Paris

From Intro to Human Geography 2014

Jump to: navigation, search

Image:Paris-night 2509348b.jpg [1]

[2]

[3]


Contents

[edit] Individuals Working on the City

Krista Gurney User:kg11ig

Raven MatthewsUser:rm10hl

Meghan Banner User:mb11bl

Myles Denomme User:Md06to

[edit] Introduction

Paris is the capital and largest city, in terms of both population and size, in France. Known as "the City of Light", Paris is one of the biggest economical, social and cultural hubs on the planet.

Paris' origins date back over 2000 years, in which it was founded by a Celtic tribe called the Parisii, where the city's name comes from. [4] Since its founding, Paris has expanded throughout the years and experienced multiple historical events, including the French Revolution and both World Wars.


Paris is divided into twenty neighbourhoods (known as arrondissements). [4]

caption: Map of Arrondissments of Paris

Many of the world's top tourist attractions lie within the city, including the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre and Arc de Triomphe. With all the attractions available, Paris was the most visited city in the world in 2013, with over 65 million visiting the city. [4] Another factor that helps the tourism in Paris, is that it is ranked the safest city in the world.[5]

Along with this, Paris is host to many socio-economic and sporting events. Paris holds its fashion weeks in both the Spring, typically March, and Autumn, typically September. This provides the largest, and arguably most important, weeks of the fashion schedule. [4] On the sporting side, the Tour de France and tennis' French Open, one of the major championships, are held in the city. It is, also, home to Paris St. Germain Football Club, of the French soccer league, Ligue 1.

Paris Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur ("Battered, but never sinks")

[edit] Globalization

Globalization is the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in the scale and impact[6]. Paris has been viewed as the center of anti-globalization, perhaps the outcome of a corporate foothold in europe in the wake of destruction after two world wars[7]. A French perspective on globalization was born. For French activists, globalization is mainly linked to financial flows (capital mobility and shareholder “dictatorship”) and to their evils on cultural and national identity, sovereignty, democracy, inequalities, Welfare state, public services, environment, social rights, and human activities[8].


[edit] Economic Globalization

Paris is one of the largest economic centers in the world. Although in terms of population the urban area of Paris is only approximately the 20th largest urban area in the world, its GDP is the sixth-largest in the world [9]. Paris has a large and diverse economy that has not yet adopted a specialization inside the global economy (unlike Los Angeles with the entertainment industry, or London and New York with financial services). Today, it is essentially a service economy, with business and financial services generating nearly half of the Paris region's GDP[10]. Paris is host to more Fortune Global 500 companies than any other city in the world aside from Tokyo, in 2008 a total of 38 grossing a staggering revenue of 1.420 billion US dollars[11]


[edit] Cultural Globalization

Paris has survived sieges, plague, wars, revolution and occupation to become one of the world’s great centres of cultural life. In literature, music, cinema and, perhaps most of all, visual art, the city’s residents have made huge contributions to cultural innovation. As the data shows, Parisians are also great consumers of culture, supporting a wide range of venues. In its post-colonial phase, the city has also become strikingly diverse and multiracial, opening up further possibilities for innovation and mixing[12].

For centuries Paris has been a flourishing European cultural center and a meeting point for artists from all over the world. Today the city's multicultural inheritance can be admired in hundreds of museums, galleries, and churches that grace nearly every part of the city. The spirit of Paris is also cast in the music of local artists and in the architectural splendour that gives the city its luxurious appeal[13].

[edit] Eiffel Tower

When Gustave Eiffel’s company built Paris’ most recognizable monument for the 1889 World’s Fair, many regarded the massive iron structure with skepticism. Today, the Eiffel Tower, which continues to serve an important role in television and radio broadcasts, is considered an architectural wonder and attracts more visitors than any other paid tourist attraction in the world.


