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From PEKN 1P93 Winter 2014: Group 08: Life Skills, Bully Prevention

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[edit] Background

Bullying is the imbalance between two individuals; this power imbalance allows one individual to have power over the other ("Definitions of bullying",1999). Bullying prevention is set in place to help these victims. Bullying can lead to children not wanting to be active,this pushes them away from playing with other children. It is a common problem throughout middle school and high school that many people are unaware of. As Bejerot,Susane, Edgar, Humble, and Mats (2010) state, the severity of this issue greatly effects individual’s confidence and self-esteem which can lead to poor performance in school, social settings, and sometimes even death.

[edit] Forms Of Bullying

Bullying can occurs in a physical, verbal, social and electronic form (Shannon, 2013). A youth may be bullying another youth physically by hitting and verbal by threatening or calling names (Shannon, 2013). Social bullying is when one spreads hurtful rumors that can damage one’s reputation and create more hostility by other peers (Shannon, 2013). Excluding a person from group activities and social events is also a form of social bullying (Shannon, 2013). Bullying through the electronic means is becoming more common and is just as hurtful as other forms of bullying. Electronic bullying is when a person embarrass and emotional hurts another person by sending messages through their cellphones, email, social media and other electronic means (Shannon, 2013).

[edit] Consequences and Long Term Effects of Being Bullied

A youth that is being bullied can experience several consequences. Research studies on bullying and the effects have shown that there many different physical and emotional impacts (Shannon, 2013). Children and youth report having physical evidence of being bullied, such as bruises on their arms and legs (Shannon, 2013). Data collected on youth that were being bullied, in and outside of school, found that participants reported high levels of depression and loneliness (Shannon, 2013). Studies on bullying have also found that youth, experiencing ongoing bullying, report having social anxiety, lower self-esteem and feelings of unhappiness (Shannon, 2013). The effects of bullying have been shown to affect a persons mental health which has resulted in youth reporting thoughts of suicide (Shannon, 2013).

Victims of bullying also experience health related symptoms as a result (Shannon, 2013). Studies have found that victims of bullying report having frequent headaches, difficulty sleeping and abdominal pain (Shannon, 2013). When a person is experiencing bullying this causes the victim to face peer rejection and social isolation (Shannon, 2013). Not only do the victims have to face the bully, they are isolating themselves from their peers in school and in other social settings. Current research studies report victims having negative attitudes and thoughts about themselves as result of being bullied by their peers (Shannon, 2013).

[edit] History

The term bullying was not publicly recognized until the year 1862 by the newspaper The Times ("History of bullying",2012). Societal values have changed in that bullying was once seen as a way of building character. Intervention studies have shown that levels of bullying can be reduced, but not eradicated from schools (Smith and Wilson, 1998). As stated by Peter K. Smith and Rowan Myron-Wilson (1998), this may be because bullying behaviour has its origins in parenting as well as in the school environment. However, several studies in Europe, Australia and the US have now linked violent behaviour and harsh discipline in parents with bullying behaviour, and overprotectiveness in parents with victimization (Smith and Wilson, 1998). According to Anne Bowker, Shannon Gadbois, and Becki Cornock (2003), individuals with low self-esteem often feel inadequate and incompetent, obligated to fail, and in time give up. This low self-esteem promotes a cycle of failure, which becomes difficult to escape (Snyder, 1979). It is sad that various youth simply turn a blind eye or have to deal with these problems on their own.

[edit] Statistics

  1. According to NASP Resources, a recent report from the American Medical Association on a study of over 15,000 6th-10th graders estimates that approximately 3.7 million youths engage in, and more than 3.2 million are victims of, moderate or serious bullying each year (Cohn & Canter, 2003).
  2. Children who bully as well as those who are bullied are at a greater risk of suicide (Samuel W. Flynt and Rhonda Collins Morton, 2004).
  3. Approximately 160,000 students skip school every day because of bullying (Coy, 2001; Lumsden, 2002).
  4. Canadian research on bullying has found that 23% of boys and 17% of girls, between the ages of 11-15, are either bullies or are bullied (Shannon, 2013).
  5. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2003) approximately 25% of elementary and high school students and 40% of middle school students report being bullied at least once per week.

