Milan

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Hannah Goodall, Nicole Moretti (Migration and Cultural Geography), Roger Somerville, Lesley Peacock


Milan is Italy’s second biggest city right after Rome; it is the capitol of the province of Lombardy and the biggest industrial city in Italy. It dates back to 400 B.C when Gauls settled and defeated the Etuscans. Many have ruled over Milan, including the Celts, Romans, Goths, Lombards, Spaniards, and Austrians.[1] The grand Gothic Cathedral, the Duomo is located in Milan and is a great attraction among tourists. Throughout the centuries Milan has had many successful inspirational people walk the streets, such as Leonard da Vinci (1452-1519), the great novelist Alessandro Manozni (1785-1873) and director Giorgio Strehler (1921-1997).[2] However today Milan is known for its high fashion, models in heels and designers. The brands that are created here are the brands that every woman wants at least one item of in their closet. Milan is a very popular place to visit for tourist due to the amount of beautiful scenery and their large array of attractions to do and see.

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Contents

[edit] Globalization

[edit] Economy

Milan is known for its great sense of fashion, it is the best dressed city in the world. The heart of the economy comes from designers, such as Armani, Prada, and Dolce & Gabana. [4] Milan is home to 45 percent of businesses and contributes to 8 percent in the whole of Italy. [5] In the 12th century Milan started manufacturing a lot more the wool trade started therefore giving Milan a production for silk. However then came the creation of fashion and design, they started to make luxury good, such as hats, clothing, jewellery. [6] Today Milan is categorised by textile and garment manufacturing, for example cars, and designer clothing. [7]

[edit] Imports and Exports

Milan’s main trading partners are Switzerland, Russia, Turkey and the European Union (Germany and France), and in non European countries they trade with China, Hong Kong, the countries of North Africa and United Arab Emirates. [8] Italy as a whole imports value is 6,693,121 and value of exports is 2,649,366. Milan's exports are of great importance it is mainly, electronic items, steel, textile and clothing. [9]

[edit] Fashion

Milan’s fashion designers are seen and known all over the world, making their appearances in all fashion shows. Milan competes with other fashion capitols of the world such as New York, London and Paris. Milan has two fashion weeks in the year, one in spring and another in autumn. The streets are filled with famous fashion designers and catwalks. [10] In the 70s and 80s Milan had dominance over Rome and Florence in the fashion world. [11]

[edit] GDP

Milan’s GDP, standing for gross domestic product in 2011-2012 was $289.3 billion and an employment of 3,588,796. [12] Gross domestic product is a measurement of production which is equal to the sum of the gross value. [13]

[edit] Political Geography

[edit] Boundaries

Milan is politically divided into nine boroughs that are similar to what Fouberg describes as geometric boundaries.[14] They are geometric boundaries because Milan is relatively circular and the inner borough is circular with each of the other boroughs stretching out from it. Each of these boroughs has its own council and president that work directly under the mayor of Milan. Each of these members of the municipal government is democratically elected by each borough. Currently, the Democratic Party holds six of the nine boroughs in Milan.

The nine political boroughs of Milan
The nine political boroughs of Milan[15]

[edit] Type of Government

Milan’s government is a unitary system because it has a strong centralized government that administers power equally over the entire city. Some of these powers are directly given to the Borough Councils from the mayor, but the most important issues are dealt with directly by the mayor with input from the Borough Councils. The councils, presidents, and mayor are all elected through a majority vote.

[edit] Political Issues

The 1980’s saw a large economical boom for the city of Milan as the city's fashion industry became a worldwide success. Tourism into the city was also greatly on the rise. However, by the 1990's this economical achievement had come to an end when political corruption was exposed. This led to many local and national politicians being tried for corruption.[16] Ultimately, this scandal led to the change from a local electoral political system, to a majority system.

[edit] Geopolitics

Recently Milan has been the center of the world in terms of geopolitics. It was the meeting place to try to settle the debate over the problem in Ukraine and whether Russia had any geopolitical power over the area.[17] While the debate over territorial rights was not settled at this meeting, it goes to show the importance of Milan in the world of geopolitics. It is a powerful city politically and because of this it was chosen to host the peace talks for an event that the entire world was watching.

