Geneva

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Geneva
(Group 2 - Nadian, Zach, Misbah, Andrea and Mark)
 Country: Switzerland    Canton: Geneva   Executive: Conseil administrative with 5 membersParliament: Conseil municipal with 80 members  Mayor: Sami Kanaan   Population: 200, 000    Migration: High Rates    Ethnicity: Primarily Romandie French     Tourism: High
Country: Switzerland

Canton: Geneva

Executive: Conseil administrative with 5 members

Parliament: Conseil municipal with 80 members

Mayor: Sami Kanaan

Population: 200, 000

Migration: High Rates

Ethnicity: Primarily Romandie French

Tourism: High

[1] [2]

Contents

[edit] Introduction

Geneva, Switzerland is a very beautiful place (Splendours of Europe, n.d.)
Geneva, Switzerland is a very beautiful place (Splendours of Europe, n.d.)[3]

If the globalized world elected to have a capital city it would be Geneva. For a city with such a small population Geneva is a major player on the world stage. This global leader is home to the world headquarters for the United Nations, the World Health Organization and the Red Cross and Red Crescent. This primarily French Canton of Switzerland is the historical site for many of the greatest achievements and changes in Western Culture. This article will explore Geneva from the perspective of Human Geography including Globalization, Political Geography, Population Geography, Migration, Social Geography and Cultural Geography. (Fouberg, Alexander, De Blij, and Nash, 2012). [4]

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[edit] Geneva and Globalization(Nadia)

[edit] Political Geography

[edit] History

At its earliest, Geneva was part of the Roman Empire in 121 BC. Over the course of several hundred years the territory was passed around to different powers. In the 5th century it was conquered by the Burgundians, an East Germanic tribe. In the 11th century, it became a part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1536, Geneva was declared to be Protestant and a republic. In 1798, France annexed Geneva, but after Napoleon was overthrown, Geneva became independent once more and in 1815 was declared to be neutral. In 1907, a referendum was made that separated the church and state and provided a better platform for democratic processes.[6][7]

[edit] Local

Sami Kanaan, current mayor of Geneva.
Sami Kanaan, current mayor of Geneva.
In Geneva, the city is run by a local government headed by a city council. In this council, there are five members, one of which acts as mayor for Geneva. The current mayor of Geneva is Sami Kanaan[8], who came into power in 2014. The city parliament, a group of 80 elected individuals who work to create by-laws, is headed by the city council. Both of these groups are elected every four years. One note about the city parliament is that they are not professional politicians. Any citizen of Geneva who meets the requirements to vote is able to run for a position in the city parliament.

[edit] International

Palace of the Nations, the building in which the UN meets.
Palace of the Nations, the building in which the UN meets.
Since 1947, Geneva has been the European location of the United Nations. This is one of the more important roles that Geneva plays in an international setting. The city, as a location for the UN, acts as a meeting place for world leaders to meet and discuss important topics. Another important organization is the World Health Organization, which is also based in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO states that its goal is "the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health".[9] A similar organization is also based here, the Red Cross is another worldwide effort to bring health to those who need it most. Also in Geneva is the organization CERN, the largest particle physics research facility, which conducts experiments in the world's largest particle accelerator.

[edit] Population

[edit] Population of Geneva

Population of Geneva by Race
Population of Geneva by Race

Geneva is the second most populous city in Switzerland as well as the most populous city of the French –speaking part of Switzerland known as Romandy. As of 2014, Geneva has a population of 196,257. The city of Geneva is at the center of the Geneva metropolitan area, also called the Grand Genève in French. The Grand Genève is divided in to three parts which includes the Canton of Geneva, the District of Nyon in the Canton of Vaud as well as many areas in the neighboring French departments of Haute-Savoie and Ain. The Geneva resident area is experiencing steady demographic growth of 1.2% a year.[10]

[edit] Population Composition

In 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. There are more female compare to males. The 24.2 % population was of Swiss men and 23.6% non-Swiss men. There were 29.3% Swiss women and 22.9% non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality of 24.3% were born in Geneva and there were 6.6% who were born in the same canton, while 15.4% were born somewhere else in Switzerland or 43.8% were born outside of Switzerland. The age distribution of the population of Geneva is children and teenagers (0-19 years old) make up 18.2% of the population, while adults (20-64 years old) make up 65.8% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 16%. [11]


