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[edit] Background

Bullying has always been a problem in our society with an aggressor causing harm to a victim bullying is “intentional harm-doing or harassment that is directed toward vulnerable targets and typically repeated. Bullying encompasses a wide range of malicious aggressive behaviours, including physical violence, verbal mockery, threats, ostracism, and rumours spread either orally or by other means of communication,”(Felmlee, Diane 2013) [1] Bullying happens everywhere but it is also quite apparent in sports and in physical activity where the more athletic individuals will often bully the less athletic or physically gifted individuals. This kind of behavior can cause substantial damage to the victims where the damage can be physical (i.e. broken bones, cuts, bruises), or mental (i.e. depression, lack of confidence). Bullying is also a very prevalent problem in our society “in a study of over 2,000 New York state students in Grades 9 through 12, nine percent reported being frequently victimized by bullies.”(Sansone, Randy A. & Sansone, Lori A. 2008) [2] Bullying not only causes mental and physical harm but also can cause social problems as well as somatic problems to people.

[edit] Mental Effects From Bullying

The psychological or mental effects that bullying can have on an individual are that they internalize symptoms, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and in some cases eating disorders. (Sansone, Randy A. & Sansone, Lori A. 2008) Anxiety is a mental effect caused from bullying because when an individual is bullied they will be anxious about doing things. For example if an individual is bullied in sport they will avoid at great cost to participate in sports to avoid the bullying. Depression and suicidal thoughts stem from the bullying as the victim will often feel inadequate and will develop depression. If the bullying continues this is when suicidal thoughts will sometimes start to form. These problems can also be related to sport and physical activity because if an individual is bullied in sport and feels inadequate depression can be caused which can possibly lead to suicidal thoughts. Another mental effect of bullying is eating disorders eating disorder can stem from something as simple as a comment about an individuals weight. These comments are often overlooked but can cause serious effects on an individual. Eating disorders are also apparent in sports especially sports like horse back riding, wrestling, boxing and dance where an individuals weight is always scrutinized and commented on. The pressure to always be thin and comments from coach’s, friends or teammates in any sport can cause eating disorders.

[edit] Social Effects From Bullying

Another consequence of bullying is an effect on social development specifically stunted social development. (Sansone, Randy A. & Sansone, Lori A. 2008) As a result of bullying some individuals will not develop like they are supposed to socially and may become socially awkward and not be able to relate with their peers. A study was taken about these social problems “In a Korean study of seventh- and eighth-grade students, investigators found that being bullied contributed to an increased risk of social problems. In this study, social problems were described as acting younger than one’s age, being overly dependent on adults, and behaving socially immature” (Sansone, Randy A. & Sansone, Lori A. 2008) This will cause these individuals to likely be continued to be bullied, as they will find it hard to reach out to peers and to make friends, which will cause them to be social outcasts and the likely targets of bullying. As a result of the bullying these individuals will have problems later in life in adulthood because they will lack the social tools to be able to get a job and form relationships in adulthood life.

[edit] Somatic Effects From Bullying

As well as mental and social problems bullying can also cause somatic problems in individuals. Somatic problems mean problems with the body. Somatic problems associated with bullying are “in a study of over 1,600 US children, ages 6 through 9 years, being bullied was associated with a higher likelihood of repeated sore throats, colds, coughs, and poor appetite.” (Sansone, Randy A. & Sansone, Lori A. 2008) Bullying causes the prevalence of children being sick at younger ages if they are bullied similar studies were conducted with children form 9 years of age to children in high school. It was found that being bullied caused the prevalence of headaches, sleeping problems, abdominal pain, bed-wetting, feeling tired, stomachaches, backaches, dizziness, fatigue, neck and shoulder pain, and medication use to increase in the children that were bullied. (Sansone, Randy A. & Sansone, Lori A. 2008) Not only do the problems from bullying extend to mental damage and social problems they also can cause individuals pain and discomfort. This is why bullying prevention is important in our society.