[edit] Target Audience

The target audience to teach bullying prevention skills to would be teachers and coaches that are influencing and working with children from day care until after high school. This is because these ages are primarily where bullying occurs, and if it can be prevented before it begins, it would greatly decrease the amount of bullying. The reason that coaches and teachers are the target and not the children is because they are the ones that would think about researching and trying to learn these skills. The children do not always realize that they're bullying and won't necessarily recognize that these types of skills are worth learning as well. The coaches and teachers however, see the effects of bullying and are more likely to seek out bullying prevention skills. Coaches and teachers also have a deep-seated and long lasting influence on youth, and having knowledge and skills in bullying prevention can help them improve the lives of those with whom they interact (Mageau & Vallarand, 2003).

[edit] Research

The article "How Recess Can Prevent Bullying" looks at the positive view of recess as recess helps children develop social skills with other children around them (Gordon). Recess can build self esteem which helps in the transition from recess to the class room (Gordon). Developing social skills and self esteem with children is a positive way of preventing bullying because it teaches children to resolve conflicts without bullying

Peguero (2008) performed a longitudinal study of grade 10 students through to the end of high school and into post-secondary life. The study examines the effect of extracurricular activities on students well-being and vulnerability to bullying. Peguero (2008) states that students participating in interscholastic athletics were less likely to be bullied than those that did not participate (Peguero, 2008). This is evidence that physical activity can decrease bullying and improve the lives of those who are active in participation.

Bejerot et al., (2010) conducted a study with 69 healthy University students that linked performance in physical education and bully victimization in childhood. This explains why kids with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), are more prone to this issue (Bejerot et al., 2010). Furthermore, below average performance in PE was a big factor to becoming bullied with an odds ratio of 3.6 (Bejerot et al., 2010). Bejerot et al.,(2010) says that there were strong correlations between poor performance in PE and length of victimization, and poor performance in PE and frequency of victimization.

Roman (2013) did a study on the affects bullying has on physical activity. In the experiment, US middle school students were surveyed about bullying victimization and its affect on the student’s attendance in physical education classes. Results show that bullying victimization leads to more days without attending physical education classes, which lower the probability of that student in reaching sixty minutes of physical activity at least twice a week. The study concluded with proof that bullying affects physical activity and it is related to a number of health issues that are caused from bullying.

Smokowki and Kopasz (2005), discuss the dynamics, types, characteristics, and consequences of school bullying as well as the risk factors of being bullied and becoming a bully. They explain the long term affects bullying can have on victims and their strategies to cope with bullying. This article can be linked to physical activities as physical activity itself, can be structured as a program for victims to get involved as a coping strategy.

Studies show that there is a correlation between the physical activity of a child and the frequency of bullying at a school. The more a child weighs the more likely they are to get teased in a physical activity setting, causing them to dislike or distance themselves from exercise completely. Roman (2013)surveyed students in 75 schools in Ontario and found that 43% of middle school students who were both perpetrators and victims of bullying reported that victimization occurred in the gym, 44% in locker/changing rooms, 37% on the playground, and 27% during intramural sports.

In a study done on youth aged 11-16, Janssen et al. (2004) state that there was a positive correlation between BMI (body mass index) category and peer victimization. They observed that overweight and obese children were more susceptible to discrimination and aggression than that of their normal weight peers. Strong associations of relational (withdrawing friendships, lying/rumors) and over physical bullying (hitting, kicking, pushing) were seen. A study that corresponds to this research was done by Ferro-Luzzi and Martino (1996) which observed the correlation between low levels of physical activity and obesity. As a result it can been seen that physical activity indirectly affects bullying as well.

Janet (2014) states, it is better and more efficient to have an activity where everyone is involved. Janet also says that positive feedback plays an important role in building self-esteem; whereas negative feedback causes disengagement.

[edit] Existing Physical Activity Programs

[edit] The Playwork Program

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation found that recess periods aren't enough to keep children happy and active. Simply letting the children outside is not going to always support positive physical activity and social development. When children are sent outside to play, they often get bored from making up games on their own and often the game they do make up, are not always positive ones and this is why bullying occurs during recess. To help prevent this, the Playworks program places coaches in low income schools to help build a structured recess program which involves more supervision and interaction between the children and the coaches, and structured games and activities for the children to play . This program has been proven to change the schools environment in a positive way including fewer bullying issues (Bleeker, 2012). This program helps children cooperate and teaches them how to resolve conflicts between one another (Bleeker, 2012).

