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Moscow - Introduction


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[edit] Introduction

Flag of Moscow
Flag of Moscow

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia. [1]. With a population of 12,108,257, Moscow is the sixth largest city in the world. [2] The city is a major political, economic, financial center of Russia. Moscow covers an area of 386 square miles and was found in the year of 1147.[3] There are more than a dozen Universities in Moscow, one of the largest and best known universities in the city is the Moscow State University (1755).[4]. Very few people in the city own vehicles as they rely heavily on public transportation. The city is served by four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams and has one of world's deepest underground metro systems.[5] Moscow is home to incredible architecture, offering an incredible experience to those who visit. As the city has so many attractions to offer its tourists including theatres, museums and parks, tourists from all over the world come to visit such a fascinating place.


[edit] Globalization

[edit] Introduction


Moscow, as many other cities in the world has been the subject of globalization. The city is the capital of the country and is the largest metro area within the country. Moscow's global engagement grew stronger after the collapse of the U.S.S.R., with an increase in the retail sector, Moscow had become a preference for businesses to open[7]. Small improvements upon comfort of living and commuting have taken place to make the city attractive to businesses from abroad. Transformations of public spaces, such as the Gorky Park are taking place to make the city much more approachable and look the same as parks that we would see all over the world.

[edit] Olympics

In 1980, Moscow in the Soviet Union held the first Summer Olympics within Eastern Europe. After the decision being declared at the end of 1974, Russia had about 5 years to prepare for the games[8]. With the games came the building of multiple sports facilities and giving Moscow a face-lift for the Olympics. The metro was given a revamped look which foreigners observed as a veritable museum, including impressive escalators, electronic clocks and new fluorescent lights. Additionally the Izmailovo hotel was built and was recorded as Europe’s largest hotel, having a 10,000 guest capacity[9]. The Olympics became the main sporting event of a lifetime for the city, presenting themselves with an opportunity to become a part of the Games history and display their culture to the rest of the world. Although many countries boycotted at these Olympics, U.S.A. being the country leading the boycott because of the 1979 war on Afghanistan, the U.S.S.R. boosted its image in the political arena[10].


Summer Olympic Games Emblem of 1980, Moscow

[edit] Manufacturing

Most of the economy in the 1980’s was driven by manufacturing within Moscow and dramatically shrank into the 1990’s with the collapse of the U.S.S.R.. With about half of the manufacturing gone into the 90’s, many factories were privatized and owners of these factories would invest their earning abroad or into retail, banking and other sectors of the city. Despite the post-Soviet changes, Moscow remains Russia’s largest industrial centre.

Moscow's industries have relied more on city skilled labour force than on raw material. Highly specialized items are produced, such as ball bearings for the auto making industry and other purposes[11]. Food processing is one of the manufacturing areas which expanded following the post-Soviet privatization of factories. Moscow is Russia's largest foreign investment, with multiple U.S. companies opening. This is due to lower labour costs, compared to the U.S. or Canada.

[edit] Trade Patterns

Moscow has rapidly increased in global reach, primarily through foreign investments starting from mid 90's. Germany has been the primary financial investor until recently the United Kingdom, Cyprus and the Netherlands became the major direct investors[12]. Although the financial sector has been limited, it has been to establish partnerships with financial centers in Frankfurt and Beijing. Moscow is still fairly peripheral to the global capital market, due to financial infrastructure not being integrated and a lack of proficiency in English[13].

[edit] Political Geography

[edit] Russia

The president of Russia(Vladimir Putin) is head of state and has executive power. President is commander-in-chief of armed forces, determines both domestic and foreign policy. [14] Head of the government is prime minister (Dmitry Medvedev), who is appointed by the president and the State Duma (lower house of Russian parliament). Government's responsibility is to work out a federal budget, implement policies, and ensure rule of law. [15] The Federation Council (upper house of Russian parliament), is voice of Russia's federated entities. The main responsibility of council is to work with lower chamber to complete and vote on draft laws. The lower house of Russian parliament (The State Duma,) is made up of 450 deputies who are elected on a five year term. All bills, including ones proposed by the Federation Council (upper house of parliament) must first be passed (majority) by State Duma.[16] Once the bill passed by lower house, a draft is sent to the upper house.

