Berlin

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Contents

[edit] Berlin, Germany

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[edit] Einführung (Introduction)

[edit] Willkommen in Berlin, Deutschland (Welcome to Berlin, Germany.)

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[edit] Die Geschichte Berlins (The History of Berlin)

Berlin became a city in 1278. In 1307, Berlin and Colln (now known as Museum Island) joined together to expand the area of Berlin, and became the space we know today. Berlin is a German speaking city, but it welcomes English and French. In most cases, once a Berliner hears a tourist speaking English, they will welcome the chance to try out their English on you while you work on your German with them. Berlin fights against the idea of placelessness; through many areas within itself it strives to be different, to have a place for everyone to feel as though they belong, and to evolve as time shifts. It has had much of a sad, war-torn past, with a history that can leave a sour taste, but the people of Berlin rise above it time after time to work toward a better future.

[edit] Jahre auf einen Blick (Years at a Glance)

1307 - Berlin expands into the space known today as Museum Island and increases its land.

1701 - Berlin becomes a Royal and Capitol City. Housing the Soldier King (Friedrich I) and Friedrich The Great (Friedrich II), the population started to expand. With population expansion, architectural structures begin to be built, and becomes a leading industry in Prussia.

1936, Aug 1 - 16- XI Olympic Games - Hitler opened the Games on Aug 1, 1936. Hitler ordered newspapers, and advertisements to tone down their "beliefs" while visitors were in Berlin. Swastikas were very visible however. Germany only had 1 Jew participate, removing all others from teams. A boycott from several countries was discussed up to 1 year prior to the Games, but aside from the Soviet Union, all participated.

1940 - The S-Bahn killer starts to strike against women on the S-Bahn train. Slowly women start turning up dead, or close to, after being thrown off a train, and/or being beaten prior to. Not only was a war going on, but people were also in fear of Paul Ogorzow.

1945, April 21 - Berlin is officially engrossed in World War II, as the Soviets cross into the Capitol City and start moving in on Adolf Hitler, his people, and his bunker.

1945, April 30 - Adolf Hitler commits suicide within his bunker

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1961, Aug 20 - The Berlin Wall is built by the East side of Berlin. Soldiers started putting up the wall between the 2 parts, made up of barbed wire and concrete to separate the Communist side from fleeing to the French, British and American sections on the western side of Berlin.

The wall, however, has more involved than just concrete, the wall itself is long, but there is a space in between the walls structures where guards are on watch every day to ensure no one gets in or out.

1991; Capital stature June 9 2006

[edit] Berühmte Gesichter von Berlin (Famous Faces of Berlin)

[edit] Marlene Dietrich

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Born December 27 1901 in Berlin, Germany

Life Born to Maria Magdalene Dietrich, she explored the worlds of acting and singing as a child. In her teens she decided to focus more on acting and starred in her first movie 'Tragedy of Love' in 1923 at the age of 22. In the late 1930's, she starred in Germany's first talking picture, a German adaptation of 'The Blue Angel', and that rocketed her career. She moved to America shortly after Der Blaue Engeland continued to make her name known in American movies by playing provacative characters, and using her sultry singing voice when able to as well. She was in 13 motion pictures, as well as television and Broadway. "One of the most glamorous leading ladies of the 1930s and 1940s, Marlene Dietrich is remembered for her smoldering sex appeal, distinctive voice, and unusual personal style."[2]

Passed Away May 6 1992 in her home in Paris, France

[edit] Albert Einstein

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Born March 14 1879 in Ulm, Wurttenberg, Germany

Life He is most famous for his now disproven formula, E=MC2 and for discovering that nothing moves faster than the speed of light. Einstein started a love affair with his cousin in Berlin in 1912, and in 1913 he spent time at the University of Berlin in 1914 as a professor where he worked both as a professor and as a theoretical physicist working on the theory of relativity. In April of 1914 his wife and 2 sons joined him in Berlin, but in July they moved back to Zurich. On Valentines Day 1914, Albert and his wife Mileva divorced, and in 1919 Albert married his cousin that he was having the love affair with. During World War 2, and Hitler's reign, Albert Einstein was state side, and was quite vocal for human rights and acceptance of others.