Average number of children per woman in Geneva (Total Fertility, 2011)
Average number of children per woman in Geneva (Total Fertility, 2011)

[edit] Population Growth Rate

The total fertility is the average number of children that a woman would bear throughout her childbearing lifespan and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. At the end of the baby boom, the development of fertility in Switzerland is marked by a drop in the long term number of children per woman. In 2008, there were 1,147 live births to Swiss citizens and 893 births to non-Swiss citizens. In the same time span there were 1, 1114 deaths of Swiss citizens and 274 non-Swiss citizen deaths.[12]


The Graph shows the fertility rate of Geneva from 2009-2013.

[edit] Migration

Graph shows the number of Foreign Residents in Geneva (Wikipedia,2014)
Graph shows the number of Foreign Residents in Geneva (Wikipedia,2014)


[edit] Migration

Migration is a change in residence intended to be permanent.Movement changes people. It changes how they see themselves and their place in the world. Movement changes places-both the places that people leave and the places they settle. Humans bring new ideas and feelings to their new homes, altering the landscape and building a new sense of place and community (Fouberg,pg.124).

In Switzerland the population with a migration background includes not only foreign citizens who immigrated to Switzerland and their direct descendants who were born in the host country, but also Swiss citizens who acquired Swiss citizenship by birth or by naturalisation and who immigrated to Switzerland or who have at least one parent born abroad.[13]

In the city of Geneva, as of 2013, 35.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. The largest groups of foreign residents are Canton (French speaking). The most significant ethnic groups are: Portuguese-7.40%; French – 5.5%; Italian-4.85%; and Spanish-2.95%. The largest groups of migrants are from the USA, Russia, Brazil, Kosovo, Turkey, former Yugoslavia, India and Morocco. 44.6% of the canton’s working age population are non-nationals and 54% hold at least one foreign passport 2.[14]

As home of Calvin’s Reformation, the canton of Geneva has traditionally been a Protestant Christian stronghold. However, over the latter part of the 20th century the proportion of Catholics rose, in large part due to immigration from southern Europe, and now they outnumber Protestants in the canton. The surrounding regions of France are mostly Roman Catholic. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 7.2%. It has changed at a rate of 3.4% due to immigration and at a rate of 3.4% due to births.

Permanent resident population aged 15 over, by immigration status, in 2013 in Switzerland (Population with a migration background, 2014)[15]

[edit] Social Geography

Social geography is a form of human geography that uncovers how social relations are different in different areas. [16]. A "sense of place and identity" play a large part in social geography [17]. A "sense of place" focuses on the uniqueness of an area and how people connect or form memories of this area.There are multiple factors that can create the identity of an area. In regards to Geneva, Switzerland's "sense of place" is demonstrated through gender, marriage and sexuality, ethnic diversity, age of residents, currency, and crime rate.

[edit] Gender

As per 2008 statistics, Geneva’s population distribution consists of a 52% women and 48% men.[18] Most of Geneva’s population is Swiss men (24.2%) and Swiss women (29.3%).[19]

There is still a gender gap in Geneva in wages, rights, and workforces. Overall in Switzerland, women are paid 59% of what a man’s wage would be for the same position. Reports show that the gender gap is slowly closing as more women are entering the workforce.[20] However, 49% of women in the workforce work part-time, which is higher than the amount of men working part-time (less than 10%). Switzerland is considered the highest ranked country in the world for women's salaries and in literacy skills. Additionally, women’s participation in economics has shown to increase by 56%.[21]

Gender Gap 2014 (The Local, 2014)
Gender Gap 2014 (The Local, 2014)[22]

In 2013 Switzerland ranked 9th on the Global Gender Gap Index with a score of 0.7736 demonstrating a minor increase since 2012. Additionally, as of 2006 the gender gap has shown improvement (Switzerland ranked 26th). The Global Gender Gap's Report states that the gender gap in Geneva is calculated to exist until 2095, thus taking 81 years to close.[23].