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation did an evaluation on the playworks program by talking to students, teachers and staff members from schools that have implemented the playworks program. School climate, conflict resolution and aggression, learning and academic performance, recess experience, youth development and student behaviour where the six domains that were discussed.

  1. They found that there was a positive impact on students’ safety and how much the students felt included during recess.
  2. Less bullying and exclusionary behavior during recess than teachers in control schools.
  3. Teachers found that it was easier to transition from recess to academics, and that students were more alert and focused during academic time than those at school without Playworks.

This is a video from 'Playwork' and some of the activities present throughout the program.

[edit] "Stop Bullying in Sports" Program

Peak Performance Sports’ “Stop Bullying in Sports” Program is a guide to help parents support their children in athletics and bullying prevention. Bullying has been observed as a big issue among children involved in organized sports (Cohn, 2014). This program raises awareness and prevention options so that children can be involved in socially/physically safe schools, bully free sports programs, and the hope that bullying might be reduced in their lives and the lives of their peers.

Problems with bullying in Sports

  1. Athletes that are successful in their sport are targeted because others are jealous
  2. Smaller and less physically talented children and commonly targeted
  3. Children competing for positions or to make certain teams can cause an uprise in fighting and bullying
  4. Bullying can include jealous parents and other team mates, coaches or opponents who yell, intimidate, harass and threaten athletes

When children are bullied they can lose confidence which can lead to lower self-esteem. This effects their performance in the sport since the targeted children are worried about what other think and say of them and this hurts their enjoyment of the sport and often causing them to stop participating in them, becoming more physically inactive (Cohn, 2014).

The Stop Bullying in Sports Program will teach you: (Cohn, 2014)

  1. Why athletes and coaches bully
  2. How much bullies hurt active childrens' performance and enjoyment in sports.
  3. Why children often quit playing sports
  4. Psychology tips for ensuring children remain confident and mentally strong
  5. How children can stay focused when they are being bullied
  6. How to identify bullied children and act on it
  7. How to start the revolution by telling parents and coaches how they can protect sports children and put an end to bullying.

[edit] Healthy Promoting Schools

One of the more popular programs is Healthy Promoting Schools (Healthy School Communities). This program can be found at PHE Canada and incorporates health instruction and communication between teachers, students, and children. The idea is to promote a safe, healthy school environments, develop relationships, and implement healthy school policies. As research has shown, with the increase of characteristics that are improved through Healthy Promoting Schools, fewer kids will become bullies, and fewer kids will become victims of bullies (Cohn and Canter, 2003).

[edit] Daily Physical Activity (DPA)

According to (Keays and Allison, 1995), the Ministry of Education implemented DPA for elementary students in grades 1 to 8. The students are now required to take part in twenty minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity. Physical activity is essential to children’s growth and development.It has a positive impact of students' mental, physical, and social well-being, which can help them in achieving academic and life success, leading to better behaviour and self-esteem (Keays and Allison, 1995). Non-competitive games and activities that get you up and moving are played by students which can bring a class closer together and help build new friendships. Physical activity can also help with coping by occupying their minds and getting them involved (Keays and Allison, 1995).

[edit] Playground Activity Leaders in Schools (PALS)

PALS is a volunteer peer based program which uses peers to lead younger children through different play stations, promoting positive behaviour through physical activity and cooperative interactions with others. It does this by allowing students to participate in activities regardless of gender, size or ability. Feedback on the PALS program from include:

  1. Increased physical activity
  2. decrease in Inappropriate verbal behaviour
  3. Most student leaders would recommend being a student leader to other students

[edit] Peers Running Organized Play Stations (PROPS)

PROPS is a program that addresses the issues with schoolyard bullying and physical inactivity. It involves peer leader volunteers teaching and supervising children on the playground. The peers leaders are taught leadership skills, conflict resolution, and play cooperative playground games such as four-square, wall ball, rock-paper-scissors, and skipping with the children. The purpose of the program is to increase physical activity, teach leadership skills and decrease bullying (Bowes et al, 2009). Bowes et al. sent emails to principals of several elementary schools asking if they had implemented the program. If the principals responded yes, they then received a follow up questionnaire.