Passed Away April 18 1955 in his home in Princeton, New Jersey.

[edit] Adolf Hitler

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Born April 20 1889 in Austria

Life Adolf Hitler had a normal childhood. He had 5 siblings, took music lessons, and both parents were involved in his life. However, once The Hitler family moved to Germany from Austria, he started to feel a certain way about people, races, and cultures, and as he got a bit older, he became more involved in politics. Running to eventually become the leader of Germany, he was able to attempt to work on his plan of cleansing the world from those he felt should not be living in it. Time magazine named Adolph Hitler "Man of the Year" in 1938 despite his wrongdoings, as he had great influence on his country in the previous year. On his birthday in 1945, he married his girlfriend Eva Braun in a private ceremony. As the war ensued, and troops started surrounding Hitler, he and Eva committed suicide in their Berlin bunker.

"On January 2, 1939, Time Magazine published its annual Man of the Year issue. For the year 1938, Time had chosen Adolf Hitler as the man who "for better or worse" (as Time founder Henry Luce expressed it) had most influenced events of the preceding year."[3]

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"The cover picture featured Hitler playing "his hymn of hate in a desecrated cathedral while victims dangle on a St. Catherine's wheel and the Nazi hierarchy looks on." This picture was drawn by Baron Rudolph Charles von Ripper, a German Catholic who had fled Hitler's Germany"[4]

Dead April 30 1945 in Berlin, Germany

[edit] Paul Ogorzow

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Born September 29 1912 in the Germany Empire

Life Paul became infamous as the S-Bahn killer. During blackouts, he would throw women from a moving train causing death in most, either from the fall itself, or from having hit their heads on items such as train tracks. Some were strangled and/or stabbed prior to being thrown off the train. Others are believed to have been staged near the tracks although not killed in that direct area. He became known as Germany's rapist and Serial killer due to his heinous acts during September 1940 and July 1941. "Most of his victims were married women whose husbands were away serving in the military."[5]

Executed July 26 1941 Berlin

[edit] Audra McDonald

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Born July 3 1970 in West Berlin

Life Audra's father was in the military, and so while he was stationed in Germany, she was born. She has lead a very fulfilling acting career thus far in live theatre as well as hit television shows. "She is the first actress to have won three Tonys before the age of 30"[6] Known recently for her main role on Private Practice as Dr. Naomi Bennett 2007 - 2013.

[edit] Migration

[edit] Die frühen Jahre (The Early Years)

The first mention of settlement in Germany was referred to by the Roman historian Tacitus in 98 AD. We know from his writings that this area, in his time, was settled by "barbaric" people who were in constant rebellion against the Roman Empire. As the Empire expanded westward however and Roman influence in the region of Germania increased, so did the voracity of the fighting. As the fighting increased, more and more people fled westward to what is now referred to as Berlin. This mass exodus of Germanic lands which were under Roman control is considered The Great Migration[7], and it is what caused the "German" language to develop in the area.

As the Roman Empire began to decline due to over-expansion, a still increasing number of refugees fled to Berlin, many of whom were Slavic. For almost 900 years, these Slavic people were the dominant race. When the area came under English rule, a great number of rebellions ensued. The most significant of these rebellions took place in 983 AD, bringing about a purely Slavic rule for nearly two centuries. Rulership was passed down generationally through the various ruling tribes until eventually Otto I of the Holy Roman Empire took over control of Berlin[8]. It was he who established Brandenburg (in present day Berlin) and unified the region. With this unification, however, came the subservience of the Slavs to the German people of the time.