In February of 2013, Geneva hosted the 22nd conference of the United Nations Human Rights Councils, and in attendance were some of the most powerful females in the world.[24] The intention of this meeting was to discuss the impact that women can make in their society when allowed to exercise substantial rights, and also decreasing the amount of gender inequality in different countries.

[edit] Marriage and Sexuality

For one to have a legalized marriage in Geneva the couple must be at least 18 years of age, not currently married, and have consent provided by their legal guardians. Additionally, it is illegal to marry inside of the family.[25] The LGBTQ community in Geneva is very lively, however gay marriage is still a pending issue requiring further debate before becoming legalized in Switzerland. There have been substantial discussions and controversies on passing the bill, however same-sex activity was decriminalized in 1942.[26]

Geneva Gay Pride Parade (Wikia, 2012)
Geneva Gay Pride Parade (Wikia, 2012)[27]

As of August 2008 in Geneva, the Federal Court announced that same-sex couples, are entitled to the same rights that heterosexual married couples have. However in the Canton of Geneva, this does not include benefits in social security, taxation, or health insurance.[28]

Across Switzerland a “Coming Out Day” has been held since the 1990’s to encourage LGBTQ people to feel comfortable in their own identity, promote a positive relationship, and feel accepted to come out.[29]

[edit] Ethnic Diversity

Due to an increase amount of immigration over the years, Geneva has become an ethnically diverse area of Switzerland with over 150 different nationalities living in its borders.[30] The main nationalities in Geneva are Italian, Portuguese, French, and Spanish.[31]

A major increase in immigration was seen after World War II as more people from Africa and Asia relocated to Switzerland. The increase in population boasted new job opportunities and more security for the foreigners.[32] Studies show that on average 40,000 people immigrate to Switzerland each year, which demonstrates a large contrast to the rest of the European countries.[33] Schindall’s (2009) article states that some native- Swiss residents were not agreeable to the amount of immigrants moving to Switzerland. The “right- wing Swiss Peoples Party” created a campaign against immigrants in 2007, which received nation wide controversy. As of 2009, the majority of nationality is Swiss, consisting of 54.30% of the population; the other half consists of the hundreds of different ethnicities that provide more cultural diversity to Geneva.[34]

[edit] Age

Similar to other countries Switzerland is experiencing a decline in birth rate. Studies show that more than twice of Switzerland’s population consists of people aged 65 and four times more people are over the age of 80, compared to the population in 1950.[35]The main reason for the decline in birth rate is because the life expectancy is very high. Statics show, as of 2012, Switzerland ranked second for mens life expectancy with 80.7, and women ranked third with 85.1 years of age.[36] This can cause an issue for the younger residents in the future because they will have to provide for the increasing amount of pensioners. With the birth rate rapidly declining, there is a risk of less people having fully Swiss origins, and also creates less newly formed ideas and perspectives for innovations Geneva's future.[37]
Age demography (all-about-switzerland.info, 2014)
Age demography (all-about-switzerland.info, 2014)[38]
As of 2000, the age distribution for Geneva appears that 18.2% of the population consists of children and teenagers (0–19 years old), adults (20–64 years old) make up 65.8% of the population and lastly seniors (64+) make up 16%. [39]

[edit] Currency

The main currency unit used in Switzerland is the Swiss Franc (Sfr). The euro is not generally used in Switzerland because it is not seen as a part of the “European Union”.[40] It is common that certain businesses in Switzerland accept euros, however there is a foreign exchange that is applied. The denominations of the Swiss Franc are available in SFr 1,000, 500, 100, 50, 20, and 10.[41] In comparison to Canada 1.00Sfr is equal to $1.17 and roughly $0.98 in American currency.

An overview of the Swiss Franc bank notes (Wikipedia, 2014)
An overview of the Swiss Franc bank notes (Wikipedia, 2014)[42]

Jorg Zintzmeyer created the current design of the SFr banknote, which was released in 1995. Pictured on the front of the 10 SFr yellow note is Le Corbusier who is a well-known Swiss- French architect and designer.[43]Arthur Honeggar a Swiss composer, is pictured on the 20 Franc red banknote. Pictured on the green 50 Franc note is Sophie Tauber-Arp, and Alberto Giacometti is on the blue 100 Franc note.[44]

