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[edit] Background

What is Inclusion?

The traditional definition of inclusion as explained in the Oxford Dictionary (2014) is when there is an action or a state in which everyone is included. This is crucial to physical activity and education throughout the developmental years.

According to Harrower (1999) it has been a long standing issue that those students, participants and individuals with disabilities have often been excluded from participating in the classroom as well as in physical activities. This is something that has been constantly addressed when educators are reluctant to figuring out ways to be inclusive within the classroom. Adaptations to programs and programs that do not exclude those who are different is something that is a constant struggle. He also addresses how there are numerous researchers who are still arguing the “separate is not equal” issue that has been a continuous issue for individuals with disabilities as well as any other minority suffering from lack of inclusion.

It is a common assumption that obtaining special skills or knowledge to educate participants with a disability is required; this however, is not the case. The basic skills of being a well rounded educator, when applied with an inclusive philosophy, will ensure the inclusion of all participants including people with disabilities becomes a natural part of not only teaching, but coaching as well (Inclusion and Diversity Coaching, 2012). There has been a steady increase in the amount of individuals with disabilities that are now participating and are involved in sport and recreation around the world. There are more opportunities for individuals looking to expand on their physical capabilities now through programs offered in communities than in the past.

According to Pressé, Block, Horton, and Harvey (2011) it is important for educators to take the time to learn how to be inclusive as a large portion of the developmental years are spent in the classroom whether it be in a traditional setting or a gymnasium. Physical activity can help reduce the stigma and discrimination that is associated with disability by means of encouraging community involvement and attitudes by focusing solely on the positives, the capabilities of those individuals, as opposed to focusing on the disability.

In order to ensure that inclusion is met within the classrooms, it is necessary for educators to be well versed and comfortable within ways to be adaptive and supportive without excluding individuals with disabilities. It is necessary to understand that centering any participant out is not a means of inclusion and can leave the individuals feeling embarrassed.

[edit] History

The issue of being equal and having anyone involved in physical activity, or even being included in society, is not a new issue by any means. History is plagued with those who were different being excluded, isolated, and rejected for having physical ailments. Evidence of this stretches as far back as to Sparta, where they would dispose of children who were born physically deformed (Lathrop, 2014). Since the age and times of Sparta, the notion of having any type of physical disability was still considered to be just that: a disability. Those individuals that were deemed to be "different" were often excluded and made to feel unwelcome and unwanted. As stated below, there are a few instances where there have been advancements in this old fashioned way of thinking have been changed (in a positive direction) that have encouraged individuals with differences and created a sense of inclusion rather than exclusion.

[edit] The First World War- Pre-Second World War Era

Willen (2014) states that throughout 1915-1917 when there was the Polio epidemic, there were a large number of children who were affected by this disease and as a result had developed physical disabilities, most dominantly in the spine. He also goes on to state that because of this epidemic, the interest and focus towards corrective exercise became an area of interest, as these were once able bodied individuals that were now suffering from a terrible disease. Corrective exercise was looked at as the first step towards fitness, allowing those individuals with a disability to have the opportunity to regaining physical activity.

Robert Tait McKenzie, MD (1867-1938), was a Canadian man from the Ottawa region on Ontario. According to Robinson and Randall (2014) he was the first educator to devote full chapters in his textbooks specifically towards providing insight into the teaching of physical education to people with different disabilities. This was an incredible leap forward, literature on the matter did not yet exist to helping educators understand how to be inclusive.

As mentioned by the Museum of disABILITY History (2014), George T. Stafford (1894-1968) at the University of Illinois, was known as the father of sports for the handicapped movement. They also mention that his publication that was released in 1939, Publication of Sports for the Handicapped was revolutionary; he presented a strong rationale for developing a physical education curriculum for students with disabilities. This was a huge leap forward coming out of the First World War and in preparation for the Second World War that would begin within that year.

[edit] The Second World War-Post Cold War Era

As previously stated, the first time physical activities were introduced in a learning environment to individuals with physical disabilities was during rehabilitation programs. These programs became quite prominent especially for returning veterans after the Second World War, as well as the Korean War, for they would have to re-assimilate back into their lives in the United States (Disabled Sports, U.S.A., 2013).

Strohkendl (1996) explains that The National Wheelchair Basketball Association was created and founded in 1948, right after the end of the Second World War in North America as means for veterans to get exercise after being wounded in battle.