[edit] Why Bullying Prevention is Important

Bullying can cause so many problems physically, mentally, socially as well as somatically this is why bullying prevention is so important because it would reduce so many mental health issues from developing as well as physical health issues from developing. Sport and physical activity can be a way to help with bullying prevention however these activities can also be places where bullying can take place. It is important in sport and physical activity especially in school to promote the idea of physical literacy and fair play. It is also important to play sports and conduct physical activities in a way where everyone learns the basic tasks of the sport before playing the sport. As well as playing these sports and activities in an environment where it is welcoming for all skill levels and individuals that are better at particular sports are not able to pick on others and intimidate or demean others if there skill is not the same. With these concepts in mind bullying prevention in sport and physical activity will be very successful.

[edit] History

The concept of bullying has lived for many years however, bullying has received research attention only since the 1980's when Olweus (1991;1993), a Norwegian researcher, began to study this matter. (Beaty, Alexeyev, 2008).[3] Bullying can have many affects toward the individual or groups of individuals that is being bullied. In fact, Research often has found that—perhaps as a result of exposure to conflict and aggression in the home and at schoolbullies suffer from mental health problems. (Felmlee, Diane, 2013). [4]

[edit] 12 tidbits about bullying

  1. The word “bully” was first used in 1530 and originally applied to both genders and meant “sweetheart.” It is from the Dutch boel, meaning “lover” or “brother.” Around the seventeenth century, the term began to mean “fine fellow,” “blusterer,” and then “harasser of the weak.” [5]
  2. Teachers notice or intervene in only one in 25 incidents. The average bullying episode lasts only 37 seconds. [6]
  3. Those who felt bullied in 6th grade were more likely to report feelings of loneliness six years later. Those who bullied in 6th grade felt more overtly aggressive in 12th grade. [7]
  4. 160,000 students skip school every day because they are afraid they will be bullied. [8]
  5. 37 school shootings reviewed by the U.S. Secret Service had bullying involved 2/3 times. (Rosenthal, Beth 2008). [9]
  6. Ignoring bullies only reinforces that they can get away with it, since it is a myth that ignoring bullies will make them stop. (Rosenthal, Beth 2008).
  7. Over 83% of adults who stuttered as children said they had been teased or bullied. Approximately 71% said that bullying happened at least once a week. [10]
  8. 40%-75% of bullying in schools takes place during breaks, such as during recess, at lunchtime, in the hallways, or in the restrooms. [11]
  9. Bullying escalates in the later years of elementary school, peaks in middle school, and then dissipates by high school. Grade 6 is the worst year for bullying. [12]
  10. Bullies are more likely to engage in vandalism, shoplifting, truancy, and substance abuse than students who do not bully during early childhood. There is also a direct link between substance abuse, gun violence and bullying behavior. [13]
  11. Girls bully in groups more than boys do. [14]
  12. Only 1 in 10 victims of cyberbullying tell a parent. Fewer than 1 in 5 cyberbullying incidents are reported to the police. [15]

[edit] Bullying Prevention Programs

[edit] Highmark Healthy High 5 Bullying Prevention Institute

Founded in 2007, The Highmark Healthy High 5 Bullying Prevention institute is a 2-day-session program that works to prevent bullying. They have been successful in their attempt of getting schools to participate in their program. In fact, since 2007, there have been approximately 40 "Continuing Education" sessions that have worked to attract educational professionals who are interested in implementing this program. An additional 17,00 participants have been involved as well. "The Institute also supports two programs funded by the Highmark Foundation through its $100 million, five-year initiative, Highmark Healthy High 5: HALT!®: A Bullying Prevention Program and PA CARES (Creating an Atmosphere of Respect and Environment for Success)." (bullying prevention institute, 2014) [16]

[edit] Stop a Bully

Developed in 2009, in British Columbia, Canada, by Trevor Knowlton (a teacher), Stop a Bully is a non-profit, registered national charity and Canada-wide anti-bullying program. The program strives to promote and enhance social wellness among youth by empowering them to address bullying. Actions like stopping a bullying even from occurring, being aware and stopping cyber bullying, and doing so in an appropriate manner, is implemented in the stop a Bully program. A bullying reporting system is also implemented in the program and is used to make others aware of bullying situations going on in predominantly schools. Empowering students to prevent bullying is a large part of the program in order to stop the issue at its roots. Stop a Bully was sponsored by CN and CIBC in the February of 2013, along with supports from Telus (for the pink ribbon campaign) and Senator Mac Harb. [17] Knowlton, Trevor (2007). Stop a Bully. [18]