[edit] Political Geography

Political Geography focuses on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface. Concerned with why political spaces emerge in the places that they do and with how the character of those spaces effects social, political, economic and environmental understandings and practices[14]. Paris shaped and was shaped by the ideals of its people. Culturally these ideals were seen everywhere in Paris, in the streets, the buildings and even in the layout of the city. As the ideals of the people changed, so too did the city. In Paris, the ideals of the people turned towards a sort of social liberalism. Practices that would have been outright taboo at the beginning of the century were becoming common occurrences, and to add to this, society was becoming more and more money based. Both of these things signaled the change to a modern Paris[15]. Another sign of how evolving Parisian culture was mirrored in the physiognomy of Paris can be seen in the changing of street names in the northwest areas of Paris. Until the end of the 18th century streets were often named for members of the aristocracy. For example, la Rue d'Artois was named for the Comte d'Artois. However, with the overthrow of the monarchy came the throwing away of street titles. With the onset of the revolution members of the aristocracy became less popular and leaders of the Revolution, such as Abbe Cerutti the editor of a revolutionary newspaper, gained prominence in revolutionary Paris[16].

[edit] Population

The capital of France, Paris has a population of 2.34 million people, with the population of the surrounding suburbs to be estimated to be 10.5 million. The biggest landmark in Paris is the Eiffel tower which in 2010 received 7 million visitors. Paris was also awarded top tourist destination in 2013 with over 65 million people visiting Paris. [17] The city of Paris is always lively and active due to the large population.


Image:France.png


Image:Paris-population.png [18]



After World War 1 there was an increase in the population of Paris since many people moved into the city to have access to jobs and goods. At this time Paris held a population of 3 million people, by the 20th century the population started to decline. However at the beginning of the 21st century in the 2000’s there has been a consistent growth in the population of 100,000 people per year which was due to the people living in this area having children.[19]

Image:Paris-evolution-births-deaths.png [20]


[edit] Parisian People

Europeans are found to cluster within live in cities and towns 89 % of the population of France live within urban places. [21]The reason why the population tends to live in and around Paris is because there are higher wages are offered to people in the city and western parts of the city over people doing the exact same job in the countryside. Thus population that lives in Paris tend to have a higher income, are on average are younger, and are very active people. The median income in Paris is 25,000 Euros which equals to be just over 35, 000. Majority of the population tends to move to the countryside once their reach retirements to live a less expensive and more relaxed life. [22]

When it comes to the history of Paris we can see that it is similar other European countries where there was a decline during the World Wars. Although has had a steady increase over the years.

[edit] Migration


“The United Nations defines international migrants as “persons born in a country other than that in which they live.” [23] The history of immigration in France started in the early 18th century. [24] There was a drop in population during both world wars. [25] After the wars France mainly recruited male immigrants to strengthen the economy.[26] Since then there has been a steady uprising in population in France. [27]

[28]


The population of Paris is made up of people from countries all over the world. Paris is ranked number one in the world for the safest city, therefore we can see why people would want to migrate here. According to the chart we can see Portugal makes up the most immigration in Paris. Italy is the seconding leading country that immigrates to Paris. Although in 2010, “France expelled over 700 Roma people who had set up camps in the country, involving a policy that required them to have a work permit to prove that they could support themselves. France has faced international scrutiny for its dealings with the Roma people; its policies have been called both xenophobic and racist.”[29]


In order to migrate to France one must be accepted under one of these applications; [30]

  • short stay visas
  • long stay (>3months)
  • work visas
  • family immigration
  • acquiring French nationality
  • dual nationality
  • asylum in France (refugee)

Image:Safest_city.jpg [31]

[edit] Mobility

Paris comes equipped with multiple was of traveling;

  • Walking
  • Biking
  • Busses and local trains (called RER) [32]
  • Subway
  • Trains (SNCF)
  • Highways

Transportation is regarded economic, and “no place in Paris is less than 500 meters away from a metro stop.” [33] There are multiple ways to get around the city. There are also boat tours and sightseeing tours available in the city, which points out main monuments and culture. [34] Paris is very accessible to travel from and travel to. Paris has two main airports, Roissey-Charles de Gaulle and Orly, all accessible by public transportation. [35] The ease of transportation to and around the city allows for many people to travel here.