Responses about what made PROPS successful were the support of administration including school boards, teachers, students, and parents and also frequent training sessions for the peer leaders. Lots of awareness about the program also had a positive impact (Bowes et al, 2009). Negative aspects of PROPS were finding enough storage space for the PROPS equipment and time for training peer leaders since they need frequent sessions for success (Bowes et al, 2009).

[edit] Lauren McNamara's - The Recess Project

McNamara's Recess Project's goal is to change the recess environment and make it an engaging, positive, inclusive, and active one. (McNamara 2013) does this by asking students, teachers, principals and playground volunteer their opinions on how the current recess programs are going and what they would like to suggest as a positive change to them. (McNamara 2013) found that a lot of current research suggests that recess has a great influence on childrens' social, physical, academics, and psychological values. This means that the better the experiences are during this time, the happier the children will be which will also give them tendencies to not bully others. McNamara says that if the academic budget is not allocating enough fund for recess equipment to provide activities for children to do during recess, the children are getting bored and inactive during this time and have tendencies to pick on others or to sit alone during recess. The goal of McNamara's recess Project is to raise awareness about the positive outcomes with having a good recess program. Recess creates interactive play and promotes physical activity lead to positive development of social and emotional skills along with more energy and higher focus levels in the classroom. All of these contribute to a healthy child and academic success (Mcnamara 2013).

[edit] Best Practice Activity Suggestions

[edit] 1. Cooperative Activities

Children should be involved in activities that involve everyone in a group to avoid exclusion of any individuals and encourage collaboration. The results published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, suggests that cooperation begets cooperation (Choi, Johnson, & Johnson, 2011). Students who participates in more cooperative learning exercises were more likely than their peers to say they liked cooperating with other students, leading the researchers to conclude that “cooperative experiences promote the development of the personality trait of cooperativeness” (Choi, et al., 2011, p. 1). Students who engaged in more frequent cooperative learning were also more likely to report performing kind, helpful—or “pro-social”—behavior toward their classmates (Choi, et al., 2011). On the other hand, students who said they liked competing were significantly more likely to act aggressively toward their peers and try to do them harm (Choi, et al., 2011).

[edit] 2. Building Positive Relationships

When children create positive relationships amongst one another, they eliminate the number of isolated and alienated students. By doing so, these children are more commonly engaged in pro-social behaviours such as empathy, kindness, or patients, resulting in bullying and victimization to occur, and the less likely bystanders will allow for bullying to occur (Johnson & Johnson, 2007). These positive relationships have benefits to both the bully and the bullied. Peers will reject a child behaving inappropriately with intention to harm another (Coie & Kupersmidt, 1983; Dodge, 1983; cited in, Johnson & Johnson, 2007) which may be the experience of the bully. Positive relationships can counteract rejection from others. Conversely, those being bullied lack many social-cognitive skills, such as “peer-group entry, perception of peer-group norms, response to provocation, and interpretation of pro-social interactions” (Asarnow & Callan, 1985; Dodge, 1985; Putallaz, 1983; cited in, Johnson & Johnson, 2007, p. 7) which can all be addressed with the creation of positive relationships. In The Bully, the Bullied, and the Bystander, Barbara Coloroso (2002), supports the development of positive relationships and recommends that children “…practice with each other and safely learn the limits and boundaries of teasing as well as the power of words” (p. 33).

[edit] 3. Developing Self-Regulation Skills

While children are growing up, it is important for them to develop important social and emotional skills, knowledge, and attitudes relating to self-regulation (Doces, 2012). If children can learn social and emotional skills such as social and self-awareness, self-management, relationship skills, and responsible decision making, it can prevent aggressive bullying behaviour as well as other issues such as conduct problems and emotional distress (Doces, 2012). By teaching children self-regulation, it can increase empathetic feelings towards those who are bullied, create a healthier and inclusive peer group, and improve the behaviour and reactions of bullies as well as the victims (Doces, 2012). Yoga is an excellent activity to promote self-regulation, because it develops children’s pro-social skills, helps them to be in control of their own emotions and to practice strategies for responding when they are not regulated or confronted with a social dilemma (Tanasi, Videira, Newcomb, & Diaz, 2012).