At this point in history, Berlin (or Brandenburg as it was called) was simply a small village of little regional importance. This all changed when Frederick II changed the name to Colln and made the city a royal residence. From here, it became a very important location in Europe. A surge in population resulted, and poverty spread. The Jews in the city were immediately blamed and 100 of them were either banished or killed. Typical of the Dark Ages, as the population continued to rise, so did problems within the city. In 1576, Bubonic Plague hit Berlin, claiming the lives of 4,000 people which was around half of its population. By the early 1600's, the city had regained much of its population, but this did not last. In 1618, the Thirty Years' War began which again decimated populations all across Europe, and Berlin was not exempt.

However, when peace finally was attained, the population began to soar once again. Immigrants came from France, Bohemia, Salzburg and Poland [9], bringing the population up to around 20,000 people. They brought with them their diverse cultures and belief systems. It was during this time that historic places such as the road Unter den Linden was built. It was this influx of differing ideas that was a major component of Germany's exit from the Dark Ages, thus changing their history forever.

[edit] Zwischen Mittelalter und die Weltkriege (Between the Dark Ages and the World Wars)

This period was a turbulent one for Berlin. As a result of the Seven Years' War, Russia took control of Berlin and began to enforce their cultures on the city. This did not last long, however, because Napoleon and his French forces took over the city just 40 years later. This conquest, however, changed things in a way we can still see today. Parliamentary elections were held two years later. As a result, Jews were granted the freedom to work in whichever field they so chose to work in.

Berlin quickly grew into the fourth largest city in all of Europe. People were coming from the surrounding areas in order to capitalize on the Industrial Revolution which was occurring in all the major cities in the world. The greatest factor was the advent of railroads. Berlin being the railroad capital of Germany, people were able to travel great distances in an increasingly short amount of time. This ease of access brought with it different cultures and different ideas that shaped Berlin into much of what it is today.

[edit] Die Weltkriege (The World Wars)

The population continued to rise as people from the rural areas surrounding Berlin flocked to the city for the new jobs that were available as a result of the Industrial Revolution. This all halted during the first World War, however. All focus was placed on the war effort and very little happened in the city of Berlin to change its cultural makeup. However, following the war, the city limits were expanded to include the surrounding areas, causing the population to include nearly 4 million people. After the war, there was little in the way of immigration into the city because of the restrictive efforts of the Treaty of Versailles.

When Adolf Hitler took power in 1933, a mass exodus began. His pogroms and other racially antagonistic efforts forced people out of Berlin by the tens of thousands. These Jews, Christians and others were quickly replaced by Nazi Party supporters from all across Europe. People were sent into the surrounding areas for recruitment, etc. They also pushed out the Jews everywhere they went. In fact, by the time the War officially started in 1939, only an estimated 75,000 Jews remained within Berlin's city limits. This number only decreased during the War. Once the War started however, the borders were all but completely sealed off to migration. The only major populace migrations happened as Hitler expanded the boundaries of the Third Reich to include places like Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland.

[edit] Heutigen Tag (Present Day)

During the years that the Berlin wall was intact, there was almost negligible contact between the sides. West Berlin became increasingly "Westernized" and East Berlin came to increasingly reflect its Soviet rulers. This remained fairly consistent until the demolition of the wall. Since then, Berlin has become very racially diverse. It is now a multicultural hub within Europe with Koreans, Polish, Cubans and Vietnamese calling the city home, as well as its earlier Turkish and European settlers [10].

[edit] Hoffnung auf besseres Leben (Hope for a Better Life)

Berlin has a strong economy, which is a major pull factor for people considering moving to Berlin. Another pull factor that the Roma mention is that welfare and child taxes are much higher than where they are from. Since Berlin is so diverse, immigrants know they will not be the only minority, and they will find their own community with their respective ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Although this will make integrating their social lives with locals harder, it is a good start.


More pull factors for migration to Berlin is displayed through this video. Psychologists display their care for struggling immigrants and what they do to help them. Culture shock is still a big struggle for immigrants, as well as finding steady work and integrating themselves into the Berlin lifestyle.