[edit] Crime

As of 2012, the overall crime rate in Geneva has seen a decline. There was a 10% decrease seen in 2011 for burglaries, a 14% decrease in theft without violence, and also a 5% decrease in pickpocketing.[45] Pickpocketing is one of the most common crimes committed in Geneva and visitors are warned to keep track of all of their important belongings. [46]

A vlog created by a Geneva, Switzerland resident named Russel Mohan depicted the increase in crime rate. The video was posted on Youtube on July 28, 2014 and within it he discusses the high crime rate in Geneva. Mohan states that the opened borders to all European countries is the main reason for the increase in crime. He then describes stories he has heard or witnessed about pick pocketing instances, specifically with tourists.[47].

WTO Protest in 2009 (Huffington Post, 2010)
WTO Protest in 2009 (Huffington Post, 2010)[48]

It is very common to see protests in Geneva, but most tend to not be bothersome. The last violent protest occurred in 2009 over the World Trade Organization (WTO) where cars were burned and stores faced destruction.[49] For safety it is mandatory that police approval is always issued before any demonstrations occur in Geneva. The United Nations is the highest targeted area of Geneva for demonstrations and protests occur there almost daily.[50]

The following video was taken from a news channel and it discusses the debate of getting rid of all criminal foreigners that cause havoc in Switzerland. Some Swiss residents say that the country needs to be multicultural and immigrants are important, and others believe that mass amounts of immigrants should not be allowed in Switzerland. This is currently an ongoing debate, but the residents are hoping it will be resolved for their safety.

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[edit] Cultural Geography

Geneva has a remarkable historical and cultural legacy. Fouberg et al. (2012) [52]suggest that a ‘hearth’ is area where an idea or cultural trait originates. Geneva is a ‘hearth’ for many important ideas in Western Culture and the global world we live in today. The nonmaterial cultural of Geneva is as significant as the material culture; not only for Geneva itself, but for the Western world (Fouberg et al., 2012) [53]. Geneva started as a Gaul settlement and later occupied by the Romans in 121 BC. It was introduced to Christianity by the Roman Empire and became a key player in the Protestant Reformation, the Enlightenment and the Romantic Period. This section will look at both material and nonmaterial culture like language, religion, philosophy, contributions to global culture, local traditions and customs and the significance of various landmarks throughout Geneva.

[edit] Language

Languages of Switzerland (Federal Statistical Office, 2014)
Languages of Switzerland (Federal Statistical Office, 2014)[54]

Although Geneva is a multicultural World City the official language is Swiss French or Romandie French which is distinct from Parisian French; with only minor lexical differences between them. Only 22.6 % of Swiss speak French with the majority living in the region along Lake Geneva. In Geneva, however, 72 % Speak French, 4.4% English, 4.2% Spanish, 4.1% Italian, 4.0% German. (“Federal Statistical Office”, 2014)[55]

[edit] Religion and the Reformation

John Calvin (Portrait attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger)
John Calvin (Portrait attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger)[56]

Although Fouberg et al. (2012)[57] state that any notion of an over-arching collectively shared set of values is unsupportable given the diverse nature of social groups within a society; the Religious history of Geneva is very significant to Genevan Culture. Geneva played a pivotal role in the second wave of the Reformation that helped to define Protestantism. The Reformation started as a schism within the Catholic Church by reform minded Christians. Unlike modern day secular society; late medieval Christian’s were extremely pious and so the central issue of the reformation was salvation anxiety. A combination of Church corruption during the 15 and 16th century; and a vernacular translation of the bible, brought about a desire, especially in the laity, for a personal relationship with God. Pious Christians began to question whether institutionally granted divine grace was equivalent to the personal salvation found by reading scriptures and living a lifestyle representative of Christian values espoused by the early church of St. Paul and St. Augusta (Matthews, Platt & Noble, 2011; & Marshall, 2009)[58], [59].

Germany and Switzerland were focal points of the reformation for a variety of reasons with the first wave starting in 1517 in Saxony Germany (Martin Luther) and Zurich Switzerland (Huldrych Zwingli). The second wave of the Reformation occurred in Geneva Switzerland with lawyer named John (Jean) Calvin. Calvin’s reformation took place during the Catholic Counter-reformation and the militant Catholicism and oppression of that era. Although Calvin was soft spoken and humble he had a powerful mind and an iron will that gave him the tools he needed in order to bring about major changes in Geneva in spite of the rising anti-protestant fervour of that period (Spitz, 1985; & Weber, 2013)[60], [61].

