Beijing

From Intro to Human Geography 2014

Jump to: navigation, search

Seminar 2, Group 2 Richard Vos, Shane Dunkley, Eric Gervais and Maggie Sproat

Image:Beijing_central_business_district.jpg[1].

Contents

[edit] Introduction

Beijing, formerly known as Peking, is the political empire of the People’s Republic of China [2]. Located in the northeastern corner of mainland China, Beijing is China’s capital city. This mega world city is a blend of both the new (modernization and world-class infrastructure) and the old (ancient Chinese culture and tradition). Iconic landmarks, such as the Great Wall, the Forbidden City and Tiananmen Square reflect Beijing’s great historical richness, but with an increased push to modernize Beijing has become an industrial and political powerhouse.

In addition to its industrial and political properties, Beijing is also the cultural and educational center of the People’s Republic of China [3]. Beijing’s recent emergence as a mega world city is a result of four major causes: the Chinese Economic Reform, the open door policy and foreign investment, building of the Central Business District and the 2008 Beijing Winter Olympic Games [4].

The communist takeover of mainland China in 1949 greatly altered the geography of the country, including it's administrative capital, Beijing. [5] Beijing's place as China's political capital means it is a Centrally Administered District, a large city under direct control of the Communist Party of China. Due to Beijing's large population and geographic size, the city is further divided into political districts to ease administration by federal and municipal government.[6]

Recent reports estimate Beijing has a current population of 21 million [7], a number that continues to expand [8]. Beijing is densely populated, with roughly 86.2% of its population residing in the urban core; [9] however, Beijing's population density saw a steady decline in the city's urban core between 1949 and 2012 [10]. This decline can be attributed to transportation planning throughout the 1980's and 1990's [11]. The resulting ease in transportation has caused inner and outer suburban Beijing to grow in size and population [12], but such a substantial increase in such a short time period has caused concerns over the capacity of the city’s infrastructure [13].

Beijing’s growing population is a factor in the increasing migratory shifts from rural to urban spheres. Inward migratory flows are in part by Beijing’s growing economic and industrial development, attracting millions to take part, at the same time restrictive social policies, such as the ‘One Child Policy’ encourage Chinese citizens to migrate to urban sectors, like Beijing [14].

With increased migrant populations within Beijing this has furthered the divide between Beijing’s rich and poor. Restrictive social policies like the hukou system dictate lower social assistance for rural migrants, thus furthering the wage gap [15]. Regardless of wage dispersal, Beijing still houses a multitude of ethnicities, totalling a whopping 56 diverse ethnic groups [16]. Transnational also has significance when considering things like the flow of workers to areas of opportunity [17]. Cultural norms play an important role in the way this migration is carried out and even political forces may intervene [18].

Beijing has a rich cultural geography that is visible through unique place, city events and traditions of the people who live there [19]. All of these things contribute to an atmosphere that gives a sense of politics, past civilizations, current worldwide importance (the Olympics) and everyday reasons to celebrate through activities in the market place [20].

Let us help you discover a unique sense of place that can only be Beijing! [21].

[edit] Globalization

Beijing, one of the oldest cities in the world, has served as the capital of multiple Chinese dynasties[22]. Today, it serves as the political, cultural and educational center of the People’s Republic of China [23]. Despite its rich history and substantial population, Beijing has only recently emerged as a world city [24]. A world city is defined as a “dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy…centers of strategic control of the world economy” [25]. The globalization of Beijing, or “the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact” [26] can be attributed to four major causes: the Chinese Economic Reform, the open door policy and foreign investment, building of the Central Business District and the 2008 Beijing Winter Olympic Games [27].

[edit] The Chinese Economic Reform

Although the Communist Party took control of Beijing in 1949, the city had little interaction with the global economy. During the early 1970’s, US-China relations were normalized and Beijing began trade with the West, slightly extending the city’s network. It wasn’t until the Chinese Economic Reform, beginning in 1978, and the implementation of economic policies that China began to develop a “socialist market economy”. This shift was the driving force behind Beijing’s radical market transition and resulting integration into the global economy [28].

[edit] Open Door Policy and Foreign Investment

In an effort to finance economic and infrastructure development, China implemented an open door policy to enhance foreign investment and trade. In 1993, the Foreign Investment Utilization Office was established with the sole purpose of facilitating this new policy. As a result, foreign direct investment increased substantially in Beijing from US$244.8 million in 1991 to US$666.9 million in 1993. To further attract foreign investment, the government made significant improvements to the investment environment. By 2000, there were 30 development zones/parks operating in Beijing [29]. These zones/parks host over 23,000 industries, with electronics and industrial manufacturing being the most prominent. With many high-profile auto manufacturing plants located in Beijing’s suburbs, the automobile industry also holds significant presence [30].
China's_GDP shows the exponential increase of Chinese GDP in recent history.</ref>
China's_GDP[31] shows the exponential increase of Chinese GDP in recent history.</ref>
.

Today, Beijing has an extensive network with forty eight sister cities located in Asia, Europe, North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Africa [32]. Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Germany and the United States are major sources of foreign direct investment, according to the government’s 2007 data on foreign trade [33]. The total value of exports in 2012 was US$21.3 billion and the total value of imports was US$53.1 billion [34]. Major imported commodities included sugar, cereals and cereal flour, synthetic fibers, television/video/digital cameras, mechanical and electronic products, aluminum products, motor vehicle parts and high tech products. Main exported commodities included frozen chicken, garments, mechanical and electrical products, high tech products, electrical appliance and electronic products, computer and communication technology and electronic technology [35]. Although not yet a main export, Beijing showed a major increase in the export of ethanol and petroleum products in 2006 [36].