[edit] Bevölkerung (Population)

[edit] Geburtenraten (Fertility Rates)

Germany as a whole has one of the lowest birth rates in the world, and the numbers keep declining. "According to the national statistics office, fewer babies were born in Germany last year than at any time in history;"[11] based on a 2012 study. Looking into behavioural geography, we can see that there appear to be 2 reasons for this issue. The first is that schools do not run for the full day like other areas around the world. "Most schools finish earlier than elsewhere in Europe - sometimes as early as 11am - making it harder for women in particular to combine work and family."[12] Mothers may have to choose between living as a stay-at-home mother or being in the workforce. "In Germany, there are three genders: men, women and mothers."[13] Geography can play a role in how and when a role is devised. "Spaces and places themselves can also be gendered in that some places are seen as more appropriately feminine, such as the home or domestic spaces, and other spaces more properly masculine, such as the public space of work and political engagement"[14] This is what many Germans feel they need to power against, and struggle to get ahead of. Having a stay at home dad is defying gender roles and stereotypically not something that would be accepted as much where women are seen as not being good mothers if they also choose to work. This issue leads into reason 2 as to why Germany as a whole has a declining birth rate; women are simply choosing not to become mothers. This allows them to avoid deciding whether to give up the job that they have worked so hard for or to not spend as much time with their child(ren).

[edit] Religion

More people in Germany do not believe in any sort of religion, and this is emphasized more so in Eastern Germany. The Eastern part of Germany strongly discourages religion, so the Western portion of Germany is in large part what makes up the total of believers in Christianity, "Roman Catholic (30%), or Protestant (29.9%), although 1.6% of the population are also Orthodox Christians. Islam is the second highest religion in Germany - about 4-5% of Germans are adherents."[15]

[edit] Vor dem Holocaust (Before the Holocaust)

Prior to the Holocaust, there were Jews and Christians alike in Germany, and Berlin. Germany had roughly 505,000 Jews out of 67 million residents, with Berlin having the highest population of Jewish persons with approximately 160,000 residents in 1925.[16] "An estimated 37,000 Jews emigrated from Germany during 1933... approximately 304,000 Jews, emigrated during the first six years of the Nazi dictatorship, leaving only approximately 214,000 Jews in Germany proper (1937 borders) on the eve of World War II."[17]

[edit] In den Jahren der Mauer (During the Wall Years)

[edit] Ganz Deutschland (All of Germany)

1969 77,134,000

1980 78,275,000

1989 78,677,000 [18]


[edit] Ost-Berlin (East Berlin)

The Communist side of Berlin 1950 11,891

1960 10,718

1970 10,940

1981 11,576

1989 12,792 [19]


[edit] 2014

Although Germany has problems with repopulating, they are still ranked 15th in the world as most populous country, and within Germany, Berlin is ranked highest in population with an estimated 3,439,100 residents. In second place is Hamburg with 1,769,117; so over a 1 million resident difference.

[edit] Mutterschafts- und Erziehungsurlaub (Maternity and Paternity Leave)

Although Germany's fertility rates are declining, the German government fought hard for maternity and paternity benefits in hopes this would assist families in possible financial struggles, and start to boost the decreasing population. The maternity portion looks after the mother to be before and after birth. Job protection is guaranteed once an employer has been informed of pregnancy, and to ensure that a job is not given to someone else during an interview process, the pregnancy does not have to be disclosed ensuring no discrimination.

[edit] Diskriminierung-Schutz (Discrimination Protection)

Through Employment Protection, the below is to be honored, ensuring that both the mother to be and the baby, are both well taken care of, as well as ensuring that there is no discrimination at the workplace: ~Expecting and nursing mothers are not permitted to work at night between 20:00 and 06:00. ~Expecting and nursing mothers are not permitted to work Sundays and on holidays. ~Expecting and nursing mothers are not permitted to work overtime. ~Expecting and nursing mothers are not permitted to work more than 8 1/2 hours daily or 90 hours in 2-week period. ~Expecting and nursing mothers under 18 are not permitted to work more than 8 hours daily or 80 hours in a 2-week period. ~Nursing breaks are 30 minutes, two times per day or one time per day for 1 hour. If a working mom is at the job for more than 8 hours, then she is entitled to two 45 minute breaks or if there isn't a close nursing area available, then a single 90 minute break is to be provided. These breaks may not be deducted from a nursing mothers pay or hours worked and they may not be counted in place of other instituted breaks (like lunch breaks). ~Expecting mothers do not have to work during the last 6 weeks of their projected pregnancy, but may do so as long as they formally state their intention to work during this period (paragraph 3) ~New mothers are not allowed to return to work until 8 weeks have passed since the date of their child's birth (paragraph 5) ~For premature, multiple and cesarean births, the return date to work is extended automatically to 12 weeks after birth (paragraph 5.1)[20]