Calvin's Chair (Challies, 2014)
Calvin's Chair (Challies, 2014)[62]

Calvin’s theology is the most accessible and clear of the reformation era because he laid out a systematic theology in his masterpiece called The Institutes of Christian Religion which consisted of four books. Calvin believed that because man’s reason was clouded by sin; God revealed himself through the scriptures, a belief shared by most reformers. He agreed with earlier reformers that salvation was granted by the suffering of Jesus (Evangelical belief a.k.a “The Good News”) but diverged with them about predestination. He believed that salvation was assured only for the “elect” and unlike previous reformers did not shy away from the idea a double predestination of the just to salvation and of the unjust to eternal damnation (Marshall, 2009)[63].


Counter-reformation pressure forced Calvin to consider Church-State relations more carefully than his predecessors. He wanted a Church constitution separate from the Government within a state that controlled the volatile nature of the common people. Calvin’s first attempt to shift control back to the church for disciplining sinners resulted in his excommunication from Geneva. After several years in exile things changed quite a bit in Geneva and Calvin was asked to come back. At that point he began working on his Ecclesiastical Ordinances defining the roles of the pastors, teachers, elders and deacons as well as the role of the consistory. Finally many years later the city council agreed that “excommunication was a matter for the consistory, not the councils to decide”. This meant that church and state powers were finally separate. This Church state structure was necessary at this stage of the reformation due to the Counter Reformation and anti-protestant fervour of this period. Calvin did not have the luxury of Luther and Zwingli of being a new idea; rather resentment and backlash was building so separating the operation of the church, from the operation of the state was the only option for survival in such and environment (Marshall, 2009)[64].

[edit] The Enlightenment

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (A 1766 portrait of Rousseau wearing an Armenian costume by Allan Ramsay)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (A 1766 portrait of Rousseau wearing an Armenian costume by Allan Ramsay)[65]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Enlightenment - The Enlightenment occurred during the Age of Reason a period considered the fruit of scientific and philosophical ideas born in the 17th century. The key figures of the Enlightenment, called the Philosophes, believed they were living in a time of illumination and enlightenment. The Enlightenment coincided with growing power of sovereign centralized nations. Following the example of ancient Greece and Rome, they rejected superstition and sought truth through reason. They embraced renaissance humanism and relied on rationalism, empiricism, skepticism, and scientific method.

They believed in man’s perfectibility through education and unlimited progress. They were called Philosophes but were not philosophers in the formal sense; they were more popularizers who wanted to influence public opinion. Rousseau was a Philosophe who influenced the French revolution, and the development of our modern political, sociological and educational thought. He wrote a treaties on education for good citizenship; discourses on the origin of inequality and on the social contract; he was libertarian and believed that social order would come if the citizens were given civil rights and moral purpose. He wrote Confessions which was one of the first autobiographies published 4 years after his death. It was noteworthy because it was so detailed and personal with remarkably frank insights into his sexual life and many amoral acts including abandoning all five of his children to orphanages (Matthews et al, 2011; & Weber, 2013)[66], [67].

[edit] The Romantic Period

Popular Culture Icon - Frankenstein by Mary Shelley – Considered one of the great Romantic novels from one of the greatest Romantic writers (Matthews et al. 2011)[68]; the idea, for what is considered the first science-fiction novel, was born on the shores of Lake Geneva and set in Geneva Switzerland. (Bechtel & Beaumont, 2006)[69].


[edit] Contributions to Global Culture

Swiss Watch Making (Pro Watches, 2014)
Swiss Watch Making (Pro Watches, 2014)[70]

Watchmaking History – The Swiss created the first wristwatch, first quartz watch, first water-resistant wristwatch, world’s thinnest wristwatch, world’s smallest wristwatch, most expensive watch and so on. The Swiss watch and clock industry appeared in Geneva in the middle of the 16th century. In 1541, the reformer John Calvin, by banning the wearing of ornamental objects (based on his reading of the bibles second commandment), in effect forced goldsmiths and other jewellers to turn to a different art: that of watchmaking. By the end of the century, Geneva had already acquired a reputation for excellence and in 1601 the Watchmakers Guild of Geneva was established, the first of its kind in the world (“FHS”, 2014)[71].