This video from Yoga Today shows basic yoga that can be done by children to help with self regulation.

Yoga is generally seen as an activity done mostly by a female population. Here is an example of an all boys yoga class from Yogaresources.

[edit] 4. Expose Children to Proprioceptive Activities

Dr. Carla Cupido provided some guidance about how yoga develops our proprioceptive awareness though balance activities. The proprioceptive system “…is comprised of sensory receptors in the muscles and tendons that inform the central nervous system as to the varying lengths of muscles as well as force loads travelling through tendons” (Cupido, 2008, p.1 ). Essentially she is telling us that proprioception helps us to know where our body is in relation to others. To understand how this awareness can benefit children we consider another website geared toward the needs of children. Amanda Mathews (2009) shared that “…proprioception is the concept of knowing where your body is in space and the ability to safely maneuver around your environment” (p. 1). Helping children to gain an understanding of their own personal space helps them to interact more successfully with their peers. Knowing ones boundaries is also an important part of learning how to express yourself about the comfort or discomfort you may feel about those boundaries (Mathews, 2009). The website provided a list of possible activities that a child may engage in to active proprioception which includes: frog jumps, pushing a heavy basket, pulling a heavy wagon, squeezing or rolling play dough. It doesn’t take much imagination to see the similarity between these activities and some of the poses in yoga in terms of muscle activation and feedback.

[edit] 5. Teaching Inclusivity

On a website for parents called, Visi Tilak explains that yoga is an activity where “…children can participate without the concern of being more or less capable than their peers” (Tilak, 2014, p. 1). It is not an activity that is restricted by gender, age, body composition or intellectual ability. As Tilak (2014) explains there are emotional benefits as well giving children opportunity to experience play and focus without worrying about doing something wrong. Yoga offers other benefits as well that prepare children for appropriate interactions with their peers (Tilak, 2014). “Because children encounter emotional social and physical challenges or conflicts, a dedicated intentional yoga practice that includes breathing techniques, behaviour guidelines and physical postures can be incredible valuable for them” (Tilak, 2014, p. 1).

Everyone has different levels of ability. In order to make sure everyone is included, variations can be made to the activity as follows:

• If strength is a concern: Practice any move with only one side of the body until you are strong enough, reduce the intensity of the movement or the amount of space you use for the hold (Tilak, 2014).

• If Balance is a concern your can widen the base of the pose. Hold the wall or even use a chair to support you (Tilak, 2014).

• If the concept is difficult to understand you can increase the number of verbal cues you give or you can offer physical guidance (Tilak, 2014).

• If attention is a concern, offer shorter cue times (Tilak, 2014).

• If Endurance is a concern you can reduce the time a pose is held or only practice a few poses over and over until they are comfortable for the participant (Tilak, 2014).

This physical activity video from Mayo Clinic shows great examples, tactics, and personality traits to prevent bullying.

[edit] Body Ball

One physical education activity that supports inclusion of others is a game called ‘body ball’. It is essentially the opposite of dodge ball where the object of the game is to get hit by the ball. It is a very active game for all ages, many people can play at one time and it is very team oriented.

[edit] Future Directions

Bullying in schools is a growing concern and because of this there are new approaches being made daily to decrease bullying in the future. Cohn and Canter (2003) has devised a list of approaches to bullying prevention in schools:

Early Intervention - Researchers advocate for teaching bully awareness as early as elementary school or even preschool. Group social skills and training is highly recommended, as well as available counseling for students exhibiting bullying and victim behaviours.

Parent Training - Parents must reinforce positive attitudes and behaviour in their children while being a model of these attitudes themselves. School psychologists, social workers and counselors should help parents recognize bullying behaviours that require intervention.

Teacher Training - Training can help teachers identify and respond to potential bully-victim altercations as well as to implement positive feedback and address any inappropriate social interactions. Social workers and counselors can help design effective teacher training methods.

Attitude Change - Researchers maintain that society must cease supporting the ideology that bullying is a part of a child's life and that it serves no harm. The term "kids will be kids" is no longer an acceptable justification for any level of bullying.