[edit] Mutterschaftsurlaub finanzielle Entschädigung (Maternity Leave Financial Compensation)

"Mutterschaftsgeld (Maternity Benefit) If you have German health insurance, you are entitled to maternity benefit. This amounts to a maximum of 13 EURO per day, paid by your health insurance company and topped up by your employer to equal your net salary, which is calculated as an average of your last 3 months pay (including overtime and commission). If you are privately insured, you can apply for a lump sum of 210 EURO and your employer will pay you your net salary minus 13 EURO per working day." [21]

[edit] Vaterschaftsurlaub (Parental Leave)

Whether one parent or both would like to stay home longer than the allotted 8 weeks, they are able to apply to paternity leave. It is an unpaid leave, but parent(s) are allowed to work up to 30 hours per week if need be to help with income. They do not need to work at/for their current employer, and cannot be dismissed from their current position(s) while on paternity leave. Any/all parents staying home with their newborn are to let their employer know within no less than 8 weeks, in writing, of their plans so that the employer has time to make arrangements to cover the position.

[edit] Orte zu gehen, Gebäude zu sehen (Places to go, Buildings to see)

What attracts people to Berlin? "...Berlin lacks everything that makes a big city. It has no financial district like Manhattan or London, no venerable, centuries-old cathedral like Cologne or Paris."[22] Berlin has a history like no other, and a present that tries to console its citizens and capture the hearts of its tourists.

[edit] Die Berliner Mauer (The Berlin Wall)

"The Wall is quite simply Berlin's most famous monument - the German counterpart to the Statue of Liberty" [23] The Berlin Wall Memorial gives visitors to Berlin a chance to go and see what it was like having The Wall in place. "Located directly at the former border strip in the Bernauer Strasse is a piece of the Berlin Wall with border strip and watchtower."[24] One can go up to the Watchtower to see the view that guards once had, and see the documentation and explanation leading up to, and during, the 1961 construction of The Wall.

[edit] Checkpoint Charlie

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This 'border crossing' signified the changes between Eat and West Berlin. Signs stating as such were in 4 languages at the checkpoint. "Historically, the site is important because from 1961 to 1990 it functioned as the main entry and departing point for diplomats, journalists and non-German visitors who used to be allowed to enter East Berlin on a one day visa after exchanging their Deutsch Marks on a one-to-one basis for East German currency" [25]

[edit] Berlin Zoo

Come spend a day with the Berlin Aquarium, and zoo animals. "It is Germany’s oldest zoo and its collection of round 16.000 animals including about 1.500 various species is the most important animal collection in the world."[26] The Zoo first opened in 1844. During the Second World War, much of the zoo was ruined, and only approximately 100 animals survived the devastation. There are now "more than 15,000 animals representing about 1,400 species,"[27] with most of those roaming free is a close match to their natural habitat. As few as possible have been caged. The Petting Zoo as a level of connection for children and adults alike to feel at one with the animals.

[edit] Sony Center

Used for concerts, social gatherings, and amazing architecture brings people together to this center. Image:Sony.jpg

[edit] Bundeskanzleramt (Chancellor's Office)

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Axel Schultes designed "the only government building to have been designed by a Berlin architect"[28]

[edit] Olympiastadion (Olympic Stadium)

Constructed for the 1936 'Nazi Olympics', this stadium is a site to see as it was constructed to reflect the "architectural style typical of the Nazi period."[29]

[edit] LegoLand Berlin

As in its name, this place is full of Lego! Building ideas, structures of animals and skyscrapers, rides and more, this place is sure to please any kid, or kid at heart.