[edit] Central Business District

The central business district of a city is “the downtown heart of a central city, marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings” [37]. A world-class central business district is one of the key features of a world city [38]. Located in the Chaoyang district, Beijing’s central business district was strategically planned and constructed by the municipal government to further open up the city to the world [39]. Since its construction, the central business district has become the most active and modern area in the city and has greatly enhanced its integration into the global economy [40].

[edit] 2008 Beijing Winter Olympic Games

Image:Beijing_National_Stadium.jpg[41]

The 2008 Beijing Winter Olympic Games was an event that solidified Beijing’s status as a world city. Not only did the Games promote China’s capital, but they greatly promoted the global reputation of the whole nation and improved its degree of global participation and integration [42]. Ultimately, hosting the Olympics served to even further globalize Beijing as it expanded their economic, and political processes on an international scale.

[edit] Political Geography

[edit] Geographical Impact of CPC

21st century reproduction of Yongdingmen Gate, a segment of Beijing's former fortification
[43]

An area of cultural and economic prominence for over 2,000 years, Beijing was named China’s capital and centre for politics by Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China (CPC) in October of 1949. Due to Beijing's political dominance it has caused an influx of migration and geographical expansion and change since the CPC’s takeover.[44] Since the CPC's takeover of China, Beijing has experienced a rapid modernization in terms of land use and city infrastructure. Historical centres within the city have been converted to housing, shopping, and financial districts, a testament to Beijing's 'place' as a financial centre and primary tourist destination within China.[45] Formerly a fortified city, Mao's revolutionary forces demolished massive segments of Beijing's old walls after coming to power. A controversial act at the time, the demolition of Beijing's old wall allowed expansion of the city's urban core and contributed to it's rapid growth and industrialization. Millions of dollars have recently been allotted to rebuilding and restoring some of Beijing's cultural and historical landmarks destroyed by Mao's regime.[46] Investment in Beijing's rebuild lost many historical landmarks, and is widely acknowledged as an attempt to sell the city's history to the tourism industry, an act in commoditizing an item that is not traditionally a market good, and repurposing it for economic means.[47] As a result of mass industrialization and Beijing's growing population's and increased use of automobiles since the Communist takeover in 1949, Beijing has become a major centre for air pollution. Smog commonly reaches levels that make the city border on inhospitable.[48] Increased pressure from foreign powers has led Beijing's mayor Wang Anshun to call for a 760 billion Yuan "all out effort" to improve air quality by 2017.[49]

Image: Tiananmen square.jpg[50]

[edit] Structure of Government

Beijing is one of four centrally administered municipalities in China (Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing being the other three). Centrally administered municipalities are under the direct governmental control of the CPC. The CPC subdivides these megacities into various administrative districts.[51] There are 14 Administrative Districts of Beijing and 2 administered rural counties.[52] The Beijing Municipal People’s Congress is appointed to govern Beijing as a representative of the CPC. The People’s Congress is comprised of elected members of the CPC with the elected secretary acting as head of Beijing municipal government.[53] Former Beijing mayor Guo Jinlong is the current secretary of the Beijing People's Congress.[54] The Beijing People’s Government handles basic civic duties throughout the 16 Administrative Districts with officials elected by members of the Municipal People’s Congress. The Beijing People’s Government acts as a less powerful governing body than the Municipal People’s Congress.[55] The current mayor elected for Beijing political office is Wang Anshun.[56]

[edit] Administrative Districts of Beijing

[57]Map displaying administrative districts of Beijing (Xuanwu District is now part of Xicheng District and Chongwen District is now part of Dongcheng District)

Beijing's 16 administrative districts are grouped into 4 subdivisions, determined by their geographical position relative to Beijing's Old City, which comprises the urban core of modern day Beijing. Dongcheng and Xicheng form the city centre, while the remaining 14 districts surround the urban core and form an inner suburb, outer suburb, and rural area. Beijing's 4 groupings of districts harmoniously act to provide the city with sustainable areas of agriculture, industry, commerce, government, and tourism. [58]

[edit] Urban Core

Dongcheng and Xicheng comprise the centre of Beijing, the urban core of the city. Densely populated, both districts have developed extensive commercial areas which reflect there standing as Beijing's most popular tourist destinations. [59] Dongcheng is recognized as the cultural centre of the city; most of the remaining infrastructure of old Beijing is in Dongcheng. The most well known areas of cultural significance in Dongcheng are the Forbidden city and Tian'amen Square. Tian'amen square was the site of famous political protests in 1989. Bullet holes are still evident in some statues in Tian'amen square. Tian'amen square houses many status of Soviet influence.[60] This is a prime example of the sphere of geopolitical influence the U.S.S.R had in all corners of the world. Xicheng is the home of the CPC administrative buildings, and Beijing municipal administrative buildings. Though Xicheng is primarily recognized as a political district, increasing amounts of tourism have led to a burgeoning nightlife and shopping district.[61]

[edit] Inner Suburb

The inner suburbs: Chaoyang, Haidian, Fengtai, and Shijingshan, house the majority of Beijing's population. Fengtai District is one of Beijing's main areas of industry.[62] Haidian houses most of Beijings institutes of higher learning and is comprised of students who are non-permanent residents of the district.[63] Chaoyang is the centre of commerce of Beijing. It is the highest populated administrative district in Beijing. Chaoyang's bustling Central Business District is home to the majority of the city's sky scrapers, and essentially acts as Beijing's "downtown area", and China's district for international business affairs.[64]