Positive School Environment - Schools with easily understood rules of conduct, smaller class sizes and fair discipline practices report less violence (Cohn & Canter, 2003).

A program such as the Playwork Program would be a fundamental step in encouraging a positive playground and overall school environment. Implementing such a program is not only a current fix but a long term way to ensure a more inclusive and interactive youth (Bleeker, 2012). Attitudes and teamwork are formed around physical activity and sport, making them a top priority area to prevent bullying.

[edit] External Links This Safe Schools and Healthy Students Action Center provides topics according to development and troubled children/teens. Peak Performance Sports: Stop Bullying in Sports- Sports Anti-Bullying Program for Parents Bullying Awareness and Prevention Week in school across Ontario to help spread awareness on the types and signs of bullying and ways to resolve the problem. Article posted by Dr. Carla Cupido on the importance and effects of yoga in our lives. Article by Amanda Mathews defining Proprioception Saidat is an entertainer/music artist that is trying to make a positive influence on children's lives. More Information on Peak Performance Sports' Stop Bullying in Sports program.

[edit] Notes and References

  • Bejerot, A., Susane, J., Edgar, M., Johan, J.,Humble, B., & Mats, M. (2010). Acta Paediactrica. Poor Performance in Physical Education: a Risk Factor for Bully Victimization. 2(100), 413–419. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.02016.
  • Bleeker, M., James-Burdumy, S., Beyler, N., Dodd, H., London, R., Westrich, L., & Castrechini, S. (2012). Findings from a Randomized Experiment of Playworks: Selected Results from Cohort 1. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
  • Bowes, D., Marquis, M., Young, W., Holowaty, P., & Isaac, W. (2009). Process evaluation of a school-based intervention to increase physical activity and reduce bullying. Health promotion practice, 10(3), 394-401.
  • Bowker, A., Gadbois, S., & Cornock, B. (July, 2003). Sex Roles. Sports Participation and Self-Esteem: Variations as a Function of Gender and Gender Role Orientation. 49(2), 47-58
  • Choi, J., Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (2011). Relationships among cooperative learning experiences, social interdependence, children's aggression, victimication, and prosocial behaviors. Journal of applied social psychology, 41(4), 976-1003. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00744.x
  • Coloroso, B. (2009). The bully the bullied and the bystander. (1st ed., Vol. 1, p. 33). New York: HarperCollins publishers.
  • Doces, M. (2012, 08 26). Social emotional learning and bullying prevention. Committee for children, 1(7), 6-14.
  • Flynt, S., Samuel, W., & Collins, M. (2004). Bullying and Children with Disabilities. Journal of Instructional Physiology. 31(4), 330-333.
  • Gordan, M.(2013). A multilevel assessment of school climate, bullying victimization, and physical activity. Journal of school health, 83(6), 400.
  • Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (2007). Preventing bullying: developing and maintaining positive retlaionships among schoolmates . University of Minnesota, 3(4), 17-32.
  • Keays, J., & Allison, K. (1995) "The Effects of Regular Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity on Student Outcomes: A Review", Canadian Journal of Public Health 86(1), 64
  • Mageau, A., & Vallerand, J. (2003). The coach–athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of sports science, 21(11), 883-904.
  • Shannon, C. (2013). Bullying in Recreation and Sport Settings: Exploring Risk Factors,Prevention Efforts, and Intervention Strategies. Journal of Park and Recreation,Administration, 31(13-33)
  • Smith, P., & Myron-Wilson, R. (1998). Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Parenting and School Bullying. 3(3), 406-417. doi: 10.1177/1359104598033006.
  • Smokowski, P., & Kopasz, K. (2005). Bullying in school: an overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. children & schools, 27(2), 101-110.
  • Roman, M., Catarina G., & Caitlin, J. (2013). A Multilevel Assessment of School Climate, Bullying Victimization, and Physical Activity. Journal of School Health, 1(1), 1-8.
  • Tanasi, A., Videira, C., Newcomb, J., & Diaz, A. (2012). Yoga with Children: A New Approach to Behavioral Intervention. Behavior Management: Traditional and Expanded Approaches, 124.
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