ICRC Headquarters ("ICRC", 2012)
ICRC Headquarters ("ICRC", 2012)[72]

The Red Cross and Red Crescent – (ICRC) - a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. On 9 February 1863 in Geneva, Henry Dunant founded the "Committee of the Five" (together with four other leading figures from well-known Geneva families) as an investigatory commission of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare. In October (26–29) 1863, the international conference organized by the committee was held in Geneva to develop possible measures to improve medical services on the battle field (“ICRC”, 2012)[73]

Favarger Chocolate (My Kugelhopf, 2014)
Favarger Chocolate (My Kugelhopf, 2014)[74]

Swiss Chocolate - In 1819, François-Louis Cailler opened one of the first chocolate production facilities in in Switzerland (“Chocosuisse”, n.d.)[75]. The Favarger shop, on the Quai des Bergues in the city center of Geneva, has been making chocolate since Jacques Foulquier began in 1826. Favarger, named after his watchmaker Son-in-Law Jean-Samuel Favarger in 1854, is one of the oldest brands of Swiss chocolate still in production today; they have always roasted their own beans and are Geneva’s most famous chocolate manufacturer (“My Kugelhofp”, 2014)[76].


[edit] Local Traditions and Customs

Fouberg et al. (2012) [77] suggest that a local culture is a group of people who see themselves as a community "who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others" (p. 220). Jeûne genevois and L'Escalade are good examples of local cultural traditions

Jeûne genevois a fast that takes place on the Thursday after the first Sunday in September. A public holiday in Switzerland that dates back to the 16th century. This started in 1567 as a show of solidarity with the Huguenots (French Protestants) in France but later came to signify the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre in which thousands of Huguenots were slaughtered. (Cute Calander, 2014) [78]

L'Escalade is a celebration that takes place on December 12 to mark a battle that occurred between Geneva and the Duke of Savoy in which the people of Geneva were triumphant. A large, torchbearing procession dressed in period costumes proceeds through the streets of the old city along both banks of the Rhone. Historic and legendary figures like Mère Royaume, armed with her pot, are always present. At several points along the traditional route, the procession stops and a herald on horseback reads the proclamation of victory over the invaders. Arriving in good spirits at St. Peter's Cathedral, the participants sing patriotic songs. The entire ceremony concludes with generalized merrymaking. (“My Switzerland”, 2014)[79]

[edit]
Landmarks of Geneva

Jet d'Eau (Ville de Geneve',n.d)
Jet d'Eau (Ville de Geneve',n.d)[80]

Jet d'eau which means “water jet” is a huge fountain on Geneva Lake and is one of the tallest in the world. Built in 1886 to control and release pressure of a hydraulic plant but it soon became a symbol of the city. It is now meant to symbolize the power and organization of the city and is considered a symbol of strength. Similar to the phallic buildings found in most large cities throughout the world and is 140 meters high. (Geneva.info, 2014)[81]

Eglise Russe (Ne.jp, n.d.)
Eglise Russe (Ne.jp, n.d.)[82]

Russian Church - Eglise Russe designed in 1886 is a Byzantine Moscovite style cathedral topped with golden onion domes. In 1859 the tolerant authorities of Geneva authorized the growing Russian population to build a church. This church serves the Russian community as well as the Bulgarians, Serbs, Coptic Christians and Orthodox communities as well. (Sacred Destinations, 2014)[83]

St. Pierre Cathedral - Centerpiece of the Reformation and John Calvin's home Church (Ville de Geneve',n.d)
St. Pierre Cathedral - Centerpiece of the Reformation and John Calvin's home Church (Ville de Geneve',n.d)[84]

St. Pierre Cathedral - One of the more iconic landmarks of Geneva is the St. Pierre Cathedral which could be compared, in importance, to the Vatican in Rome. St. Pierre was the home church of one of the most important figures in the Protestant Reformation movement, John Calvin. The Cathedral combines various architectural styles from Ancient Greek and Roman to Gothic, with a rich history. As well, archeological evidence suggest that there have been buildings of worship on this site since antiquity. There is evidence of a Roman Crpyt at this site and even earlier than that a pre-Roman era Allobrogian (Gaul) tomb (Geneva.info, 2014)[85].

