of the host cities for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. [9]

[edit] Globalization

Globalization is the expansion of economic, political and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. [10] The best examples of Sao Paulo’s globalization are its economy and labour force. Some of the top employers in Sao Paulo include Itaú Unibanco, the tenth largest bank in the world, Grupo Pão de Açúcar, the second largest retailer in Latin America, and Nestle, a well-known company within Western society. [11] In 2011, Sao Paulo’s biggest labour force revolved around servicing, with over half of the working population involved in that field, close to twenty percent involved in industry and fifteen percent involved in commerce/trade. [12] Sao Paulo possesses companies like “Gedalis Import & Export” which were created to “...offer the best alternative in international trade to. ... clients worldwide.”. [13] Sao Paulo’s businesses and companies are linked together, creating products through industry (their second-largest force of labour) and then exporting (their third-largest force of labour) these products through the companies located with Sao Paulo. [14]

In 2009, Sao Paulo’s GDP was approximately $192.2 million American dollars. [15] This, coupled with its economic growth rate of 7.5% in 2010, allowed the city to become the thirteenth largest city in 2012 by GDP. [16] Sao Paulo is known as the finance capital of Latin America, which is shown through no other Latin American (or South American) cities being present on the Global Power City Index. [17] Unemployment rates have been dropping in Sao Paulo since 2003, going from 1.9 million people to 1.1 million in 2011. [18] This is partially to due with Sao Paulo having one of the best research and development structures in Latin America, which has attracted many foreign companies towards Sao Paulo. [19] Along with this, the growing partnerships between universities and internationally renowned laboratories and research centres has allowed for Sao Paulo to become an attractively innovative city. [20]

Sao Paulo is shown to be highly globalized through its economy being "...more knowledge-intensive and services-focused..." than any other parts of Brazil. [21] Nineteen of the world's twenty-five largest banks have headquarters in Brazil, along with dozens of other national and multinational corporations from Latin America. [22] At the same time, Sao Paulo leads in aircraft exports as a "manufacturing powerhouse" and retains an important role in Brazil's commodity economy, exporting oils, sugars, and fruits to foreign markets. [23] All of this leads Sao Paulo contributing to over one third of Brazil's GDP. [24]

While Sao Paulo's globalization leads to benefits such as gaining access to sources of demand and being able to hedge against domestic declines, it also brings an array of costs. Sao Paulo faces critical challenges in order to maintain its "competitive edge" and assert its leadership in the changing Latin American economy. While Sao Paulo is an innovative city from an economic point-of-view, it severely lacks in the departments of urban mobility and industrial development. [25] These important factors in a city have been categorized as less important, to the city of Sao Paulo, than its ability to integrate into the economy of the world. Therefore, Sao Paulo's globalization has allowed the city to benefit from the global market but has also cost the city to ignore other factors that need addressing. [26]

[edit] Political Geography

Political geography is the focus upon the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice within an area. It revolves around why political spaces emerge where they do and how the character of those spaces affects social, political, economic, and environmental understandings and practices. [27] Sao Paulo elects a mayor and city council that serve four-year terms and govern subdivisions of the city. [28]

Brazil's independence was declared in Sao Paulo in 1822 by the Portuguese regent Dom Pedro (later Pedro I). [29] The area began as a small town of 20,000 inhabitants, but slowly grew with the exportation of coffee out of Sao Paulo. Along with this, many other production facilities and companies moved to Sao Paulo and it slowly became the booming city it currently is. [30]

Sao Paulo's mayor and city council members are all voted into office by the citizens. The elections change every two years from mayor to council members. [31] The state government is also located within the city of Sao Paulo, as well as many of the agencies of the federal government. [32]

The state of Sao Paulo has been largely controlled by the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, which has formed the government since 1994. The politics of the cities, especially Sao Paulo, are highly contested positions of power because of the likelihood of them leading to positions of higher politics within the country of Brazil, including president. [33]

[edit] Population


As of 2013, the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil is 11 822 000.[35] Sao Paulo the capital of the most densely populated state in Brazil, is the most densely populated city in all of Brazil and the sixth most densely populated city in the entire world.[36] The population density of Sao Paulo City is approximately 20,105 people per square mile.[37]

Sao Paulo city is considered the most multicultural city in Brazil and also considered the ‘financial capital of Brazil’.[38] Sao Paulo is the primary location where the headquarters of many major corporations and the country’s most renowned banks and financial institutions are located.[39] Many people from other cities of Brazil are moving closer to Sao Paulo or are migrating to Sao Paulo, where the cost of living is much higher.[40] Thus, citizens of Sao Paulo experience may experience a lavish lifestyle.