[edit] Population

[edit] Italian Population

As of July 1st 2014 the total population of Italy stands at 61,070,224 million, it is the equivalent to 0.84 percent of the world’s population. It ranks at 23 on the list of countries by population, with a median age of 44.7 and a migrants net of 209,262. [18]



[edit] Milan Population

Milan has 1.3 million people in population as of 2014, which is the 5th largest in the European Union after Paris, London, Düsseldorf and Madrid, and is the 7th largest in the whole of Europe. Milan is also the second largest city after Rome in Italy. [19] In the urban areas of Milan there are 5,400,000 people covering 800 square mile, density of 6700 people per square mile, similar to Los Angeles and Toronto. [20]

[edit] Migration

Population Growth in Lombardy
Population Growth in Lombardy[21]

Milan is a very popular tourist site for travellers, as it is well-known for being one of the fashion capitols of the world. Milan has become the most diverse city in Italy with over 440 000 migrants and has a population of 1.3 million people, 4 million if the metropolitan areas are included.[22]


[edit] Demographics

Population Growth in Italy
Population Growth in Italy[23]

Milano is relying on immigration to keep their population growing. According to 2013 statistics, Milano had 9020 babies born and the average 1.42 babies per woman compared to the 9110 people who died..[24] There was also 39 320 people who emigrated from Milano, but due to the various pull factors, 71 750 people migrated to the city.[25] Immigration is extremely important to Milan’s economy as 22.37% of the population is over 65 years old and the average age of the citizen’s is 44.7.[26] The need for people to continue to immigrate to Milan to support both the economy and elders to help stabilize the city is very important.

Line graph depicting the increase of the top 5 immigrant groups to Milan.
Line graph depicting the increase of the top 5 immigrant groups to Milan.[27]

The top 5 cultures that migrated to Milan last year was the Philippines with 40 759 people, followed by 37 073 Egyptians, 25 062 Chinese, 21 171 Peruvians and 16 467 Sri Lankans. [28]

[edit] Climate

The climate in Milano is a definite pull factor for some people looking to migrate to warmer industrial areas. The province of Milano has varying temperatures but is predominately Mediterranean weather. As one would expect in any country, Northern Milan has a colder climate compared to the south which is hot and dry.[29] The winters are manageable with temperatures rarely going below 0 degrees while summers can vary between 14 – 29 degrees.[30]

[edit] Religion and Language

The predominant religions seen in Milano are Christianity, Muslim and Atheist or Agnostic.[31] 80% of the population are Christians including the vast majority being Roman Catholic, but also Jehovah’s Witnesses and Protestants and approximately 1 million Muslims.[32]
A collection of the different religions found in Milan.
A collection of the different religions found in Milan.[33]

The official language of Milano is Italian, but many different languages are spoken there including German, French and Slovene.[34]

[edit] Social Geography

[edit] Ethnicity

Over the past several decades, Milan has seen an insurgence of foreign-born people living in the city. Currently the make up about 20% of the population. The largest of these foreign populations is the Chinese community, whose community is located in the ninth borough of Milan. The city is a large multicultural hub that has large representations of many different ethnicities. It also has a great religious diversity with large representations including Catholics, Buddhists, Jews, and Muslims. Most of these groups are concentrated enough within Milan, so that the loss of culture does not appear to be a problem. Some of these groups, like the Chinese community, have actually begun having their culture influence the local culture.

A Milan Bank that helps immigrants in the city
A Milan Bank that helps immigrants in the city[35]

[edit] Class

Milan has had a history of class struggle, at the turn of the century, the wealthy controlled much of the city and dictated the lives of the working class.[36] Although in more recent times, the gap between the rich and the poor has decreased. Milan now has one of the lowest unemployment rates in Italy.[37] Milan's industrious nature means that many of the immigrants that move to Milan for work in one of the city's major industries. Often these are not the highest of paying jobs and Milan does rate as one of the most expensive cities for immigrants to live in the world. The social relations in Milan are especially difficult for foreign workers because they also tend to make up the largest percentage of the working class.

[edit] Gender

Milan being known as the fashion capital of the world is no indication for the gender equality of the city. Many of the largest fashion companies are owned by men and are marketed largely to women. A study shows that men have a larger income than women and that men also have a higher state of well-being.[38] Milan is still a growing industrious city, but some of the gender equality is still slacking. Milan has also been the site of anti-sexism protests, recently a rally against Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.[39]

Women protesting the Italian Prime Minister
Women protesting the Italian Prime Minister[40]

[edit] Cultural Geography

Milano is a very unique province with a combination of both old style architecture designs seen in various churches, while also incorporating newer architecture seen in Quadrilatero Della Moda. With Milan, there is a combination of local culture that is present in the church designs and the history of the province, which makes Milan and the economy what it is.[41] There is also popular culture present in Milan seen in areas heavily involved with clothing manufacturing and tourism.[42] However, the authenticity of Milan is never questioned because of the historical aspects of the buildings and the Christian influenced seen not just in Milan, but throughout Italy.