[edit] Moscow

Moscow has on of the largest municipal economies in Europe and accounts for 22% of Russian GDP.[17] Political is the administration of a city, and its relationship with others. [18] Russia is made up of a 83 federal entities called republics, Moscow itself is divided into 12 administrative okrugs and 123 districts.[19] The mayor of Moscow is Sergey Sobyanin, is considered head of the executive branch of political system in the city.[20] Mayor is elected on a four-year term.

Moscow City Hall
Moscow City Hall
Map of Moscow administrative Okrug
Map of Moscow administrative Okrug

Administrative okrugs of Moscow: 1.Central 2.Northern 3.North-Eastern 4. Eastern 5.South-Eastern 6.Southern 7.South-Western 8.Western 9.North-Western 10.Zelenogradsky 11.Novomoskovsky 12.Troitsky. Each okrug has special concentration, central okrug has large concnetration of business, city hall and other major government buildings are in Troitsky. All okrugs have their own coat of arms, flags and individual head of the area.[21] The law of the city is "Charter of Moscow" adopted in 1995. There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, city areas aren't designated by income but areas closer to the city are expensive than others.[22] Moscow's development began early as 12th century, when the city was founded.[23] Moscow's city council (local parliament) is referred to as City Duma, it's composed of 35 members who are elected on a four year term.[24] There are three types of court in Russia. The municipal court is the lowest adjudicating body and hears more than 90% of all civil and criminal cases.[25] Next level of court is regional and at the highest level is supreme court.

[edit] Population

[edit] Introduction

Russia as a country has overcome many hardships which has taken a tole on its population over the past years. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990's, fertility rates started to decrease and death rates increased. Within 1999 the total fertility rate (TFR) was at a all time low of 1.13 and has increased to 1.61 (2014 est.), this drastic change was due to improving health care, changing fertility patterns among young women, falling emigration and increase of immigrants.

[edit] Russia


Russias Demographics Profile 2014 [26]

Population: 142, 470, 272 (July, 2014 est.)

Age Structure:

0-14 years: 16.4% (male: 11,980,138 /female: 11,344,818)

15-24 years: 10.7% (male: 7,828, 947/female: 7,482,143)

25-54 years: 45.8% (male: 31,928,886/female: 33,319,671)

55-64 years: 13.8% (male: 8,408,637/female: 11,287,153)

65 years and older: 13.3 % (male: 5,783,153/female: 13,105,896)

Population growth rate: -0.03%

Birth rate: 11.87 births/1,000 population

Death rate: 13.83 births/1,000 population

Net migration rate: 1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Urban population: 73.8% of total population

Rate of urbanization: 0.13% annual rate of change

Sex Ratio:

At birth: 1.06 male/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male/female

54-64 years: 0.86 male/female

65 years and older: 0.44 male/female

Total population: 0.86 male/female

Total Fertility Rate: 1.61 children born/woman

[edit] Fertility Rates

Due to many myths about Russias changing population, many have come to the belief that the birth rates are declining in Russia. Within the 1990’s due to the collapse of the U.S.S.R., Russias fertility rates decreased to an all time low, with mortality rates increasing, the population was decreasing at 0.5% per year. Within 2009, after the countries decrease in population, the first natural increase in population was observed with an addition of 23,300 people. [27] By 2013, Russia reached a fertility rate of 1.707 children per woman, which was recorded as the highest rate within the Eastern, Southern, and Central Europe. With an increase in fertility and immigration, the population rose by 294,500 people. This increase played a vital role in bringing the population back to where it was before the chaotic 90’s where the country suffered from population losses.