Image: 800 pixels

[edit] Social Geography

[edit] Demography

The city of Paris is home to many different people. [36] “A high proportion of students, young workers, and elderly people.” [37] The average of a house hold in Paris is less than two people, and most families only have one child. [38] Therefore showing that Paris is home to mostly single people. [39] Perhaps that is why Paris is where people hope to find love.

Image:Demographics_of_france.jpg [40]


[edit] Religion

Ninety percent of the population of Paris claim to be of the Roman Catholic faith. The other ten percent is made of the population practicing faiths such as Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu, and Protestant Christian. [41]


[edit] Gender and Sexuality

Fouberg mentions that gender is the social differences between men and women instead of the biological differences between men and women. [42] . Within Paris France:

• women did not gain the right to vote until 1944 [43]

• wives gain the right to open bank accounts without the husband's permission in 1960 [44]

• wives gain the right work without the husband's permission in 1960 [45]

• The Badinter Law established equal rights for women in marriage in 1985 [46]

• There has been an decrease in the percentage of women in ministerial positions in 2012 [47]

• The Global Gender Gap Report from 2012 stated that France is in 57th place out of 132 countries.[48]


• France earned a score of 0.69 (Highest score is 1 for total equality and the lowest score is zero for inequality)in total from that added topics of Economic Participation And Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health And Survival, and Political Empowerment [49]



Sexuality is a person’s sexual orientation or preference which comes in many different types such as straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual and asexual. For sexuality, Paris is a really open minded place to live for any sexuality. Paris was named one of ten best places in the world to be gay. There are even a few places within Paris that are catered for homosexuals. There is a bunch of gay/lesbian bars located in Paris. Alcantara Café is one of the café within Paris that is also a lesbian bar. There is also a few festivals that are created in Paris to celebrate different sexualities such as the women-only film festival ,gay pride festivals and a lesbian cultural archive. [50]


[edit] Gender Inequalities

OECD Council at Ministerial level Paris in 2011- Report on the gender initiative – gender equally in education, employment and entrepreneurship.

Their mission is to promote gender equality within the “three E’s “being Education, Employment, and entrepreneurship. Over the last few decades there have been a larger number of women entering into the labour force as well as they have been staying employed. The agenda is to develop policies so that there are more opportunities for women to help them reduce persistent gender inequalities. France is one of a few countries that have introduced requirements for compulsory quotas for women within boardrooms that firms are required to have at least 40% of their boardroom seats allocated to women. Even though France is implementing these new policies there is still evident gender gaps between males and females. [51]

Image:Employment gaps1.png [52]

There has been an increase of women in the paid workforce. However occupations are still gendered being that half of women occupy positions in business, finance, administration, or sales and services. While men tend to hold positions in trades, transport and equipment operations or in sales and service management. [53]

Image:Jobs - education and com sci.png[54]


Image:Jobs- health and eng.png[55]

Within France, these charts show very similar results that even though there have been policies in place so that occupations are not so gendered there is still numerous occupations that are dominated by women such as humanities, art, education, and health and welfare. Whereas Males dominate occupations including engineering, construction, mathematics and computer science. [56]

Recent employment data demonstrates how vital female labour market experience is to reducing poverty risks. In France, job loss and reductions of working hours have reduced for women who are partnered with a male by 1 %. For women who have a partner they have significantly more likely to have increased working hours in comparison to single women. However there is still a higher risk of poverty for women than males. [57]


Image:Females higher rate of poverty.png[58]

[edit] Cultural Geography

Paris is a very definitive and distinctive city, worldwide. It generates interest from most territories of the world due to its immense cultural phenomena established there.