[edit] Sozialgeographie (Social Geography)

[edit] Einführung (Introduction)

With Berlin being a world city, social lives are bound to intertwine. Two decades since the fall of the wall, there has been an economic incline, which coaxed people to open up their own businesses and shops in the city. People gather in school lives, as there are many universities, and step out of their boroughs, bonding in clubs and world renowned pubs.[30]

[edit] Identität und (Identity and Place)

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The scar of war and terror is still left on the city of Berlin, but this is memorialized. It is common knowledge of the terrors that were the Holocaust, and the Holocaust Memorial is placed in Berlin for residents to honor the millions of Jews that were killed during the second World War. Race and ethnicity were a big factor in how social geography was dispersed and sadly disposed of in Berlin back in the day. Today, you will see more diverse ethnicity, with the most populated non-German ehtnicity being Turks and Slavs. [31]


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Since the dissipation of the Berlin Wall, the city built the Brandenburg Gate, which now stands in its place. This architectural symbol represents the new social era of Berlin, and the conjoining of the once separated east and west sides of Berlin. This is a social center for Germans.

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Cafes throughout the city serve as social gathering places where people of all ethnicities, races, sexualities, and genders may gather. People from all different political boroughs put their differences aside when in social gatherings.

[edit] Richtung des Platzes (Sense of Place)

Residents in Berlin are quite fond of clubs, as there are 600,000 registered clubs in Berlin, with countless unregistered clubs as well[32]. Clubs can be centered from sports to arts, and much more. The art scene is very big in Berlin, as there are many art galleries that are popular within the city, bringing in many tourists in addition to locals who frequent and contribute to these galleries and institutions.

Berlin is well known for the various street festivals that are held throughout the year, which are great social and cultural unifying experiences, that act as the sense of the cities place.


[edit] Kulturgeographie (Cultural Geography)

This reference map outlines Berlin's interconnected cities and towns. The three specific ones being pointed out are of Berlin's most popular for tourists and citizens alike.

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[edit] Mitte (The Old City)

Right at the heart of Berlin is the Old City. It is where the city was established back in 1244 by the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Initially settled by the Holy Roman Empire, stone walls were quickly built to fortify the city and to improve its defensive capabilities[33]. It gradually grew in significance over the next 200 years until becoming the royal residence of the Brandenburg electors in 1451. It is here that much of the touristic history began in old city Berlin.

In 1530, Elector Joachim I donated a large piece of land to the city to be kept as a royal game preserve. It remained a hunting preserve for another 210 years until 1740 when it was redesigned to fit the more modern English form of landscaping and was renamed Tiergarten Park. This park is one of the most popular tourist destinations in all of Germany, and still remains today. Although much of Mitte was destroyed during the many wars Berlin has been involved in, many pieces have been reconstructed and has therefore began drawing in tourists from all across the world. In fact, Mitte is currently the most popular attraction in the city. As a result of this increase in tourists, the entire area has been structured to accommodate them and keep the people coming.


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[edit] Charlottenburg

This is the true downtown of Berlin. With its high rises and 5-star hotels, Charlottenburg is the economic hub. Although much of the city was destroyed during the Allied bombing of Germany in World War II, this area has been successfully rebuilt as a true modern city. Its centerpiece is the rebuilt Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche church, reminding people of both Berlin's past and its present. With the big city draw this area was designed to exude, the young population flourishes downtown and bars and cafe's have sprung up along every street as a response. "During the day, Charlottenburg’s palace, gardens, and palatial gardens invite countless picture-snappers to stroll its manicured paradise."[34] Its well maintained and manicured look set it apart from some of the other Berlin shopping and relaxation spots which can adorn art work and have less noticeable cleanliness in some areas. Its cobblestone walkways, and farmers markets are just some of the sites seen while out and about this part of Berlin.