[edit] Moscow

Moscow the largest city, also known as the capital of Russia, plays important roles in the political, cultural, economic and scientific factors that lead the country. As of 2014 the city is estimated to have a population of 12.1 million, based of the residents who hold “permanent residency”[28]. Moscow attracts many migrants from near by (most ex Soviet) countries; approximately 2-5 million people in the city are illegal residents, increasing the cities total population to 17 million [29].

With the collapse of the U.S.S.R. in the beginning of the 1990’s, Moscow, along with the entire country of Russia, suffered from major population losses. With an increase in mortality rate mostly due to alcoholism and a decrease in fertility rate, the population quickly decreased over a short amount of time[30]. With economic hardships within the country, it was apparent that economic conditions were the reasoning behind the decrease in fertility. With unfavourable conditions to bear a child and high costs for birthing and caring for a child, many women opted in either have one child or not bearing any children all together[31]. Moscow currently has a fertility rate of 1.30 (estimated), which has slowly increased from 1.22 [32]. Within 2009 the population started to increase through natural population and is continually increasing.

[edit] Migration

Russia has a long and rich history of migration, as population movement can be traced back during times of Tsars (1547-1917) and Soviet (1917-1991).[33] Russia was one of the first country to establish a specialized State Migration Management Department (in 1763), the purpose of the institution was to have more people immigrate to Russia especially from Western Europe.[34] Beginning 2006, Russia has started liberalization of it's migration policy, in the face of declining population. Since Moscow is second most populous city in Europe, it is ethnically a diverse city.

Moscow's population is 12,108,257 and approximately 7.7% of the population (932,335) is made up of immigrants. The net migration rate is 1.69 migrants/1000 people.

[edit] Temporary Labor Migrants

As Russia's population is aging it needs immigration to keep growing. Temporary labor migrants have become a commonplace since 2000s. Many of these migrants work in the construction, agriculture and production areas.[35] Most of the migrant workers have no professional training and are only suited for unskilled labor. Russian economy still depends on cheap and legally unprotected labor.

Employers take advantage of migrant workers such as confiscation of migrant's passport in order to increase control over employees. According to Russian officials, forced labor can be observed for 10% to 30% of migrant workers, and 53% work in the shadow economy. [36]

[edit] Irregular Migrants

Officer of  FMS, holds documents of foreign workers during a raid

The irregular migrants are caused by complicated residence registration system (registratsia)[37]. All Russians citizens have to be registered at the local police departments as permanent or temporary. All foreign citizens have to be register in regional branches of federal migration service. It is a complicated process for migrants and as a result, many migrant workers end up working in the shadow economy and lack opportunity to have a legal job. [38]. Transit migrants from Middle East and Asia who are heading to Western Europe make up another significant group of migrants as many of these migrant end up staying in Russia instead of moving as planned. Moscow has received many refugees over the last 20 years. There are lots of illegal immigrants living in Moscow. In 2014, law enforcers have already deported over 100,000 people from Moscow alone.[39].

[edit] Push and Pull

People are pulled to Moscow from former Soviet republics and mainly from Russia due to high salaries, better services and great living conditions.Average monthly salary in Moscow is 38,200 roubles (CAD $816), while the average salary across country is only 20,300 roubles (CAD $434).[40] Everything from headquarters of leading businesses, foreign embassies, state bodies including the government and supreme court are in Moscow. Lots of highly-skilled emigrants moved to USA, Germany and Norway when Soviet Union collapsed. The collapse of planned economy resulted in unemployment for many white collar jobs. In 1993, one out of fifth emigrant from Russia had post secondary education, and this pattern of "brain drain" has continued.[41]

As Russia has become a stable country emigration from Russia has been decreasing. Another reason is that post September 11,2001 events, USA and many other developed nations have toughen their immigration policy.