La Scala, one of the most famous and beautiful theatres known worldwide.
La Scala, one of the most famous and beautiful theatres known worldwide.[43]

[edit] La Scala

La Scala is the most renowned theatre in the world hosting ballet, theatre groups, events and luxury concerts of utmost importance.[44] La Scala was built to replace a previous theatre called Royal Ducal Theatre which had burned down in February 26, 1776 which was the original home of opera.[45] Giuseppe Piermarini was the architect who created La Scala using the neoclassical design under the watch of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.[46] It officially opened on August 3, 1778 where various famous people throughout the ages have had the honour to play within the prestigious theatre.[47]
The famous Duomo in Milan.
The famous Duomo in Milan.[48]

[edit] Duomo Cathedral

The Duomo is the third biggest church in the world and one of the most famous churches found in Italy that is both an artistic masterpiece from an architectural standpoint and a place of worship.[49] Bishop Antonio da Saluzzo first commissioned the building of the Duomo in 1385, but took centuries to complete.[50] From 1418 – 1813 the church was still being built with the church not completely built until 1965.[51] Due to the various periods of construction, there is a variety of styles, with a predominant Gothic design.[52] There are various statues that The Duomo is decorated with, the most famous being the Madonnina, who is a copper virgin Mary who is 14 feet and covered in 3900 pieces of gold leaf.[53]
The Last Supper, painted by Leonardo da Vinci
The Last Supper, painted by Leonardo da Vinci[54]


[edit] The Last Supper

“L’Ultima Cena” or The Last Supper is an iconic art piece in history drawn by Leonardo da Vinci found in Milano.[55] This fresco painting is symbolic to Christians across the world, which is why it is not surprising to find the painting in an Italian church where the population is mainly Catholic.[56] “L’Ultima Cena” is found in the refectory of The Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, which like all other churches in Milan, is an incredible show of amazing architecture and a symbol of Catholicism created from 1463 – 1469.[57] The church had been attacked in 1943 but amazingly the Refectory managed to survive, saving the Milanese icon.[58]
Vittorio Emanuele Gallery situated just outside of Quadrilatero della Moda
Vittorio Emanuele Gallery situated just outside of Quadrilatero della Moda[59]


[edit] Quadrilatero Della Moda

Also found in Milan is the Quadrilatero Della Moda consisting of a variety of high class boutiques. Milan is known for being not only a national fashion capital, but is known internationally for their beautiful, expensive designs. The streets are full of big name shops such as Gucci, Bulgari, Versace and many more designer names.[60] Milan was not always viewed as an international shopping centre, but gained this stature around 1950.[61] This ‘Fashion Quadrilateral’ is bordered by Via Monte Napoleone, Via Alessandro Manzoni, Corso Venezia and Via della Spiga, with Via Monte Napoleone hosting the most chic of stores.[62] It is areas such as the Quadrilatero Della Moda that the culture is more popular, as some of the stores are more globalized because they are synonymous with fashion.
The Castello Sforzesco is a proud piece of Milanese history.
The Castello Sforzesco is a proud piece of Milanese history.[63]

[edit] Castello Sforzesco

Castello Sforzesco was first created during the second half of the 14th century to house Galeazzo II Visconti and his family.[64] This castle is a historical site that has experienced a lot of dramatic events over its lifetime including the building, destroying and re-building of the castle.[65] In 1447, the Milanese people created the Ambrosian Republic and tore down the castle and tyranny of the Visconti family.[66] It was not until 1452 that Francesco Sforza commissioned the rebuilding of the castle to symbolize Milan’s beauty and defend Milanese people.[67] The castle is now a part of Milanese history to show the beauty and unification of Milan and her people.

[edit] Notes and References

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  35. Williams, Meghan (2013). This Italian bank caters to immigrants — and business is booming. http://www.pri.org/stories/2013-12-16/italy-bank-where-immigrants-can-turn-get-loanRetrieved December 7, 2014.
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  37. Milan in Figures. http://www.assolombarda.it/en/milan-in-figures Retrieved December 6, 2014.
  38. Grossi, Enzo (2013). Gender-Related Effect of Cultural Participation in Psychological Well-Being: Indications from the Well-Being Project in the Municipality of Milan. Bracco Foundation, Milan.
  39. Dinmore, Guy (2011).Angry women rally against Italian sexism.
  40. Cooper, Marta (2013). Meet the Italian women fighting to be more than mothers and lovers. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  41. Fouberg, Erin H. Human Geography, Canadian Edition. John Wiley & Sons (Canada)
  42. Metropolis 2014.(2014).Retrieved December 6, 2014,from http://www.metropolis2014.eu
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