United Nations Building - the European Headquarters of the United Nations constructed for the League of Nations in 1928 and hosts the offices of the conference on trade development UNCTAD, coordination of humanitarian affairs (OCHA) and the economic commission for Europe (ECE).

The Swiss Flower Clock (Micheloud & Cie, 2013)
The Swiss Flower Clock (Micheloud & Cie, 2013)[86]

The Flower Clock – is a giant Flower Clock in the English Garden and is a tribute to Geneva’s watch industry, harmonizing Swiss ingenuity with the floral bounties of nature. (“All-about-switzerland.info”, 2010)[87]

Rousseau Island – Named after a key figure in the enlightenment one of the Philosophe’s known as Jean Jacques Rousseau. (“All-about-switzerland.info”, 2010)[88]

Statue of Guillaume-Henri Dufour - appointed ingénieur cantonal, supervising the construction of public works that greatly improved Geneva and he also presided over the international congress in Geneva in 1864 that drew up the convention for the wounded in time of war which resulted in the creation of the Red Cross making him a co-founder of the Red Cross. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014)[89]

Old Town Geneva (Panoramio Google Maps, 2007)
Old Town Geneva (Panoramio Google Maps, 2007)[90]

The Old Town - A former Roman marketplace, the Bourg-de-Four is the oldest public square in Geneva and remains a hub of activity surrounded by bistros, terraces, bars and other popular meeting spots. It’s a maze of sloping cobblestone streets and alleyways filled with cafes, boutiques and historical landmarks at every turn. (“All-about-switzerland.info”, 2010)[91]

Museums – Geneva has over 30 museums. The Musée d'art et d'histoire was inaugurated in 1910 and is one of the three largest museums in Switzerland with the widest range of collections in Switzerland. It presents artifacts from prehistory to modern day covering the important stages in the History of Western Civilization. (Geneve-tourisme, n.d)[92]. Another museum of interest is the International Museum of the Red Cross and Red Crescent presents an interactive chronology of 150 years of humanitarian history, with a focus on current Red Cross and Red Crescent operations going on around the globe (“My Switzerland”, 2014)[93].

[edit] References

  1. Wikipedia (2014). Main Page. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
  2. Peace.Maripo.com (n.d.) Peace monuments related to the United Nations & to Peacekeeping. Retrieved from http://peace.maripo.com/p_un.htm
  3. TOUR SUMMARY. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://www.splendorsofeurope.com/Tour 10 Glacier Express.htm
  4. Fouberg, E., Alexander, B.M., De Blij, H.J., and Nash, C.J. (2012) Human Geography: People, Place and Culture (Canadian Edition) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons
  5. The City of Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2-bcnbbhaE
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  7. http://www.infoswiss.info/geneva.html
  8. http://www.ville-geneve.ch/conseil-administratif/membres-conseil-administratif/sami-kanaan/
  9. http://www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf
  10. Geneva Population by Race and Ethnicity, Retrieved on November 27th, 2014 from: http://www.clrsearch.com/Geneva-Demographics/IL/Population-by-Race-and-Ethnicity
  11. Geneva,2014; Demographics. Retrieved Dec 4, 2014 from the Geneva Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva#Demographics
  12. Components of population change (2014): “Total Fertility rate”. Retrieved on November 26th, 2014 from: http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/themen/01/06/blank/key/02/05.html
  13. http://Components of population change (2014): “Total Fertility rate”. Retrieved on November 26th, 2014 from: http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/themen/01/06/blank/key/02/05.html
  14. Geneva (n.d.). Retrieved Dec 4, 2014 from the Geneva Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva#Demographics
  15. Components of population change (2014): “Total Fertility rate”. Retrieved on November 26th, 2014 from: http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/themen/01/06/blank/key/02/05.html
  16. Fouberg, Erin, Alexander B. Murphy, H. J. de Blij, Catherine J. Nash (2012) Human Geography: People, Place and Culture (Canadian Edition) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons.
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