[edit] Outer Suburb

The outer suburbs(Mentougou, Fangshan, Tongzhou, Shunyi, Changping, and Daxing) are deemed "light industrial" areas. The industry that dominates the inner suburbs has not fully reached the outer suburbs, but as the inner suburbs become focused on the business side of commerce, industrial production is growing in the outer suburbs. The underdevelopment of the outer suburbs means the districts provide Beijing with most of the natural raw materials needed to drive industry in the city.[65]

[edit] Rural Area

Rural Beijing (Pinggu, Huairou, Miyun, Yanqing) provide the city proper with the necessary agricultural production to sustain Beijing's immense population. The rural areas of Beijing are predominantly mountainous, and home to many natural resources that fuel production in the suburbs. Tourism has increased in the area as the lack of modernization means remnants of China's historical past are left unaltered.[66]

[edit] Population

According to the most recent population data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the population of Beijing in 2012 was 20.7 million [67]. Sex composition in 2012 from a 0.831% population sampling fraction showed a relatively equal amount of males and females; 51.26% males and 48.74% females [68]. The population, which saw considerable increase after the city was reinstated as the capital, continues to expand [69]. Recent reports estimate Beijing to have a current population of 21 million [70]. Despite its enormous geographic size [71], Beijing is densely populated. In 2012 86.2% of its population was located in the urban core [72].

[edit] Demography

At the end of 2012, Beijing had an urban population (all people residing in cities and towns) of approximately 17.8 million and a rural population (population other than urban population) of approximately 2.8 million. Data from the same year showed a birth rate of 9.05% and a death rate of 4.31% [73]. The city’s resulting natural growth rate, calculated by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate [74], was 4.74% [75]. In 2010, the life expectancy was 80.18 years; 78.28 years for males and 82.21 years for females [76].

In 2012, the average family size was 2.53 persons per household [77]. Age composition in 2012 from a 0.831% population sampling showed approximately 1.6 million ages 0-14, 14.1 million ages 15-64 and 1.5 million ages 65+ [78].

Educational attainment in 2012 from a 0.831% population sampling ages 6+ showed 3659 having senior secondary school and 6143 having college and higher level [79].1.46% of the population ages 15+ in 2012 was illiterate; 0.59% were males and 2.37% were females [80].

Fifty six ethnic groups can be found in Beijing, with the Han Chinese comprising roughly 96% of the city’s population. Other prominent ethnic groups include the Manchu, Hui and the Mongol Additionally, Buddhism, Daoism, Islam and Catholic and Protestant Christianity can be found. All of which are officially recognized by the Chinese central government [81].

[edit] Density

Despite a population in 2012 that had increased six fold in size since 1949, Beijing's population density has seen a steady decline in the city's urban core over those 63 years.[82] Estimates indicate Beijing's early 1950's population density in the urban core was 40,000 people per square kilometer, 2011 estimates put this figure at 4,900 per square kilometer.[83]

A variety of factors have led to Beijing's decreasing urban population density. An emerging middle class and their demand for automobiles (automobile ownership in Beijing increases by 15-20% each year) led to Transportation planning throughout the 1980's and 1990's.[84] Highway systems were added, and are still being expanded, that afford easier movement to and from Beijing's urban core. In part due to it's winning the 2008 Olympic bid, Beijing added subway lines that allow transportation to and from the urban core.[85]

The ease in transportation that has emerged over the last 30 years has caused inner and outer suburban Beijing to grow in size and population. Most of the growth Beijing has experienced since 1949 has occurred outside of the city's urban core.[86] Beijing's inner suburbs have been the primary area of growth in Beijing. Population in the four inner suburban districts increased by 3.2% from 2000-2010, with a density of 7,500 people per square kilometer in 2010.[87] Such a substantial increase in population and density in such a short time period has caused concerns over the capacity of Beijing's infrastructure. An urban spatial planning strategy has been implemented by Beijing's municipal government to allow sustainable population increase in the city's suburbs.[88]

[edit] Migration

[edit] Rural to Urban Migration

[89].

Beijing’s migrant population has almost doubled from the years 2000 to 2010. According to the Chinese National Bureau of Statistics, migrants account for 7.045 million of Beijing’s population; an annual growth rate of 10.6%, which now accounts for 35.9% of Beijing’s total (19.6 million) population [90]. What has caused Beijing’s migrant populations to increase so rapidly in a ten year span? The influx of inward flowing migrants has much to do with the rural to urban push. In the year 2009, over 145 million Chinese citizens relocated themselves from rural sectors to urban cities, like Beijing, country wide [91]. This accounts for 11% of the total population of China [92]. Increased Beijing migrant populations are due in part to a combination of push and pull factors. Push factors can be defined as, “[n]egative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave… to a new locale,” while pull factors are, “[p]ositive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales…” [93]. Rural Chinese citizens are being pushed to Beijing because of restrictive social policies, such as the ‘One Child Policy.’ The ‘One Child Policy’ restricted rural couples to have one child, or two, if the first one was a girl, thus dramatically decreasing the agricultural workforce [94]. The ‘One Child Policy’ has in effect caused millions of rural Chinese to migrate to the big cities to work in industry and construction. This leads into the pull factors. Work is the number one factor encouraging migration to Beijing. According to the Chinese National Bureau of Statistics, 73.9% of Beijing migrants moved for work, 8.0% for family reasons, and 4.7% for education [95]. China’s ‘Reform and Open’ economic policy has led to unprecedented growth within urban economies allowing foreign investments and a booming manufacturing industry to encourage rural Chinese residents to relocate to Beijing and many other Eastern urban empires for work opportunities [96].