Professor James Mandigo (2014) provided a lecture in which the Swedish gymnastics program was brought from Europe to North America within the late 1800’s and was primarily performed by students that were not disabled. Prior to the 1950’s, students with any type of disability, whether it was mental, physical or sensory, remained at home and were not required to attend school. He continued by mentioning that during the 1950’s, there was a noticeable transition from ignoring and hiding individuals with disabilities, to assisting them by building educational and treatment facilities to assist them. This was not the most appropriate way to try and be inclusive, as the population with disabilities was still being isolated, but this was at least a step in the right direction by providing physical activity and education to most individuals. This would later be referred to as fitness instead of gymnastics.

The Committee on Adapted Physical Education (1952) provided the first official support for changing the curriculum with emphasis on students with disabilities to adapted physical education. They went on to provide the first definition of adapted physical education that states “A diversified program of developmental activities, games, sports, and rhythms suited to the interests, capabilities, and limitations of students with disabilities who may not safely or successfully engage in unrestricted participation in the vigorous activities of the general education program” (p. 15).

[edit] The 1960's to Present Day

The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the first legally binding international instrument to address the rights of persons with disabilities and sport. (The UN Web Services Section, 2006).

The first Olympic Games hosted in London in 1948 after the end of Second World War, was the first time there was a public display of participation from individuals with disabilities to perform (International Paralympic Committee (IPC), n.d.). Although this was not an official sport at the time, it opened the doors for the potential of the Paralympics, which were later founded. The IPC goes on to explain that the first official Paralympic Games was held in the year 1960 in Rome, bringing forth the international stage and awareness that individuals with disabilities are still capable of being physically fit, and deserve the same opportunities as everyone else.

[edit] Target Audience

Between the ages of 14 and 19 (high school level) there is a tremendous decrease in participation in sport and activities, not only for those with disabilities, but across the entire population. Crocker (2011) explains that it is essential to provide encouragement, and values of self worth as this is the end of the sampling years in sport, and a chance for specialization. For those with disabilities, it is even more crucial that they learn that having a disability does not limit their overall worth and contribution. Directing the information towards educators that will be directly linked to those within the age group of 14-19, will provide them with adequate information and direction in terms of learning how to include those with disabilities without centering the individuals out from the group. Although the issue of inclusion includes but is not limited to individuals with physical disabilities, the focus here is only for individuals with physical disabilities within the age range provided above, and how to further educated those educators that are teaching within that demographic.

[edit] Research

The struggle with inclusion is a topic that is debated frequently and regularly. There seems to be a constant disagreement amongst scholars in regards to what it means to be inclusive as opposed to exclusive, which tends to be what occurs when educators attempt to have all inclusive classrooms. The question “can you do this?” may seem like a completely appropriate question to ask someone, but it is never considered from the participant’s side and their comfort level. That question, is somewhat of a loaded question whether it is meant to or not. It implies that there is doubt in that participant’s ability to actually perform the task that has been asked of them. Inclusion begins with a simple question that can lead to feelings of exclusion or isolation. This is one of the many struggles that educators of individuals with disabilities and without alike that is a hurdle that needs to be overcome.

Gary Stidder and Sid Hayes discuss their new book that relates to the topic of Inclusion, not only specifically to physical disabilities, but as it is all encompassing.

[edit] The Educator’s Perspective

According to Hodge, Ammah, Casebolt, Lamaster, and O'Sullivan (2004), the most crucial component in order for inclusion to be affective in the educational process of students with and without disabilities is to ensure that the educators are confident and well learned in what it means to be inclusive and how to proceed as a the head figure in a classroom. They emphasize the importance of understanding that teaching and learning is a reciprocal process in which the students are able to teach the educators and vice versa. In terms of physical education, there is a third element that they emphasize as crucial to the adaptability of the room, which is the environment; this forces all of the participants to work together to make the environment friendly for everyone (inclusive). After performing extensive questionnaires and research to determine the feelings that educators had towards inclusion, Hodge, Ammah, Casebolt, Lamaster, and O’Sullivan (2004), noted that across the board there were the same doubts and same sentiments towards inclusion; all of the educators were apprehensive when they first became teachers, and in all honesty, uncomfortable at the thought of having to teach students with severe disabilities. These feelings did pass after being an active teacher for a few years. The problem with any discomfort is that it shows within the meta-verbal as opposed to the verbal communication of the educator to the students. If the teacher feels uncomfortable, so will the student, which makes inclusion that much more difficult.

As Harrower (1999) also discusses, there is, in general, a positive correlation between teachers and their thoughts on being inclusive and have all inclusive classrooms. He does go on to explain that even though there is overwhelming evidence to support that educators are in favour of having an inclusive classroom, that there is always a slight bit of doubt that students with disabilities are going to require more attention and special services that will detract from the actual learning and lesson being taught.