Demography is the study of the characteristics of a population, such as race, age, sex, and ethnicity.[41] Sao Paulo’s ethnic analysis as of 2010 stated that the population consisted of 60.6% white people, 30.5% brown or mixed individuals, 6.5% black people, 2.2% Asian and 0.2% Amerindian.[42] The most commonly spoken language in Sao Paulo City is Portuguese.[43] The city hosts the largest gay pride parade in the world and also has a strong influence in the arts, entertainment, finance, and commerce.[44]

The literacy rate of the city is higher than the country’s average.[45] About 97% of the population in Sao Paulo who are 10 years of age or older are considered literate. [46] It is also estimated that 66% of the population is considered to be working age, 27% are children and 7% are seniors.[47]

Sao Paulo is home to many different ethnicities and over time migration and immigration has occured to different locations from large ethnic communities and densely populated places where there culture is embedded into the location. A study was conducted by the University of Sao Paulo where students were asked about their ethnical background and their descendants. The study found that 81% of students stated their descendants were of foreign backgrounds.[48] Italian and Portuguese are the most common ethnic group in the city with 30.5% and 23% of the population.[49] It is estimated that by 2025, Sao Paulo will have a population of 10 million more people than Rio, making the population 24 million people.[50]

[edit] Migration

When the geographical theme of movement results in a permanent change of living arrangements this is defined as migration. [51] The major routes of human migration take place in Southern America and those who migrate are commonly from European countries, such as Italy and Portugal. [52] Thus, the main ethnic group found in Sao Paulo are Italians because of the immigration and migration.[53] Sao Paulo has one of the largest immigrant community and it is very ethnically diverse.[54] Most early settlers were of Portugal or Italian descent, therefore that ethnic group makes up most of the population [55].

Migration is the mobility of people from one place to another. In relation to Sao Paulo, more and more people are moving or traveling from the northern states to Sao Paulo. Migration involves movement, which is a key concept that continually changes, as well as, impacts humans and their perception of the world’s different landscapes in which they live. Sao Paulo is a place where cost of living is very pricey as there are many large corporations. Sao Paulo is both a city and a state, and residents of Sao Paulo City are referred to as ‘Paulistanos’, and people who reside outside the city in surrounding areas are referred to as ‘Paulistas’.[56].

Sao Paulo has served as the main focus of Brazil’s industrialization due to its production of coffee, Brazil’s primary source of export crop. [57] This caused Sao Paulo to become a major centre of economic activities with a growing population. Sao Paulo is referred as “pulling the rest of Brazil” because most of the income comes directly from the corporations that are located or have headquarters in Sao Paulo. Migration, both from Europe and internally has led to great expansion and diversification in Sao Paulo.[58]

[edit] Social Geography

Social Geography is the relationship between social relations and the geography in which people live. Social Geography is used to discover the identities ("how we make sense of ourselves") of a population within a certain place, and how they came about. [59]

A population's gender ("social differences between men and women") showcases part of how the different people identify with one another and themselves. [60] Sao Paulo, in the early 1900s, was a largely patriarchal society which has since changed in the last few decades. [61] As the population of women grew and passed the population of men within Sao Paulo, they were given more equality and allowed to work within the labour force, instead of being employed as domestic servants. [62] Despite this, even now there is a wage gap between the two populations, with women in Sao Paulo making roughly 73 percent of what men make working the same job. [63]

The sexuality of a population, like the gender, dictates the Social Geography and how identity works within a population. In 2011, the Supreme Court in Brazil has approved unions for same-sex couples, an action which progressively allows for individuals to identify with each other better. [64] This decision was aided by the previous president, the first leader to launch a press conference solely on the ground of discussing and promoting gay equality. [65] During this conference, anti-gay rights promoters were verbally attacked and looked down upon, which shows how progress with identity for one group of people can cause problems with identity for another. [66]

[edit] Cultural Geography

Culture is defined as a common set of beliefs, norms, and values understood by one specific group. In relation to geography, culture differs from place to place, and is influenced by the place it develops. [67] Sao Paulo is immersed in a very diverse culture. [68]

Sao Paulo's neighbourhoods reflect their diverse culture, and many neighbourhoods have their own entertainment locations. [69]

Due to a lot of ethnic diversity within Sao Paulo, it is known for its array of cuisines. Sao Paulo is filled with Italian, Brazilian, Japanese, Arab, and Chinese restaurants. Brazil's well known good beef is put to use at the multitude of restaurants. Many visit Sao Paulo so they can dine out and experience the cuisine. People from Sao Paulo often eat much later than western cultures. Restaurants do not start serving till about nine or ten pm, and close around three am. [70]

In addition to its food, Sao Paulo has museums and other significant buildings relating to their culture. Sao Paulo's museums are some of the finest in South America.[71]These museums cover a range of categories including art, history, and technology. [72]Sao Paulo's coastline is filled with beautiful beaches [73] with the hot sun, white sand, and palm trees. [74] Sao Paulo's nightlife has attracted some of the best performers in the world.[75] The recreational facilities, as well as their Ballet, Symphony, and Opera's have been called excellent. [76]


In recent years, Sao Paulo's culture has involved the art of capoeira, a dance-like performance to music. This cultural dance involves specific instruments, such as a drum and berimbau. What used to be an art used by slaves, is now a well known and appreciated marital art to the people of Sao Paulo. [78]

[edit] Notes and References

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
  78. Sao Paulo. (n.d.). Retrieved December 9, 2014 from
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