[edit] Me to We: Safe Schools and Bullying Prevention

The Safe Schools and Bullying Prevention aspect of the "Me to We" company, located in Toronto, Ontario, includes 2 different programs that are implemented to prevent bullying. One of these two programs, called "Stand Up!", promotes the importance of developing relationships between students, educators and the community, as well as a collaborative approach to building systematic cultural change in schools. The Stand Up! program is presented in a 45 minute school-wide speech, followed by 3 workshops, (multiple touch points between participants and facilitators is suggested). This program is meant for anyone, but it is more for those who have been bullying and those who are in a bullying environment, such as schools, or day-care centres. The idea in this program is that bullying can be prevented through promoting a positive and inclusive school climate, recognizing bullying and establishing reactions based on situations, creating a closer relationship between students, teachers, and school administrators, etc. The second program implemented by the 'Me to We' company is called the "Power to Change" program. This program is a retreat that last for 2.5 consecutive days (overnight) at the Me to We Leadership Centre in Bethany Hills, Ontario (approximately one hour outside Toronto), or at any retreat center made available by the client. This program, unlike many other bullying prevention programs, is meant for those who have been addressed as a bully or have the habits and characteristic of a bully. In this sense, there is a large focus on the individual. The participants therefore focus on characteristics such as; patience, problem solving skills, positive communication, etc. (Craig and Marc Kielburger, Craig and Keilburger, Marc 2014). [19]

[edit] Target Audience

The problem of bullying is not meant for any specific age group. Acts of bullying can be numerous at school, at home, or even at the workplace and this means that it could be affecting anyone in the world. The people bullying prevention should be targeting is youth preferably as soon as they enter school or earlier. This would help to reduce bullying as they age because they would understand the damage bullying can do. The intended participants for our specific wiki project are primarily children, ranging from approximately 5-16 year-olds, as well as individuals with a disability or disabilities.

According to, [20] middle school is the age when bullying is most common, with almost all middle school students being affected directly or indirectly by bullying. This is an age where young people want more to fit in with their peers, making some students more likely to bully or condone bullying to fit in, while those who don't fit in stand out more as victims. Bullying can also occur in earlier grades, as well as through high school and even into adulthood.

[edit] Research

[edit] Bullying in School: An Overview of Types, Effects, Family Characteristics, and Intervention Strategies

The article Bullying in School: An Overview of Types, Effects, Family Characteristics, and Intervention Strategies discusses the dynamics, types, characteristics, and consequences of school bullying as well as risk factors involved with bullying. It also discusses the mental health outcomes from bullying of both the victim and bully (Smokowski & Holland Kopasz, 2004). [21]

[edit] Findings on Physical Ability and The Correlation with Bullying

Bejerot et al. (2011) found that students who did not perform well in physical education were often correlated with bullying incidents in school. The study was conducted quantitatively since sixty-nine university students reported that there was a relationship with poor performance in physical education class and bullying (Bejerot et al., 2011). The results of this experiment conclude that what the students reported was correct, especially among children with autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusively, Bejerot et al. (2011) stated that poor motor skills are linked to bullying and risk factors of bullying.

[edit] School-Based Programs to Reduce Bullying and Victimization

In a study funded by the United States Department of Justice it was found that anti-bullying programs should be targeted towards children aged 11 or older and should be implemented into an ongoing program where results are able to be measured every two weeks optimally. The program should be flexible and able to work with individual students or small groups. (Farrington & Ttofi 2009)[22]

A meta-analysis of 44 anti-bullying and bullying prevention programs in multiple countries suggests that full school anti-bullying programs may not be as effective as previously thought and that the scope of such programs should be narrowed to an individual basis. A key factor was developing a relationship between the bully and the victim so that the aggressor could make an empathetic connection with the victim. When compared to more traditional anti-bullying punishment where the aggressor suffers the loss of a privilege such as detention during recess, the empathetic approach had better long term results and less repeated incidents of bullying (Farrington &Ttofi 2009).