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[edit] Kreuzberg

One of the more interesting sections of the city, Kreuzberg was initially settled by Turkish immigrants and their influence is still felt all across the region. "Once enclosed on three sides by the Berlin Wall, this former West Berlin neighbourhood, immediately south of the river Spree, drew immigrants, hippies, artists and squatters while the city was divided." [35] Perhaps the most notable point about this section, however, is its unique part in Berliner history. In 1987, they attained the international spotlight during the May Day political demonstrations. This demonstration is re-enacted every year around the same time, resulting in one of the most raucous nights of the year. It is this unique history, however, which has drawn in its equally unique residents. Kreuzberg is primarily filled by hipsters, anarchists and artists who are looking for a place that will satisfy their taste for something different than what you can find anywhere else in the world[36]. These people have brought in their various art shops, cafe's and unique nightlife spots such as the Lido (1950's cinema turned club)[37]. Kreuzberg offers a lot of differing artistic viewpoints. "A must for any visitor to Berlin is a stroll along the East Side Gallery, the longest remaining section of the Berlin Wall. The 105 original works of art by 118 artists from 21 countries was restored in 2009."[38]Kreuzberg is apart of participatory development strategies, whether directly and knowingly or not; "the idea that locals should be engaged in deciding what development means for them and how to achieve it"[39]

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[edit] Globalisierung (Globalization)

[edit] Globalisierung im Handel (Globalization in Trade)

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Since 1950, Germany has been operating at a trade surplus. Even after the resolution of World War II, the country has been highly successful in the world of international trade. There are not many places that can confidently say that they will produce so many more goods than they could possibly use that they end up shipping their goods all around the world. Although there was little change in the country's overall trade surplus during the Cold War and the Berlin Wall era, they still always managed to produce and ship out more than they purchase[40].


When the Wall came down though, their surplus skyrocketed. The entire rest of the world entered into the newly united nation's trade market rather than being restricted to those country's under Soviet control. The trade surplus which had been fairly steady between nil and 2,500,000,000 Euros (today's value) was suddenly up around 5,000,000,000 within two years. According to the CIA fact files in 2013, Germany was ranked fourth overall for exporting of goods with $ 1,493,000,000,000US, with Canada being ranked twelfth with $ 458,700,000,000US.[41] Today, that surplus is at a record-setting 29,100,000,000 Euros[42], surpassing China as the world's largest exporter of goods.

None of this would have ever happened without the fall of the Berlin Wall, meaning that this economic boom all began with its capital city, Berlin. As the centre of the nation's government, every major influence that Germany has on the world has its roots in Berlin.

The primary good which Germany exports worldwide lies in the automotive industry. Just one company, Volkswagen, made total sales of 197,007,000,000 Euros in 2013 alone, making them the third largest automotive manufacturer in the world[43]. Their vehicles are sold all over the world, and have had an impact in the lives of literally billions of people over the years. Coming in tenth in the global automotive industry is another German company, BMW. This sales level was enough to give them the title of the world's largest manufacturer of luxury-class vehicles. Unranked but still of huge international significance is Mercedes-Benz[44]. Between the three companies, their global influence is undeniable.

[edit] Globalisierung in Politik (Globalization in Politics)

Berlin has played a major role in global politics. Even before the major era of globalization began, Berlin was making a difference. Even though it wasn't always a good influence, it has always had a part to play. During the first World War, the leaders in Berlin were called upon to defend their Serbian allies against Austria-Hungary[45]. It ended up becoming one of the major Axis powers during the war and was therefore harshly disciplined in the Treaty of Versailles.

During the time between global conflicts, the Great Depression hit. Although its effects were felt all around the world, very few places were affected like Berlin. The government was still under harsh sanctions from years earlier, so had little opportunity to improve their economic standing. This crisis gave rise to perhaps the most influential political individual in recent world history.

Adolf Hitler came in as a saviour who would restore the Fatherland to its former glory. He annexed the areas surrounding the country and jump-started national industry. He single-handedly rebuilt their country, and promised far greater things. Hitler promised the people the world. Then, he set out to deliver, and so began World War II[46]. It involved nearly every country and certainly affected each one.