The map [97] below displays the internal migration flows within China. It shows the heavy inward flows of rural migrants to Eastern urban cities, such as Beijing.

Image:China Migration.png

[edit] Transnational Migration

Transnational migration to and form Beijing is legally possible as it is for many people elsewhere in the world, but there are some underlying social implications that are unique to Beijing. The international migration of Chinese people is subjected to previous concepts of the Maoist period that at one time banned international migration during the Qing dynasty [98]. There are however parts of Europe and Russia that make the emigration of peoples originating from Beijing particularly comparable to internal migration within China [99].

Historically, during the early part of the twentieth century, millions of labourers fled parts of China to South-east Asia for work and famine alleviation [100]. In more recent years there is again a strong inclination for people to both migrate in an out of Beijing; as of 1990, migrant communities accounted for 11.1 to 27.5 percent of urban population [101].

The people who migrate to and from other countries are often doing so for new opportunities. Considerations of push and pull factors may indicate the exact reasons that people are deciding to move. Guest worker programs tend to cause a flow of migrants to places of economic growth [102]. Those that wish to move from Beijing to Hong Kong have strict stipulations that require a person who has a child with a Hong Kong citizen to acquire an exit permit, which is usually a very long process [103]. Emigration, especially temporarily for education or work, is much more common to places like Canada where those from China and other Asian countries make up approximately 30% of all immigrants in 1999 [104]. This has been the case for much of the last century as “Immigration policy reforms in Canada and the United States in the mid-1960s allowed easier entry for Asian professionals who wanted to emigrate” [105].

[edit] Social Geography

[edit] Class Disparity and the Wage Gap

Just as any other major urban centre, the city of Beijing is divided based on social classes. Social class can be defined as, “[a] group of individuals sharing a position in a social hierarchy, based on both birth and achievement” [106]. A major indicator of social class is one's income. With the growing economic climate, globalization, and a relaxation of ‘socialist’ policies, Beijing’s elite have furthered the divide between the rich and the poor. In 2008 the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences conducted a study to define percentages of each specific social class. This is what they found: 0.6% upper class, 6% upper-middle class, 36% middle class, 34% lower-middle class, and 24% lower class [107]. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences also defined the social classes based on occupational labels and stated, 22.5% are urban white-collared, 34.7% urban blue-collared, and 42.8% in the peasantry sector [108]. The stark figures above suggest that the great majority of Beijingers are in the lower sectors of social class. The Chinese National Bureau of Statistics reported in 2010 that the average yearly wage of Beijing residents was 65,683 yuan ($12,186 CAD), an increase of nearly 14% as compared to 2009 statistics; however, millions of Beijing residents (especially rural) still earn less than $1.25 CAD per day [109]. Beijing’s Gini Coefficient, a mathematical formula used to calculate social mobility and equality, hit an all-time low in 2012 with a score of 0.474 [110]. A score of 0 represents absolute equality, while 1 represents absolute inequality. Any score of 0.4 and above is classified as inequitable according to the United Nations and China’s National Bureau of Statistics [111].
Hukou shows the increase of Chinese citizens living outside of their hukou from the years 2000 to 2010.</ref>
Hukou[112] shows the increase of Chinese citizens living outside of their hukou from the years 2000 to 2010.</ref>
. Beijing’s inequitable Gini Coefficient and large low-income population is a representation of strict social policies, such as the hukou system. The Hukou system is a record of personal demographics, such as place of birth, that dictate eligibility in various social services[1]. Hukou, however, stipulates that residents of urban centres, such as Beijing, born in urban centres get better social assistance over residents born in rural regions [113]. With such a rapid inflow of rural Chinese migrants to Beijing, it has left these migrants destitute and free of helpful social support. This has in turn created a large population of low-income, or peasantry sector individuals. The Hukou system has regrettably been branded as China’s caste system [2]. These are the mechanisms that construct the current structure of Beijing’s social class system.


This stark image [114] reflects the utter contrast between rich and poor housing in urban Beijing.

Image:Rich and Poor Beijing.jpg

[edit] Ethnic Makeup of Beijing

Beijing hosts a great variety of ethnic groups. Even though the vast majority of Beijingers are descendants of the Han people (95.69% or 12,983,696 people), there are 56 ethnically diverse groups [115]. Out of the other 55 ethnic groups, the next most prominent (by population size) groups are the Manchu, Hui and Mongols. The Manchu, also known as the Jurchen tribe, first arrived in Beijing during the invasion of the Great Wall in 1644. They were in control of present state of China until the establishment of the Republic in 1911. Now the Manchu represent almost 2% of Beijing’s population [116]. The Hui are direct descendants of Persian and Arabic merchants and silk traders that migrated to China in 600AD. The Hui still practice traditional forms of Islam and settled in Beijing’s Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [117]. Lastly, the Mongols are descendants of the Central Asian state of Mongolia. Within Beijing and the rest of China, Mongols are, “known for [there] brave, open and uninhibited nature” [118], which sets them apart from other ethnic groups. Lately, Beijing has also drawn a sizeable international community that is mostly situated in the northern, north-eastern and eastern corners of the urban city [119]. Refer to the table below for detailed statistics of the top ten most prominent ethnic diversities in Beijing.