These findings can be interpreted to suggest that an ideal time to teach anti-bullying methods would be during middle school gym periods. There are many reasons why this could work: every middle school student participates in gym/physical education class, class sizes are generally small enough that the teacher is able to have a personal relationship with each student and observe their progress, students in the same class will establish familiarity with one another, and the curriculum can be designed to be flexible enough to allow for changes in lesson plans that may suit specific groups of children.

The study also suggests that once children pass into secondary school programs should focus more on factors outside of school such as intervention with the parent of a student. Reasons for this include generally lower bullying rates among older children due to increased cognitive function, lowered impulsiveness, and increased ability of older children to make more rational decisions. Also at the secondary school age children spend less time on average with specific teachers which will lower the possibility of single authority figures at school having a positive and long-lasting influence on the child (Farrington & Ttofi 2009).

[edit] From Zero Tolerance to Early Intervention: The Evolution of School Anti-bullying Policy

A review of historical bullying prevention methods reveals that the first method used was that of zero tolerance. This method was based around treating all incidences of bullying with harsh punishments in order to deter students from bullying altogether. It was seen as a fair way to treat aggressors at first because all offenders would be disciplined in the same way. (Roberge 2012)[23]

However bullying comes in many different forms and is not a black and white issue. It was found that there were problems with the method of zero tolerance. One of the biggest problems was that it treated lesser offenses with the same punishment as severe offenses. The policy of zero tolerance was also found to affect certain ethnic groups more than others. In addition it was also being overused and students who had committed low level offenses were being handed severe penalties. It was concluded that the policy of zero tolerance was not the best approach to the bullying problem and it is not as often used today (Roberge 2012).

The next major type of anti-bullying method investigated is the early intervention model. This model is commonly used today. It is based around preventing bullying from happening by promoting a respectful culture in schools as well as treating bullying problems on a personal level once they have been reported. This method makes an attempt to prevent bullying from happening through the use of empathy and respect as opposed to the zero tolerance approach which used fear of persecution. This method is also meant to keep track of bullying incidents and assess the severity of the problem as well as treat each problem on and individual basis unlike the zero tolerance policy which treated all occurrences in the same way (Roberge 2012).

Although the method of early intervention has shown better results this research suggests that new and better methods can still be developed using the previous two as valuable learning examples. It also stresses that both the method of punishment/deterrence and the manner in which it is carried out are critical to solving the bullying problem (Roberge 2012).

This research also mentions that no matter what bullying prevention program is being used the administrators should always try to improve and adapt the program to the specific needs of their students (Roberge 2012).

[edit] Poor performance in physical education – a risk factor for bully victimization

This study found that there was a strong correlation between poor performance in Physical Education classes and bully victimization. Children who performed poorly in physical education classes or had poor motor skills were three times more likely to be bullying victims than others. The authors suggest that poor motor skills can be related to poor social skills and also that children who display subtle signs of poor gross motor skills may also display subtle signs of poor social skills which would increase their risk of becoming victims of bullying (Bejerot, Edgar, Humble 2010). [24]

Also suggested is the idea that certain children may have an increased risk of being bullied due to the presence of biological markers, such as a neurological condition, which may reduce their overall capacity to learn social and motor skills. The authors assert that if these risk factors are identified then bullying prevention programs could be targeted towards a more specific demographic and the way to prevent these children from becoming victims might be as simple as training their motor skill levels until they are on the same level as the general population. By directly increasing their strength and coordination it would indirectly increase other aspects of their life such as self-confidence and assertiveness which could drastically reduce their chances of becoming victims of bullying (Bejerot, Edgar, Humble 2010).

They found that students who did not perform well in physical education were often correlated with bullying incidents in school. The study was conducted quantitatively since sixty-nine university students reported that there was a relationship with poor performance in physical education class and bullying (Bejerot, Edgar, Humble 2010). The results of this experiment conclude that what the students reported was correct, especially among children with autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. They conclusively stated that poor motor skills are linked to bullying and risk factors of bullying (Bejerot, Edgar, Humble 2010).