[edit] Social Geography

[edit] Introduction

Social geography focuses on “understanding social life, social relationships and the role of place in these interactions” [42]. Further understanding of various categories such as sexual orientation, gender, ethnicity and race are a result of studying the social geography of a country or a city. Through this, "a concern with the ways in which social relations, social identities, and social inequalities are produced in their spatial variation and the role of space in constructing them" [43]. The social geography of Moscow will be looking at various factors such as the city's ethnicity, gender, sexuality as well as the average wages.

[edit] Ethnicity

The overall ethnic make-up of the country’s capital is not very diverse. Over 90% of the city’s population is actually from Russia. The other 10% is made up of various ethnic groups such as Tatar, Ukrainian, Moldavian, Kazakh, and many more, however these groups only account for a very small percentage of the population[44] . With a city as populated as Moscow, housing approximately 9 million people, it is surprising that the overall ethnicity is not as diverse as other nations’ capitals. Those of a non-Russian ethnicity are mostly from country's that are just bordering the Southwestern part of Russia.

Breakdown of ethnic groups in Moscow according to 2010 Cenus:[45]

Russian: 9,930,410 (91.65%)

Ukrainian: 154,104 (1.42%)

Tatar: 149,043 (1.38%)

Armenian: 106,466 (0.98%)

Azeri: 57,123 (0.5%)

Belarusian: 39,225 (0.4%)

Georgian: 38,934 (0.4%)

Uzbek: 35,595 (0.3%)

Tajik: 27,280 (0.2%)

Moldovan: 21,699 (0.2%)

Mordvin: 17,095 (0.2%)

Chechen: 14,524 (0.1%)

Chuvash: 14,313 (0.1%)

Ossetian: 11,311 (0.1%)

Others: 164,825 (1.6%)

[edit] Sexuality and Gender

For an issue that has seen a significant amount of progress throughout the years, worldwide, Russia's stance on homosexualty appears to be reversing as the country continues to implement laws against homosexuality and same-sex marriage. In recent years, Russia's government has implemented new laws that ban propaganda of untraditional nature referring to same-sex couples and relationships. This law is to further 'protect' the children in their country from being exposed to 'unethical' behaviour. Other laws such as that preventing unmarried citizens that are from country's where same-sex marriage is recognized from adopting Russian children, however if same-sex marriage remains unrecognized, Russian children can be adopted from unmarried individuals. [46] [47]

As the country does not recognize same-sex marriage or relationships, the sad reality for members of the LGBT community is that they still face employee discrimination and are the target of hate crimes. Members of the country even support the discrimination of LGBT members. Polls have verified the sadness, as 54% of people said homosexuality should not only be banned, it should be criminalized. [48] Specifically in Moscow, the tolerance of the LGBT community was higher prior to the implementation of the gay propaganda law, the law has increased the difficulty of being gay in the city as the amount of attacks on gay individuals has increased[49]

In 2014, the gender ratio in Moscow averaged to 46.1% male and 53.9% female.[50]

[edit] Employment and Wages

For a popular city, Moscow's unemployment rate is quite low, however it rose to 5.10% in October 2014 from a low of 4.9% in September. [51] The average unemployment rate from 1993-2014 in Russia is 7.99%, which is low for a population of over 140 million people. As of October 2014, approximately 72 million people were employed.[52] For a location to have such a low unemployment rate while the overall economy is stagnating, there is usually a worker deficit. It is found that companies are lacking employees, even in areas that typically produce high productivity levels.[53]

With the increase in unemployment rates in Russia in October 2014, the average wage rose as well. The monthly average wage in Russia increased to 32408 RUB which is the equivalent to $684.1 CAD. [54]

[edit] Cultural Geography

Culture is “a set of shared belief systems, norms and values practiced by a particular group of people”[55]. As some geographers see an areas culture as being a ‘way of life’, the study of cultural geography focuses on how this ‘way of life’ actually becomes visible within the area.[56] This involves the location’s music, entertainment, fashion, their food and even their language. Moscow’s cultural geography will be looking at their entertainment, cultural landscape, religions, and their food.