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han 12,983,696 95.69%
Manchu 250,286 1.84%
Hui 235,837 1.74%
Mongols 37,464 0.28%
Koreans 20,369 0.15%
Tujia 8372 0.062%
Zhuang 7322 0.054%
Miao 5291 0.039%
Uyghur 3129 0.023%
Tibetan 2920 0.022%
[3]

[edit] Cultural Geography

[edit] Cultural Places and Events

The Tiananmen Square protest and massacre that occurred on June 4. 1989 brought about an iconic image of a lone man standing in front of five tanks [120].This image has since resonated as a symbol of a movement forward to freedom for both the Chinese population and western media [121]. Image:tin.jpg [122]

The Forbidden City was originally constructed by Empower Yong le during the Ming Dynasty and it has had significance in culture dating since 1406 [123], This area also has significance as a commodity as it has become popular among tourists and it has undergone many renovations with intent to retain authenticity [124]. The architecture and atmosphere are not always preserved as evident by the demolishing of many homes to make way for new apartment complexes, sometimes resulting in the involuntary relocation of residents [125]. Beijing has shown a willingness to share in global culture by hosting the 2008 Olympic Games where a stadium was erected to house 91,000 visitors. In addition, several other facilities were constructed such as the National Aquatics Center that hosted the swimming competitions [126]. The hosting of the Olympics also reflected local culture as the norms of Beijing could be expressed in the presentation altered by tradition.

[edit] Traditions and Atmosphere

Beijing opera has traditional significance going back more than 200 years to the Qing Dynasty where it came as a result of combining other traditional opera styles of that time period [127]. Since Beijing opera has no resemblance to western opera [128], the tradition has retained its authenticity all while still attracting curious tourists. Costumes used in the opera can be described as using traditional Chinese embroidery that incorporates gold and silver threads and make-up is used to embody certain personalities to the audience [129].

Chinese New Year is a tradition with many local customs. Visiting relatives and friends is one of those customs and it is done to give ones best wishes to others [130]. On new years it is also common for those that travel to also partake in a traditional dinner as well as stay up all night for the good health and long life of their parents [131]. The material landscape, sights, and smells of Beijing finds contributions from the various markets that are scattered throughout the city. The Silk Street Market is one such place that has an area of 30,000 square meters and 1,600 booths with a wide variety of products [132].