[edit] The Problem Of School Bullies: What The Research Tells Us

In a 2008 article[25] reviewing the idea that the history of bullying is prevalent in finding a method to prevent bullying. The characteristics of a bully in his or her true nature are provided in the article, as well to provide confirmation to the definition of a bully. This is related to physical activity in the sense that the article touches on physical bullying, which includes bullying because others (typically students in a school setting) are weaker, largely displayed in physical education class. In the article, it even mentions that “the top five highest rated items that motivates boys to bully were “Didn’t fit in,” “physically weak,” “Short tempered,” “who their friends were,” and “the clothes they wore,”.” (Beaty & Alexeyev, 2008, p.4)

The article suggests implementing certain useful strategies to stop bullying in schools. The strategies that are recommended to be used include using a student survey to find out which students are doing the bullying, which students are being bullied, and where the bullying is happening. It also suggests that the bullies and the victims should be trained in how to solve the problem as well as teaching bystanders what to do if they observe a bullying situation. Other courses of action include class time for discussions about the topic of bullying and creating a more accepting environment so that victims will be more likely to step forward and report incidences where they have been bullied (Beaty & Alexeyev, 2008).

[edit] Existing Physical Activity Programs

[edit] Out on a Limb

The University of Illinois Board of Trustees has a program called Out on a Limb; a guide to getting along that encourages children to maintain a healthy lifestyle in order to get along. In this guide, there are certain sections about nutrition and health, sports and nutrition, and other links to sites that, not only encourage a healthy lifestyle, but also explain how to use this to prevent bullying. The idea that physical activity is included in this program allows children to stay active and prevent bullying simultaneously. (Out on a Limb, 2014). [26]

[edit] YAMA Peaceful Warrior Anti-bullying School Program

The YAMA Peaceful Warrior Anti-Bullying School Program is a workshop that works with classrooms to teach and promote confidence building and bully prevention techniques. This program includes lessons in confidence building, understanding bullies, and empowerment through physical training. The program teaches practical self-defence skills and promotes cooperation among classmates. The teaching of self-defence skills with classmates acts as a bonding experience for children which can break down social barriers that can contribute to bullying as well as teaching practical skills which can contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. Many physical activities are included in the program which include warm up exercises, stretching and breathing techniques, coordination, balance, posture, body motions, falls and rolls, as well as specific self-defences movements which use these principles such as avoidance, deflection, re-direction, harmonization of movements, immobilizations, and throws. [1]

[edit] Don’t Laugh At Me (DLAM)

This program starts at K-5 and is aimed at reducing physical cruelty and aggression. By both emotional discussions and physical activity they have noticed results, as well as many other programs. The success of the programs depends on commitment from staff as well as student engagement.[27]

[edit] A.T. Youth Safety

A.T. Youth Safety is a program that teaches children how to deal with bullying as well as other dangers such as drugs, abduction, violence, and street safety. This program incorporates physical fitness into its educational program by mixing in quizzes and short assignments with activities such as stretching, warm-ups, running, jumping, push-ups, sit-ups, and instruction on self-defence techniques with supervision. One of the main messages of this program is that exercise will help kids stay in better physical shape and feel more confident.[2]

[edit] You Can Play

You Can Play is a campaign that aims to rid sports culture of homophobia. It is an official partner of the National Hockey League and many teams in other leagues support the You Can Play campaign. It is also supported by many NHL players. You Can Play aims to encourage athletes not to hide their sexuality and to end homophobia in sports. This promotes healthy active living to more people as it removes a social stigma which is a barrier to entry and a form of exclusion. [3]

[edit] Aikido Youth Empowerment and safety Program (AYES)

The Aikido Youth Empowerment and Safety Program (AYES) is designed to reduce bullying and violence as well as increasing the self-esteem of children. Its focus is on positivity, acceptance, and cooperation among students. AYES staff teaches through lectures, games, and physical activities which include rolling, jumping, balance, strength, running, and self-defence techniques. The program also uses teamwork, cooperation, focus, and critical thinking among students to solve problems that are in game scenarios. [4]

[edit] Playworks

Playworks is a recess program that aims to create a place where every kid belongs. It focuses on inclusion, leadership and independence. The program is run by "coaches" that go to the schools and organize and play alongside children [28]. Playworks believes that "kids have a very thin understanding of how to manage their own play" [28]so they aim to create a sense of belonging where everyone can contribute [28].