[edit] Historical

[edit] Arc de Triomphe

Much of Parisian culture is derived from its standing as being one of the most influential cities on earth. As evidenced in its architecture alone, it sets the tone for high-class and integrity. The Arc de Triomphe, the great burial site for political figureheads such as Napoleon, specifically represents the strength or "triumph" of the Parisian people, as it was established by Napoleon himself, for the victories of his Grand Armee.[59]

Image: 800 pixelsImage: 800 pixels [60]

[edit] Eiffel Tower

Similarly, the most iconic structure in Paris, the Eiffel Tower, is representative of the beauty and class associated with Paris overall. It was built to represent Paris during the Universal Exhibition [61], and has continued to represent the city and its people to this day.

[edit] The Louvre

The Louvre is another example of a central landmark in Paris, it is one of the world's largest museums and is a historic monument. This museums displays over 70, 000 pieces of art within the 650, 000 square feet of gallery space. Annually there is 8.8 million visitors travelling from all over the world to see the amazing pieces that the Louvre has to offer. [62]

Image: 800 pixels
[63]


A vital piece of art that is displayed within the Louvre is the Mona Lisa created my Leonardo da Vinci. This is a popular art piece and a must have see to many of the visitors.

Image: 800 pixels
[64]



Other such cultural icons in Paris, in the Les Catacombes, the dead city that lies beneath the modern one, and the Cafe de Flore, where high intellectuals such as Jean Paul Sarte, Ernest Hemingway and Truman Capote frequented.

[edit] Food and Drink

Paris is known for its high quality gastronomy, representative of the development of Michelin star rating for cuisine [65]. Paris provides fine dining of the highest quality, with rich and succulent scents that find there way to the streets. While most fine dining is rather expensive within the city, new 'neo-bistrot' have been developed that provide Parisian and tourists, alike, to frequent high quality, low cost restaurant to gain authentic Parisian style cuisine[66].

Paris has been recognized to have culinary excellence throughout the entire city displayed by the various bistros, cafe, and markets on every corner. Le Cordon Bleu which is the world's largest hospitality education institution, attracts students from all over the world for an education that is taught in French and translated into English. Le Cordon Bleu focuses on world class programs such as hospitality management, culinary arts and gastronomy. [67]

Image: 800 pixels Image: 800 pixels [68]

Paris, also, provides a throwback to medieval grocery shopping with the Marches. These marketplaces are made up of stalls and canopied huts, that allow for grocery shopping of the finest Paris has to offer. Within these markets, typical gourmet ingredients may be purchased, as well as, sampled. Some items on offer, that Paris is particularly famous for, are wines, cheeses and chocolate, from specialied chocolatiers [69].

[edit] Fashion

As one of the major fashion districts of the world, Paris is home to high quality boutique and brand name stores among its arrondissements. Along the Champs Elysees to Le Marais, stores and brands the quality of Dior, Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton and Cartier, are evident along the streets. This accompanied with Paris Fashion Week, as one of the 4 major events of the fashion world, highlights the effect of Parisian high culture[70]

[edit] Entertainment

Entertainment in Paris comes from a multitude of places, as Parisian have an affinity for art and sport.

For contemporary and historical pieces of art, Paris has many festivals and museums. The Foire International d'Art Contemporain (FIAC) is a large festival attraction that was recently established to encourage contemporary artist to exhibit their works across the city[71] Along with this, Nuit Blanche, the all night art festival, first took place in Paris and has spread to other metropolis of the world[72]. Paris, also, has some of the most famous and important museums in the world. The Musee d'Orsay, Musee Picasso and, most famously, the Louvre.


Music is, also, an important and significant factor in entertainment within Paris. While some outside influences have diverged the original French speaking musician to sing in English, such as DJ David Guetta,alt-rock band Phoenix and Charlotte Gainsbourg, French radio has deemed that 40% of all music on the radio be in French[73]. Classical music is still very popular within the city, as well. The new La Philharmonie de Paris auditorium has been built to house 2400 people to enjoy the Paris Philharmonic[74].