[edit] Notes and References

  1. Beijing central business district. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from: http://hotelnewotanichangfugong.com/beijing-central-business-district/
  2. Today, it serves as the political, cultural and educational center of the People’s Republic of China Changgang, Guo. (2007). Beijing. Encyclopedia of Global Religion,124-127. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy.library.brocku.ca/10.4135/9781412997898
  3. Changgang, Guo. (2007). Beijing. Encyclopedia of Global Religion,124-127. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy.library.brocku.ca/10.4135/9781412997898
  4. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006) State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  5. Bonavia, David Michael. (2014). Beijing. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/448956/Beijing
  6. China.org.cn. Administrative Division System. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.china.org.cn/english/feature/38436.htm
  7. Sharma, S. (2014, June 19). Beijing Has Almost the Same Population as These Countries. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/06/19/beijing-has-almost-the-same-population-as-these-countries/
  8. Myer, M. (2012). Beijing Forever. Foreign Policy, 195, 78-80. doi: http://proxy.library.brocku.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.301181363&site=eds-live&scope=site
  9. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  10. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm</ref
  11. Huang, Yan. "Urban Spatial Patterns and Infrastructure in Beijing." Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Oct. 2004. Accessed November 30, 2014 from https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/969_Urban-Spatial-Patterns-and-Infrastructure-in-Beijing
  12. Cox, Wendell. "The Evolving Urban Form: Beijing." Newgeography.com. 29 Aug. 2011. Accessed November 30, 2014 from http://www.newgeography.com/content/002406-the-evolving-urban-form-beijing
  13. Huang, Yan. "Urban Spatial Patterns and Infrastructure in Beijing." Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Oct. 2004. Accessed November 30, 2014 from https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/969_Urban-Spatial-Patterns-and-Infrastructure-in-Beijing
  14. Hu, X. (2012, January 12). China's Young Rural-to-Urban Migrants: In Search of Fortune, Happiness, and Independence. Migration policy institute. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/chinas-young-rural-urban-migrants-search-fortune-happiness-and-independence
  15. Qi, L. (2011, May 05). Avg. annual salary reaches 65,000 yuan in Beijing's non-private sector. People's daily online. Retrieved from http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90882/7371142.html
  16. China through a lens. Retrieved from http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/60784.htm
  17. Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., & De, B. H. J. (2012). Human geography: People, place, and culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Page 100
  18. Martin, P., & Widgren, J. (2002). International Migration: Facing the Challenge. Population Bulletin, 57(1), 3-40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.brocku.ca/docview/237097196?accountid=9744
  19. http://www.tour-beijing.com/nightlife_guide/beijing_opera.php retrieved December 9, 2014
  20. http://www.tour-beijing.com/attraction_guide/olympic_sites.php#.VIIb7zHF_EY retrieved on Dec 5, 2014.
  21. Finnair (July 3, 2014) Beijing- China's capital mixes the ancient and modern world. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yf4E5VAC0rI
  22. Issitt, Micah L. (2014). Beijing, China. Salem Press Encyclopedia online. Retrieved from http://proxy.library.brocku.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx direct=true&db=ers&AN=94740293&site=eds-live&scope=site
  23. Changgang, Guo. (2007). Beijing. Encyclopedia of Global Religion,124-127. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy.library.brocku.ca/10.4135/9781412997898
  24. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006). State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  25. Fouberg, E. H., Murphey, A. B., De Blij H. J., & Nash, C. J. (2012) Human geography: People, place, and culture. P. 37. Mississauga: Wiley
  26. Fouberg, E. H., Murphey, A. B., De Blij H. J., & Nash, C. J. (2012) Human geography: People, place, and culture. P. 31. Mississauga: Wiley
  27. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006) State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  28. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006) State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  29. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006) State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  30. Issitt, Micah L. (2014). Beijing, China. Salem Press Encyclopedia online. Retrieved from http://proxy.library.brocku.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=94740293&site=eds-live&scope=site
  31. http://wiki.dickinson.edu/index.php/China's_Economic_Growth_and_the_Environment_Fa_08
  32. Author Unknown. eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. Retrieved from http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/
  33. eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. Retrieved from eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. Retrieved from
  34. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  35. eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. Retrieved from http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/feature_2/Statistics/ForeignEconomyandTrade/t1059434.htm
  36. Issitt, Micah L. (2014). Beijing, China. Salem Press Encyclopedia online. Retrieved from http://proxy.library.brocku.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=94740293&site=eds-live&scope=site
  37. Fouberg, E. H., Murphey, A. B., De Blij H. J., & Nash, C. J. (2012) Human geography: People, place, and culture. P. 291. Mississauga: Wiley
  38. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006) State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  39. eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. Retrieved from http://www.bjinvest.gov.cn/english/Zone/200511/t69851.htm
  40. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006) State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  41. Iwan Baan (photographer). (2008). Beijing National Stadium, Retrieved December 4, 2014 from: http://www.chinese-architecture.info/OLYMPICS/OL-001.htm
  42. Wei, D.Y., & Yu, D. (2006) State Policy and the Globalization of Beijing: Emerging Themes. Habit International. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2004.10.002
  43. "重建后的永定门 Yongdingmen gate, rebuilt in 2002" Retrieved November 24,2014, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Yongdingmen.JPG by http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Shizhao is licensed under CC http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  44. Bonavia, David Michael. (2014). Beijing. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/448956/Beijing
  45. Briney, Amanda. (2014). Geography of Beijing. About. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://geography.about.com/od/chinamaps/a/beijingchina.htm
  46. The Economist. (October 26, 2002). The Antique That Mao Destroyed. The Economist Newspaper Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.economist.com/node/1408613
  47. Fouberg, E. H., Murphey, A. B., De Blij H. J., & Nash, C. J. (2012) Human geography: People, place, and culture. P. 226. Mississauga: Wiley