[edit] Best Practice Activity Suggestions

[edit] Bullying Awareness Activity Planner

A team of experts from the University of Kentucky created a Bullying Awareness activity planner that includes information on bullying, a lesson planner for those who can teach others about bullying, video resources, handout pages and links to other websites regarding bullying. The activity program is not as physical as it is educational, however there are aspects of the program, which do require some physical literacy. The program includes a variety of ‘icebreakers’ that are often the first step to working through a bullying prevention lesson. The ‘name train’ and the ‘question ball’ are two of the physical activities that allow for learners to become as comfortable as possible with their peers while either moving around a gymnasium floor or tossing a medium sized ball amongst the class.


[edit] American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

Paula Kun of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) stated that the AAHPERD have teamed up with “Play Well With Others…Be Active Against Bullying!” to create a program that works against bullying. The program is said to include physical education teachers and coaches so they can establish a safe environment in gyms, locker rooms, on the playground and on the field by playing activities and games positively. The AAHPERD team also placed a link in the article to a website with anti-bullying logos on sports equipment – the message that children and adolescents would get is a positive one from the sports equipment.


[edit] Make it Uncool to Bully and Cool to Reach Out

Changing the climate of the social environment of the school can reduce bullying. Making it ""uncool" to bully and "cool" to help out students who are bullied" [31] in an initiative by Colorado Trust in 2005 showed that 49% of tested locations reported reduced bullying and 63% showed an increase in positive school atmosphere that is linked with reduced rates of bullying and reduced negative bystander behavior. [32]

[edit] Have a Trained Staff

All staff in a school should be trained in bullying prevention in order to understand the effects and nature of bullying. Being trained in bullying prevention means that a person knows how to respond to bullying and to work with others to prevent bullying. [31] Staff should follow up with bullied children as well as the children who bully. "Hot Spots" for bullying such as hallways and playgrounds should be thoroughly monitored by staff. [32]

[edit] Universal Continuity

Bullying is a problem that will never completely vanish, there is no "end-date" [31]. Even schools that show very little signs of bullying should start/continue bullying prevention programs and procedures to preserve the continuity of bullying prevention all over the world. Bullying can happen anywhere at any time so by continuing to enforce bullying prevention, schools will always be prepared.

[edit] Future Directions

The future of anti bullying through physical activity in is allowing kids more time to be more physically active. In North America the amount of recess time ranges from 20-60 minutes per day while Japan offers a 10-15 minute break every hour [33] . and Finland offers an average of 75 minutes a day; rain or shine [34]. Through regular recess time children have an easier time learning how to negotiate, cooperate, share, and persevere [33].

Bullying is often a result of a child or person’s upbringing and often reflects how they were treated. As a future direction, I believe that there should be clinics offered to parents or those who need help with raising their child. If there are incidents where the parent of the bully was once a victim of a bully then the logical plan of action would be to work with that entire family. In the future it is imperative that the root of the problem is looked at and not just the situation of the bully and their victim(s).

The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) [35] has been implemented in Norway, along with other countries including small areas of the United States of America. "In 2007, in an attempt to bring the OBPP method to the United States, there was a small-scale study which involved three elementary schools in southern California. After implementing the program for three years the evaluation showed promising results of having reduced the initial victimization and bullying instances" (Limber, 2011). [36] The recent development in this program continues to be a success, as statistics presenting the commonality of bullying started to show decreasing trends of bullying incidents. According to the official OBPP website, "Fifty percent or more reductions in student reports of being bullied and bullying others. Peer and teacher ratings of bullying problems have yielded similar results." (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, 2014).

To conclude, studies in bullying prevention has become more of a serious matter in the past 3 decades and continue to grow in popularity amongst social scientists. The bullying portrayed in a school setting and, especially a physical education classroom setting can affect people drastically.