[edit] Entertainment

[edit] Theatre and Ballet

If you're attracted to the arts, travelling to Moscow will be hugely entertaining as the city itself holds approximately 70 theatres and a larger number of concert halls, all within the Russian capital. [57] Theatre in Moscow was started in the middle of the 18th century, as the forester's peasantry were made actors, performing shows in The Comedy House, which is located in Preobrazhensky Village, as well as the Palace of Entertainments, which is found in Kremlin.[58] As the Moscow theatres put on a number of operas and ballet recitals, there are still many contemporary shows that are performed as well, bringing in various people.

[edit] The Bolshi Theatre

The building is a historic and one of the most symbolic parts of the city. The company of the theatre was founded in 1776, when it was known as the Moscow Public Theatre, however after a fire destroyed the theatre in 1805, the building was renamed the Imperial Theatre. During Napoleon's invasion of 1812 the theatre was again destroyed by fire, to be rebuilt again in 1824, in the Classical style. Once again, in 1853, the building was burned down, however only 3 years later the present building was constructed by Alberta Kavos. [60]

[edit] The Moscow Chamber of Opera Theatre

The Moscow Chamber Opera Theatre, opened in 1972. The theatre has one of the most diverse repertoires in Moscow, as Russian rarities are played alongside other European favourites, which are all sung in their original languages [62] The theatre is not very large, as it can seat 150 to 240 people depending on the format.

[edit] The Moscow Operetta Theatre

The 1,6000 seat auditorium of the Moscow Operetta Theatre, that is increasingly being filled with a younger audience. The theatre has been running since 1927, where it has made it's home in this building since the 19th century. Traditionally the theatre staged light musicals, however in more recent times, classics are performed here in addition to other musicals. For those who have a passion for light musical theatre, the Moscow Operetta Theatre is perfect. [64]

[edit] Amusement Parks

Not interested in theatre? That's okay, there are other attractions to visit while in Moscow! The city has a few amusement parks during the summer months, of course they are not close to comparison to full scale parks such as Canada's Wonderland in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada, but they do provide a few hours of entertainment to children that are not as interested in the sight-seeing.
[65] Gorky Park is one of the few amusement parks Moscow has to offer, it is popular with both children and adults, offering various types of rides from safe rides to roller coasters and even a flight simulator. [66]

It is Moscow's most famous funfair in the summer months, attracting large crowds of people, however the huge outdoor skating rink created for the winter months is extremely popular.

Poklonnaya Gora is similar to Gorky Park, offering similar rides, however there is also a 3D cinema in addition to the Moscow Ocean Park that is currently under construction.
[67]The Oceanarium will be constructed to be a mixed-use entertainment complex, offering many different entertainment options such as a a shopping mall, an adult recreation area, with billiards tables, bowling, slot machines, karaoke rooms, restaurants and more. The entertainment complex will also include a four star hotel to accommodate the many guests that are expected to go. The aquarium itself will be the main attraction of this Ocean Park no doubt, as it will have the largest Ocean Tank display in all of Europe with approximately 10 million litres of sea water in a take that is 12.6 metres deep. [68]

[edit] Museums and Galleries

With many different types of museums in the Country's capital, there will always be fun things to learn and see. One can visit a museum of natural history, science and technology to leave about the development of our planet and of our planet as the Yuri Orlov Paleontological Museum or the Moscow State University Zoological Museum. Or even being able to experience the phenomenal achievements of modern science at the Polytechnical Museum at the Ilinsky Gates, which is a Russia's largest technical museum. [69] This museum opened to the public in 1907, and in 1991 it was declared a cultural asset to Russia.
[70] There are also museums dedicated to Russia's greatest literary artists. Biographical Museums in Moscow, such as the State Alexander Pushkin Museum, State Vladimir Mayakovsky Museum and the State Vladimir Vysotsky Cultural Centre. If you're more interested in historical events, Moscow's many historical museums are reccommended. The State Historical Museum, which opened in 1894, is one of Moscow's most prestigious museums to visit.
[71] It is located on Red Square, allowing individuals to experience the history of Russia back to the Paleolithic period. [72] Other historical museums such as The Kremlin Armory Museum, Central Armed Forces Museum, and the State Diamond Fund, are also recommended for tourists that are interested in the historic background of both Moscow and Russia.