  48. Kaiman, Jonathan. (February 13, 2013). Pollution making Beijing hazardous place to live, says Chinese report. The Guardian. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/13/china-beijing-pollution-hazardous-report
  49. Duggan, Jennifer. (January 23, 2014). Beijing to spend £76bn to improve city's air quality. The Guardian Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/chinas-choice/2014/jan/23/china-beijing-authorities-measures-tackle-air-pollution
  50. Peter Morgans (photographer). Tiananmen Square. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from: http://www.thenews.pl/1/10/Artykul/137072,MPs-boycott-China-visit-in-Tiananmen-Square-anniversary-protest
  51. China.org.cn. Administrative Division System. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.china.org.cn/english/feature/38436.htm
  52. Top China Travel. (2014). Beijing Districts. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.topchinatravel.com/beijing/beijing-districts.htm
  53. The Standing Committee of Beijing Municipal People's Congress. Beijing Municipal People's Congress. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.bjrd.gov.cn/en/ABOUTSUS
  54. News of the Communist Party of China. (March 29, 2013). Guo Jinlong -- Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://english.cpc.people.com.cn/206972/206976/8188130.html
  55. Cities of the World:Beijing. (2008). Beijing-Government. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.city-data.com/world-cities/Beijing-Government.html
  56. eBeijing, the Official Website of The Beijing Government. Resume of Mayor Wang Anshung. Beijing International Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Government/Mayor_office/mayors_profile/t1234774.htm
  57. [Beijing District Map]. Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.topchinatravel.com/beijing/beijing-districts.htm
  58. Wikipedia, (2014). List of administrative regions of Beijing. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_administrative_divisions_of_Beijing
  59. eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. Retrieved November 29, 2014, from http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Government/Administration_region/
  60. "Beijing/Dongcheng." Dongcheng Travel Guide. Wikitravel. Accessed November 28, 2014, from http://wikitravel.org/en/Beijing/Dongcheng
  61. "Beijing/Xicheng." Xicheng Trael Guide. Wikitravel. Accessed November 28, 2014, from http://wikitravel.org/en/Xicheng
  62. Wikipedia, (2014). Fengtai District. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fengtai_District
  63. Yuankai, Tang. "DISCOVERING BEIJING: Haidian District." Beijing Review. N.p., 13 Feb. 2008. Accessed November 29, 2014 from http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bjreview.com.cn%2Fprint%2Ftxt%2F2008-02%2F13%2Fcontent_99197.htm
  64. Beijing's CBD: Guide to Living Here. Beijing Abode. Accessed November 29, 2014 from http://www.beijingabode.com/area-guides/cbd
  65. Beijing City Province. The Six Outer Suburbs of the City of Beijing. Accessed November 29, 2014 from http://www.drben.net/ChinaReport/Beijing/Landmarks-Hotspots/Six_Outer_Suburbs/6_Outer_Suburbs_LandMarks-Hotspots-Menu.html
  66. eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from http://www.bjinvest.gov.cn/english/Zone/200511/t69851.htm
  67. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  68. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  69. Myer, M. (2012). Beijing Forever. Foreign Policy, 195, 78-80. doi: http://proxy.library.brocku.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.301181363&site=eds-live&scope=site
  70. Sharma, S. (2014, June 19). Beijing Has Almost the Same Population as These Countries. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/06/19/beijing-has-almost-the-same-population-as-these-countries/
  71. Myer, M. (2012). Beijing Forever. Foreign Policy, 195, 78-80. doi: http://proxy.library.brocku.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.301181363&site=eds-live&scope=site
  72. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  73. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  74. Fouberg, E. H., Murphey, A. B., De Blij H. J., & Nash, C. J. (2012) Human geography: People, place, and culture. P. 99. Mississauga: Wiley
  75. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  76. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  77. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  78. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  79. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  80. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm
  81. Changgang, Guo. (2007). Beijing. Encyclopedia of Global Religion, 124-127. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy.library.brocku.ca/10.4135/9781412997898
  82. National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistical Yearbook 2013. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2013/indexeh.htm</ref
  83. Cox, Wendell. "The Evolving Urban Form: Beijing." Newgeography.com. 29 Aug. 2011. Accessed November 30, 2014 from http://www.newgeography.com/content/002406-the-evolving-urban-form-beijing
  84. Huang, Yan. "Urban Spatial Patterns and Infrastructure in Beijing." Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Oct. 2004. Accessed November 30, 2014 from https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/969_Urban-Spatial-Patterns-and-Infrastructure-in-Beijing
  85. Huang, Yan. "Urban Spatial Patterns and Infrastructure in Beijing." Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Oct. 2004. Accessed November 30, 2014 from https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/969_Urban-Spatial-Patterns-and-Infrastructure-in-Beijing
  86. Cox, Wendell. "The Evolving Urban Form: Beijing." Newgeography.com. 29 Aug. 2011. Accessed November 30, 2014 from http://www.newgeography.com/content/002406-the-evolving-urban-form-beijing
  87. Cox, Wendell. "The Evolving Urban Form: Beijing." Newgeography.com. 29 Aug. 2011. Accessed November 30, 2014 from http://www.newgeography.com/content/002406-the-evolving-urban-form-beijing
  88. Huang, Yan. "Urban Spatial Patterns and Infrastructure in Beijing." Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Oct. 2004. Accessed November 30, 2014 from https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/969_Urban-Spatial-Patterns-and-Infrastructure-in-Beijing
  89. Guy Thompson. (April 15, 2012). Urban Migration in China. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hgtkLphzzk
  90. English.news.cn. (2011, May 05). Beijing's population tops 19.6 mln, migration key contributor to growth. China. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-05/05/c_13860069.htm
  91. Hu, X. (2012, January 12). China's Young Rural-to-Urban Migrants: In Search of Fortune, Happiness, and Independence. Migration policy institute. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/chinas-young-rural-urban-migrants-search-fortune-happiness-and-independence
  92. Hu, X. (2012, January 12). China's Young Rural-to-Urban Migrants: In Search of Fortune, Happiness, and Independence. Migration policy institute. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/chinas-young-rural-urban-migrants-search-fortune-happiness-and-independence
  93. Fouberg, E. H., Murphey, A. B., De Blij H. J., & Nash, C. J. (2012) Human geography: People, place, and culture. Mississauga: Wiley
  94. Hu, X. (2012, January 12). China's Young Rural-to-Urban Migrants: In Search of Fortune, Happiness, and Independence. Migration policy institute. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/chinas-young-rural-urban-migrants-search-fortune-happiness-and-independence