Movies and theatre arts still remains a popular pasttime in Paris. Parisian of any arrondissement have at least 1 cinema within it to see their beloved screenplays[75]. The popularity of Parisian screenplay is high, with modern, critically-acclaimed films such as The Artist, which won Best Picture at the Academy Awards, and Woody Allen's Midnight in Paris [76]. Along with this, theatre arts is still a very popular venue in Paris to attend, as the world famous cabaret Moulin Rouge, as well as, the Opera Garnier, housing the Paris Opera Ballet, and Opera Bastille, the largest opera company in Paris[77].


Paris has a rich sporting culture that has held and currently holds some of the largest sporting events in the world. Possibly the most recognized French sporting events, the Tour de France, is completed on Paris' most famous road, the Champs Elysees. Another iconic, yearly event is the major tennis tournament, the French Open. The French Open is held at the Roland Garros and finish the clay season of the professional tennis association, the ATP. Along with this, soccer is major aspect of Parisian sporting life, as it holds one of the current powers in French soccer, Paris St Germain, who play at the Parc des Princes, a large, all-seater soccer stadium in Paris. Another major soccer venue in Paris, is the Stade de France, which hosts the French national team and has held the 1998 World Cup Final, in which the hosts, France, beat Brazil in the final 3 - 0[78]

[edit] Love Locks

Couples go to Pont des Arts or Pont de l'Archevêché bridge and declare their love by attaching a lock to the bridge and throwing the key into the river. Many couples also write their name or a message on the lock to display their undying love for each other. This has become quite the tradition for couples to do and now there is hundreds and hundreds of locks on the bridges from people all over the world.[79] Image: 800 pixels [80]

[edit] Conclusion

In conclusion, Paris is such an amazing place and is known for many things such as its history, art, fashion and culture. Paris is known to many people as ‘The City of Love’, ‘The City of Art’ and ‘The City of Fashion’. Paris is one of the Top 40 World Cities as determined by the Mori Memorial Foundation that have an influence far beyond their national borders and are embedded in global circulations of people, knowledge, goods, finance and services. Some of the key feature and key themes that where recognized throughout this wiki are Globalization, Political Geography, Population, Migration, Social Geography and Cultural Geography. These themes were able to bring to light what Paris is worldwide and geographical.