As Moscow is known as one of theatre's world capitals, [73] there is no surprise by the incredible selection of art galleries and art history museums that are in the city. There is even a museum dedicated to theatre, the Aleksei Bakhrushin Central Theatre Museum, that takes you through to the earliest theatrical events in Russia. Other art history museums and galleries in Moscow include the Andrei Rubley Museum of Ancient Russian Art, State Puchkin Museum of Visual Art, State Tretyakov Gallery, and All-Russian Museum of Applied and Folk Art [74]

[edit] Language

Russian is the only official language throughout Russia, so it is guaranteed that the official in Moscow is Russian as well. [75] It is the largest national language in Europe, as it is spoken in many counties apart from just Russia.


[edit] Religion

We know Russia as a multi-ethnic nation, however as discussed previously, the majority of the city's ethnicity is of Russian decent. Based on a 2010 survey, 75% of the Russia's population belongs to the Orthodox Christian denomination, Islam makes up for 5%, where as Catholicism, Judaism, Buddhism, and Protestantism each make up 1%. Another 1% of the population are from other religion denominations [77] Moscow is home to the tallest Orthodox church in the world, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, which is actually the main cathedral in Russia. [78] As there still are various religions in Moscow, currently there are approximately 711 churches and 9 monasteries. [79]

[edit] Cultural Landscape

[edit] Red Square

It is the heart and soul of Russia, as it is often seen in movies and films [80] Is it one of the most recommended spots to visit when visiting Russia, and more importantly Moscow. Red Square is very symbolic to Moscow as it encompasses many churches, as well as always being a market area. At various times Red Square has also be home to Moscow's first public library and university, a printing house as well as a public theatre. [81] As this is the heart and soul of Russia, many riots, protests, celebrations and parades have taken place at Red Square, as it is located east of Kremlin, and north of the Moskva River. [82] The incredible architecture and the history of Red Square people are continuously coming back again to visit the fascinating place.[83]