  95. China.org.cn. (2011, July 06). Migrant population in Beijing exceeds 7 Million. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://www.china.org.cn/china/2011-07/06/content_22930666.htm
  96. Hu, X. (2012, January 12). China's Young Rural-to-Urban Migrants: In Search of Fortune, Happiness, and Independence. Migration policy institute. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/chinas-young-rural-urban-migrants-search-fortune-happiness-and-independence
  97. Huang & Luo. (2008). Migrating to reduce distance to density: Despite the obstacles, Chinese workers have migrated in the millions. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://images.1233.tw/urban-migration-in-china/
  98. (3)Pieke, F. N., & Mallee, H. (1999). Internal and International Migration: Chinese Perspectives. In , Internal & International Migration: Chinese Perspectives (p. 1). Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Q-tQAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=).+Internal+and+International+Migration:+Chinese+Perspectives.&ots=VS0n0bqJQ8&sig=7LwhX3Og0liZ-aFuEjTVDKf95ho#v=onepage&q=).%20Internal%20and%20International%20Migration%3A%20Chinese%20Perspectives.&f=false
  99. (4) Pieke, F. N., & Mallee, H. (1999). Internal and International Migration: Chinese Perspectives. In , Internal & International Migration: Chinese Perspectives (p. 3). Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Q-tQAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=).+Internal+and+International+Migration:+Chinese+Perspectives.&ots=VS0n0bqJQ8&sig=7LwhX3Og0liZ-aFuEjTVDKf95ho#v=onepage&q=).%20Internal%20and%20International%20Migration%3A%20Chinese%20Perspectives.&f=false
  100. (7) Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., & De, B. H. J. (2012). Human geography: People, place, and culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Page 97
  101. (9)Ma, L. C., & Xiang, B. (1998). Native Place, Migration and the Emergence of Peasant Enclaves in Beijing. China Quarterly, (155), 546-581. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.proxy.library.brocku.ca/stable/655950
  102. (11)Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., & De, B. H. J. (2012). Human geography: People, place, and culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Page 100
  103. (12) Martin, P., & Widgren, J. (2002). International Migration: Facing the Challenge. Population Bulletin, 57(1), 3-40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.brocku.ca/docview/237097196?accountid=9744
  104. (13) Martin, P., & Widgren, J. (2002). International Migration: Facing the Challenge. Population Bulletin, 57(1), 3-40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.brocku.ca/docview/237097196?accountid=9744
  105. (13) Martin, P., & Widgren, J. (2002). International Migration: Facing the Challenge. Population Bulletin, 57(1), 3-40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.brocku.ca/docview/237097196?accountid=9744
  106. Ravelli, B., & Webber, M. (2010). Exploring sociology: A Canadian perspective. Toronto: Pearson
  107. Zhang, Y. (2012, March 07). New changes in China's social class structure. People's daily online. Retrieved from http://english.people.com.cn/102780/7750165.html
  108. Zhang, Y. (2012, March 07). New changes in China's social class structure. People's daily online. Retrieved from http://english.people.com.cn/102780/7750165.html
  109. Qi, L. (2011, May 05). Avg. annual salary reaches 65,000 yuan in Beijing's non-private sector. People's daily online. Retrieved from http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90882/7371142.html
  110. Rapoza, K. (2014, June 20). In China, Rich Population Growth Beats World Average. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2014/06/20/in-china-rich-population-growth-beats-world-average/
  111. Rapoza, K. (2014, June 20). In China, Rich Population Growth Beats World Average. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2014/06/20/in-china-rich-population-growth-beats-world-average/
  112. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1563062/china-scraps-urban-rural-distinction-hukou-household-registration-system
  113. Quartz Staff, (2014, July 31). The end of China’s hated hukou system is less ground-breaking than it seems. Quartz. Retrieved from http://qz.com/242851/the-end-of-chinas-hated-hukou-system-is-less-ground-breaking-than-it-seems/
  114. [Untitled image of Beijing's wealth disparity]. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from: http://madmikesamerica.com/2010/12/for-rent-air-raid-shelter-68-a-month/
  115. China through a lens. Retrieved from http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/60784.htm
  116. ChinaDaily.org. (2008, July 10). 2008 eyes on Beijing. Retrieved from http://www1.chinaculture.org/08olympics/2008-07/10/content_136514.htm
  117. ChinaDaily.org. (2008, July 10). 2008 eyes on Beijing. Retrieved from http://www1.chinaculture.org/08olympics/2008-07/10/content_136514.htm
  118. ChinaDaily.org. (2008, July 10). 2008 eyes on Beijing. Retrieved from http://www1.chinaculture.org/08olympics/2008-07/10/content_136514.htm
  119. ChinaDaily.org. (2008, July 10). 2008 eyes on Beijing. Retrieved from http://www1.chinaculture.org/08olympics/2008-07/10/content_136514.htm
  120. (1) Jones, T. Y. (2014). Tiananmen square at 25: memories of Tiananmen square in 1989, as told (and photographed) by a journalist who was there. The Wilson Quarterly, (3), retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.proxy.library.brocku.ca/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=AONE&userGroupName=st46245&tabID=T002&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&currentPosition=1&contentSet=GALE%7CA378558527&&docId=GALE|A378558527&docType=GALE&role=
  121. Jones, T. Y. (2014). Tiananmen square at 25: memories of Tiananmen square in 1989, as told (and photographed) by a journalist who was there. The Wilson Quarterly, (3), retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.proxy.library.brocku.ca/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=AONE&userGroupName=st46245&tabID=T002&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&currentPosition=1&contentSet=GALE%7CA378558527&&docId=GALE|A378558527&docType=GALE&role=
  122. http://proof.nationalgeographic.com/files/2014/06/140602-franklin-tiananmen-04.jpg retrieved December 5, 2014
  123. http://www.tour-beijing.com/attraction_guide/forbidden_city.php#.VIOvpTHF_EY retrieved Dec 1, 2014
  124. http://www.tour-beijing.com/attraction_guide/forbidden_city.php#.VIOvpTHF_EY retrieved Dec 1, 2014
  125. Fouberg, E. H., Murphy, A. B., & De, B. H. J. (2012). Human geography: People, place, and culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Page 424
  126. http://www.tour-beijing.com/attraction_guide/olympic_sites.php#.VIIb7zHF_EY retrieved on Dec 5, 2014.
  127. http://www.tour-beijing.com/nightlife_guide/beijing_opera.php retrieved December 9, 2014
  128. http://www.tour-beijing.com/nightlife_guide/beijing_opera.php retrieved December 9, 2014
  129. http://www.tour-beijing.com/nightlife_guide/beijing_opera.php retrieved December 9, 2014
  130. http://www.beijingattractions.org/Beijing-Local-Tradition/Chinese-New-Year-Visit.html retrieved December 9th, 2014
  131. http://www.beijingattractions.org/Beijing-Local-Tradition/Chinese-New-Year-Eve-Staying-up.html retrieved December 9th, 2014
  132. http://www.tour-beijing.com/blog/beijing-travel/top-10-beijing-markets/ retrieved December 9th, 2014
Personal tools
Bookmark and Share