[edit] Notes and References

  1. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/11189570/The-most-affordable-city-for-young-people-to-live-Its-not-London....html
  2. http://focus-migration.hwwi.de/France.1231.0.html?&L=1
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0oim44T0fU
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 references.http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Paris.aspx
  5. http://www.mori-m-foundation.or.jp/gpci/index_e.html
  6. Fouberg, E., Blij, H., Murphy, A., & Nash, C. (2012). Social Geographies - Identities and Place. In Human geography: People, place, and culture (Canadian ed., p. 31). Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  7. http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/digitalfordism/fordism_materials/garcia.htm
  8. http://www.ifri.org/files/policy_briefs/policy_2_fougier_ang.pdf
  9. "UK Economic Outlook, March 2007", page 5.
  10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927110945/http://www.paris-iledefrance.cci.fr/pdf/eco_regionale/chiffres_cles/2007/anglais/03_economy.pdf
  11. http://fortune.com/global500/
  12. http://www.worldcitiescultureforum.com/cities/paris
  13. http://www.europe-cities.com/en/600/france/paris/culture/
  14. Fouberg, E., Blij, H., Murphy, A., & Nash, C. (2012). Social Geographies - Identities and Place. In Human geography: People, place, and culture (Canadian ed., p. 51). Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada.
  15. https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255-s01/mapping-paris/Cultural_Paris.html
  16. https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255-s01/index.html
  17. http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/paris-population/
  18. http://www.map-france.com/Paris-75000/population-Paris.html
  19. http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/paris-population/
  20. http://www.map-france.com/Paris-75000/population-Paris.html
  21. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.94), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
  22. http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/paris-population/
  23. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.125), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
  24. http://focus-migration.hwwi.de/France.1231.0.html?&L=1
  25. http://focus-migration.hwwi.de/France.1231.0.html?&L=1
  26. http://focus-migration.hwwi.de/France.1231.0.html?&L=1
  27. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.95), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
  28. http://www.ined.fr/en/everything_about_population/data/france/immigrants-foreigners/countries-birth-immigrants/
  29. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.124), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
  30. http://www.frenchlaw.com/Immigration_Visas.htm
  31. http://www.mori-m-foundation.or.jp/gpci/index_e.html
  32. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Paris.aspx
  33. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Paris.aspx
  34. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Paris.aspx
  35. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Paris.aspx
  36. http://www.paris.fr/english/presentation-of-the-city/demographics-a-cosmopolitan-city/rub_8125_stand_29896_port_18748
  37. http://www.paris.fr/english/presentation-of-the-city/demographics-a-cosmopolitan-city/rub_8125_stand_29896_port_18748
  38. http://www.paris.fr/english/presentation-of-the-city/demographics-a-cosmopolitan-city/rub_8125_stand_29896_port_18748
  39. http://www.paris.fr/english/presentation-of-the-city/demographics-a-cosmopolitan-city/rub_8125_stand_29896_port_18748
  40. http://www.ined.fr/fichier/s_rubrique/154/population_societies_2014_509_pyramids_ages_war.en.pdf
  41. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Paris.aspx
  42. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.191), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
  43. Everyculture.com,. (2014). Culture of France - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family. Retrieved 29 November 2014, from http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/France.html
  44. Everyculture.com,. (2014). Culture of France - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family. Retrieved 29 November 2014, from http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/France.html
  45. Everyculture.com,. (2014). Culture of France - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family. Retrieved 29 November 2014, from http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/France.html
  46. Everyculture.com,. (2014). Culture of France - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family. Retrieved 29 November 2014, from http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/France.html
  47. Hausmann, R., Tyson, L., & Zahidi, S. (2012). The Global Gender Gap Report (1st ed., pp. 3-11 ,23,180-181). World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf
  48. Hausmann, R., Tyson, L., & Zahidi, S. (2012). The Global Gender Gap Report (1st ed., pp. 3-11 ,23,180-181). World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf
  49. Hausmann, R., Tyson, L., & Zahidi, S. (2012). The Global Gender Gap Report (1st ed., pp. 3-11 ,23,180-181). World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf
  50. The Independent,. (2008). ParisThe city of Proust and Piaf is a natural environment for a flourishin. Retrieved 30 November 2014, from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/love-sex/taboo-tolerance/the-ten-best-places-in-the-world-to-be-gay-932557.html?action=gallery&ino=5
  51. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/education/48111145.pdf
  52. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/education/48111145.pdf
  53. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc
  54. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/education/48111145.pdf
  55. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/education/48111145.pdf
  56. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/education/48111145.pdf
  57. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/education/48111145.pdf
  58. Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level Report on the Gender Initiative: Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/education/48111145.pdf
  59. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 100. Print.
  60. Photo taken by Krista Gurney, 2012.
  61. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 139. Print.
  62. http://www.louvre.fr/en
  63. Photo taken by Krista Gurney, 2012.
  64. Photo taken by Krista Gurney, 2012.
  65. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 25. Print.
  66. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 25. Print.
  67. https://www.cordonbleu.edu/lcb-paris/en
  68. Photo taken by Krista Gurney, 2012.
  69. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 5. Print.
  70. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 237-245. Print.
  71. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 24. Print.
  72. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 24. Print.
  73. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 26. Print.
  74. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 26. Print.
  75. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 26. Print.
  76. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 26. Print.
  77. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 4, 274. Print.
  78. "Paris in Depth." Frommer's Paris 2013. 1st ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 27-30. Print.
  79. http://www.bonjourparis.com/story/paris-love-locks-love-that-wont-die/
  80. photo taken by Krista Gurney, 2012.
Personal tools
Bookmark and Share