At the conclusion to this war, the attitude of global leaders was permanently changed. They realized their mistaken thinking. They could no longer simply pull back into their metaphorical shells and deal with only their own country. What happened in any one country would ultimately affect the entire world. This introspection was all brought about by the appointment of one leader who ruled from Berlin.

[edit] Politische Geographie (Political Geography)

[edit] Regierung (Government)

Berlin is part of a Social Democratic Party (SDP), which is further subdivided into twelve boroughs [47]. Residents of Berlin have strong connective roots to each respective borough as they choose to reside in the area of their respective favourable boroughs. This shows a clear reason for why people who live in Berlin have chosen to reside where they do. Strong feelings of territoriality align with the borough of the SDP they support. The current mayor who has governed since 2001, is Klaus Woweriet. [47] It is also interesting to note that Klaus is in fact the first gay mayor of Berlin, which could make for a major political shift from the former communist era of the city.[48] Lesbian and gay community welcome Klaus in hope that the new mayor will focus on gay issues.


Here are clearly displayed the twelve boundaries of the boroughs in Berlin:

Image:Boroughs.png

[edit] Globale Beziehungen (Global Relations)

On December 16, of 2002, Berlin signed a peace keeping agreement which was made between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union(EU), called the Berlin Plus Agreement. [49] This agreement between the EU and NATO allows for a comprehensive amount of abilities to be pulled from depending on the condition of each situation. This agreement is put in place to keep peace and to avoid conflict on a global scale if a crisis were to occur. Both the EU and NATO have the right of refusal in a crisis with can cause delays, as was observed in previous observations. [49]


This image portrays a map of European memberships of EU (blue), NATO (orange), and both (purple)

image:EUNATO.png

[edit] Grenzkonflikte (Boundary Disputes)

After WWII, there was tension in Germany, especially in the capital, Berlin. Before the wall was built in 1961, Germans would bounce back and forth from west to east Berlin in order to choose a side --east Berlin was occupied by the German democratic republic (GDR), and west Berlin was occupied by what the GDR claimed to be fascists[50]. The centrifugal forces in Berlin were GDR's pushing to erect this wall of separation. 2.7 million people left the GDR (east Berlin) to go the west Berlin before the GDR put up the Wall. [50] After threats of the wall being put up by GDR, and GDR saying that they would not go through with this, they ultimately did, as of Aug 12, 1961[50] . Even though the Soviets were against this, the GDR went on with creating massive concrete slabs that would go to separate transportation tracks, neighborhoods, and shopping strips. People who lived near the border were evicted from their homes[50]. The right to move freely throughout all of Berlin had been violated by the GDR, and the Soviets were not going to let the GDR get away with this without a fight[50]. The two nuclear powers opposed each other for 16 hours with only a few meters separating them. Within 24 hours, both sides withdrew with help from a diplomatic initiative by President Kennedy[50]. The Soviet party leader confirmed the walls existence for the time being in order to prevent war within Germany[50].

[edit] Literatur (Bibliography and References)

  1. Picture Credit Bahm, Karl BERLIN The Final Reckoning 2001 page 156
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  4. iBid
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  14. Human Geography 2012 ISBN 978-0-470-15806-7 page 27
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  47. 47.0 47.1 see References. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Democratic_Party_of_Germany.
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  49. 49.0 49.1 References. see http://eeas.europa.eu/csdp/about-csdp/berlin/index_en.html.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 50.5 50.6 References. see http://www.berlin.de/mauer/geschichte/index.en.html.

All German translations used www.babelfish.com


Authors:

Adrienne as13rr

Kaleb ks10uy

Martina mt13yf


Introduction ~ Adrienne

Tourist Attractions ~ Adrienne

Globalization ~ Kaleb

Political Geography ~ Martina

Population ~ Adrienne

Migration ~ Kaleb & Martina

Social Geography ~ Martina

Cultural Geography ~ Kaleb

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