[edit] Notes and References

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  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid.
  4.,. (1995). Moscow: overview and structure of the city.. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  5. Wikipedia, (2014) Moscow. Retrieved November 21, 2014 from
  6. YouTube,. (2014). Moskva Travel Video Guide. Retrieved 10 December 2014, from
  7. Encyclopædia Britannica. (2014).
  8. Telegraph. (2014).
  9. Telegraph. (2014).
  10. Telegraph. (2014).
  11. The Brookings Institution. (2014).
  12. The Brookings Institution. (2014).
  13. The Brookings Institution. (2014).
  14.,. (2011). Administrative division – Russiapedia Basic facts about Russia. Retrieved 10 December 2014, from
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Wikipedia,. (2014). Mayor of Moscow. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  18. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.51), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Ltd.
  19.,. (2011). Administrative division – Russiapedia Basic facts about Russia. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  20. Wikipedia,. (2014). Mayor of Moscow. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  21. Ibid.
  22. Wikipedia,. (2014). Mayor of Moscow. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  23. Ibid.
  24.,. (2014). Russia Migration Patterns - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  25.,. (2011). Administrative division – Russiapedia Basic facts about Russia. Retrieved 10 December 2014, from
  26. Index Mundi. (2014). Russias Demographics Profile.
  27. Hello Moskva. (2014).
  28. Central Intelligence Agency. (2014).
  29. Central Intelligence Agency. (2014).
  30. World Affairs. (2014).
  31. World Affairs. (2014).
  32. Wikipedia. (2014).
  33.,. (2014). Focus-Migration: Russian Federation. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  34.,. (2014). Focus-Migration: Russian Federation. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  35. Rybakovsky, L., & Ryazantsev, S. (2005). International Migration in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 10 December 2014, from
  36.,. (2014). Focus-Migration: Russian Federation. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  37.,. (2014). Focus-Migration: Russian Federation. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  38. Ibid.
  39.,. (2014). Moscow would be world’s safest city without illegal immigration - mayor. Retrieved 4 December 2014, from
  40. Herbert Mosmuller, T. (2011). Moscow population: capital may hold 17 million people - Telegraph. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  41. Bildung, B. (2014). Historical and recent trends in migration | bpb. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from
  42. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.88), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
  43. Smith, S.J., Pain, R., Marston, S.A, & Jones III, J.P. (2009) The SAGE handbook of social geographies. London: SAGE
  44.,. (2014). Russia Population 2014 - World Population Review. Retrieved 5 December 2014, from</re
  45.,. (2014). Russia Population 2014 - World Population Review. Retrieved 5 December 2014, from
  46. (The Russian Federation. Federal law #436-FZ of 24 December 2010 On the protection of children from information harmful to their health and development)
  47. Brennan, C. (2014). Russia bans adoption to countries where gay marriage is legal. The Moscow Times. Retrieved from
  48. Unknown Author. (2013) Vast majority of Russians oppose gay marriage and gay pride events - poll. Retrieved from
  49. Tétrault-Farbeer, G. (2014). Russia's 'gay propaganda' law one year on. Retrieved from
  50.,. (2014). Russia Population 2014 - World Population Review. Retrieved 5 December 2014, from
  51. Trading Economics. (2014). Unemployment rate. Retrieved from
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  53. Andrianova, A., & Tanas, O. (2014) Russia's unemployment plunges to record low as wages grow. Retrieved from
  54. Trading Economics. (2014) Russia average monthly wages. Retrieved from
  55. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.216), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
  56. De Blij, H. J., Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., and Nash, C. J., (2012, p.216), Human Geography: People, Place and Culture. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons Canada, Inc.
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  59. (2014) The bolshi theatre. Retrieved from
  60. (2014) The bolshi theatre. Retrieved from
  61. (2014). The moscow chamber opera theatre. Retrieved from
  62. (2014). The moscow chamber opera theatre. Retrieved from
  63. (2014) The moscow operetta theatre. Retrieved from
  64. (2014) The moscow operetta theatre. Retrieved from
  65. (2014). Gorky park. Retrieved from
  66. (2014). Gorky park. Retrieved from
  67. Moscow Ocean Park. (2014) Retrieved from
  68. Moscow Ocean Park. (2014) Retrieved from
  69. (2014). The polytechnical museum at the ilinsky gates. Retrieved from
  70. (2014). The polytechnical museum at the ilinsky gates. Retrieved from
  71. (2014) Historical Museums. Retrieved from
  72. (2014) Historical Museums. Retrieved from
  73. (2014) Theatres & concert halls in moscow. Retrieved from
  74. (2014). Museums of Art and Art History. Retrieved from
  75. MasterRussian. (2014). Fast Facts about Russia. Retrieved from
  76. Mandarin, V. (2011). (Russian language) 1. Russian Alphabet 1 (video). Retrieved from
  77. MasterRussian. (2014). Fast Facts about Russia. Retrieved from
  78. Hotelica. (2014). Religion in Moscow. Moscow Hotels. Retrieved from
  79. World Population Statistics. (2013). Moscow population 2013. Retrieved from
  80. (2014). Red square. Retrieved from
  81. The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2014).Red Square. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from
  82. The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2014). Red Square. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from
  83. (2014). Red square. Retrieved from
  84. (2014) History of red square. Retrieved from
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