[edit] External Links

This is an article that highlights points of school programs that must be changed so that preventing bullying can be made easier. (History of Family Involvement with Child Protective Services as a Risk Factor for Bullying in Ontario Schools, 2010, pp. 157-163)

[edit] Notes and References

  1. Felmlee, Diane (2013). Bullying. Encyclopedia Brittanica.
  2. Sansone, Randy A. & Sansone, Lori A. (2008). Bully Victims: Psychological and Somatic Aftermaths. Psychiatry MMC. 5(6): 62–64.
  3. Beaty, Lee and Alexeyev, Erick, (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us.
  4. Felmelee, Diane, (2013). Bullying. Encyclopedia Brittanica.
  5. “Bully.” Online Etymology Dictionary.” 2001-2010. Accessed: March 21, 2014.
  6. Rosenthal, Beth. 2008. Bullying. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.
  7. McDougall, Patricia. “What Happens over Time to Those Who Bully and Those Who Are Victimized?” 2006-2011. Accessed: March 21, 2014.
  8. “Bullying Statistics / Cyber Bullying Statistics / School Bullying Statistics.” How to Stop Bullying. 2009. Accessed: March 21, 2014.
  9. Rosenthal, Beth. 2008. Bullying. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.
  10. “Bullying among Children and Youth with Disabilities and Special Needs.” Stop Bullying Now! Accessed: March 21, 2014.
  11. Rosenthal, Beth. 2008. Bullying. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.
  12. Hamilton, Jill. Ed. 2008. Bullying and Hazing. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.
  13. Rosenthal, Beth. 2008. Bullying. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.
  14. Hamilton, Jill. Ed. 2008. Bullying and Hazing. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.
  15. Rosenthal, Beth. 2008. Bullying. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.
  16. (Bullying Prevention Institute, 2014). History, Bullying Prevention Program.
  18. Knowlton, Trevor (2007). Stop a Bully.
  19. Keilburger, Craig, and Keilburger, Marc. (2014). Me to We: Safe Schools and Bullying Prevention.
  21. Smokowski, P. R., & Holland Kopasz, K. (2004). Bullying in School: An Overview of Types, Effects, Family Characteristics, and Intervention Strategies. Children & Schools A Journal of the National Association of Social Workers, 27(2).
  22. Farrington, David P. & Ttofi, Maria M. (2009). School-Based Programs to Reduce Bullying and Victimization. 81-86.
  23. Roberge, G. D. (2012). From Zero Tolerance to Early Intervention: The Evolution of School Anti-bullying Policy. JEP: Ejournal Of Education Policy, 1-6.
  24. Bejerot, S., Edgar, J., Humble, M. (2010) Poor performance in physical education – a risk factor for bully victimization: A case-control study. ACTA Paediatrica. Vol. 100, 413-419.
  25. Beaty, A. Lee, Alexeyev, Erick B. (2008) The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence. Vol. 43, No. 169, 1-12
  26. Out on a Limb.
  27. Padgett, Sharon, and Charles E. Notar. "Anti-bullying Programs for Middle/High Schools." 2013
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Playworks. Why Playworks. Playworks
  29. Crume, W., Lemaster, K., Stark, J., Wilkerson, A., & Mains, M. (2010, January 1). Bullying Awareness Lessons, Activities and Resources. University of Kentucky. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from
  30. Kun, P. (n.d.). American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance - AAHPERD. AAHPERD Supports New Activity-Based Anti-Bullying Program. Retrieved February 19, 2014, from
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Human Resource Student Association. Best Practices in Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Stop Bullying Now.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Colorado Foundation for Families and Children and Colorado Springs Assets for Youth. Best Practices in Bullying Prevention & Intervention. Bullying Prevention Resource Guide for Schools, Families and Community Partners.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Nieman,P. January 3, 2013. Recess in Schools. Healthy Kids.
  34. Pillay, K. September 3, 2013. The Secret Behind Finland's Super Smart School Kids? Recess. PRI.
  36. Limber, S. P. (2011). Development, Evaluation, and Future Directions of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. Journal Of School Violence, 10(1), 71-87. doi:10.1080/15388220.2010.519375

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