Just as it has been stated previously, Crocker (2011) makes a point in ensuring that is widely known that the earlier inclusive classrooms can be introduced, the better it will be in the long run. Although the focus is on the adolescence years, it is most definitely necessary to backtrack slightly to the fundamental years so that the inclusion isn’t just something that is introduced once in high school, but a continuation from what the previously know. This will ensure consistency, and a lack of feeling of displacement throughout their educational process.

[edit] The Parents’ Perspective

As much as it is the responsibility of the educators in the school systems to provide an inclusive environment for students with disabilities, especially in a physical education setting, there is always another side when working with children at any age. Parents of individuals with disabilities, like any other parent, will always have strong opinions in regards to their offspring and how they should be taught.

The sentiments of parents also depends on whether or not the individual’s disability was an acquired, meaning it happened later on in their lives, normally through a traumatic accident or disease, or if it is a congenital issue, such as a birth defect. Why would that make a difference? Individuals that go through traumatic experiences tend to have parents that act more protective than they need to. They may view the individual to be more fragile after the accident and more reluctant to allow them to participate in physical activity. According to the Changing Minds, Changing Lives campaign from the Canadian Paralympic Committee (2013), there are only 3% of individuals with disabilities that participate in physical activity or organized sport across Canada. There are obviously numerous factors that come into play with this statistic, but overbearing parents is definitely included in this factor.

Thote, Mathew, and Rathoure (2013) performed a study to examine the sentiments of parents and teachers a like in regards to inclusive early childhood education, to determine if there was in fact apprehension from the parental side, as well as if there was a difference amongst the male and female parents. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their thoughts on inclusive education. What they found was that for the most part, educators and parents alike were highly in favour of inclusive education, but there was no depth as to whether or not the parents understood specifically what that entailed.

Harrower (1999) on the other hand, found that there was an overwhelming amount of parents that felt that the inclusive measures were not being met. This is something that is constantly addressed in terms of teaching educators how to perform their jobs adequately. He goes on to explain that some parents feel as if their children are not viewed as an important member of the scholastic society or valued as a student in an educational community. With the proper tools and techniques that the educators can themselves obtain through practice and research, this notion that the students are not valued can quickly be eradicated. It should also noted that as an educator, they should be willing, and enjoy what they do, for it does not benefit themselves or the students whether they have a disability or not if there is no passion in their instruction or if they only look at the job as a pay check.

[edit] Going Above and Beyond

In order for educators to be successful, especially when trying to teach and reach out to students within the high school years, it is absolutely essential for them to have tools in their teaching bag to use in order to be properly inclusive. This does take time to hone in on their skills and truly reach their potential as an educator, but the reward is seeing their students whether they have a physical disability or not, truly learn in an inclusive environment, where individualism is celebrated and rewarded instead of frowned upon and made to feel isolated. According to Hodge, Ammah, Casebolt, Lamaster, and O’Sullivan (2004) most educators that are successful at being inclusive in the classroom, do not feel as if they change their teaching style whatsoever. This is definitely bankable in the positive side of inclusion because it shows that a program can stay structured as it is intended even with slight modifications and adaptations which would most likely be there anyways, especially in physical education because of the different levels of experience that are present in that type of setting.

Durstine (2000) explains that there has been a model for comprehensive physical activity management for individuals with chronic diseases and disabilities has been developed. In order for it to function, there is a need for the integration of knowledge, experience and scientific research from different branches, whether it be the medical and allied health professions, such as kinesiotherapists, physical therapists, adapted physical educators, therapeutic recreation specialists, and the like so that the knowledge can be used by the general public to help assist in inclusion.

Along with parental assistance and cooperation, PBS (2014) has created an incredible list of outcomes from positive inclusion being encouraged not only inside the classroom but outside as well. Learning is done everywhere in every facet of life, being an educator means to be constantly learning and teaching despite the surroundings. The ideas that PBS explains are that with proper inclusion, the families’ visions of their child(ren) having a typical life can actually be obtained; acceptance and understanding become a part of every day life. It also allows children to develop a positive understanding of themselves and others; they learn to appreciate one another for their diversity and encourages the beliefs of celebrating individuality. They will in turn, be able to develop long lasting friendships; school is not only an institution for learning from books and scholars, but the development and continuation of social skills is crucial. Even in the period of adolescence, teens are learning and discovering who they are as individuals and should not be limited just because they may or may not have a disability. Learning together and at their own pace does not leave feelings of isolation, but that they are just like everyone else in the class.

The National Center of Health, Physical Activity and Disability (NCHPAD) (n.d.) also strives to have certain guidelines in place that are essential to having an inclusive environment for all individuals. It is an organization that has been operating for over a decade and focuses on five main goals:

  1. Developing leadership through local inclusive health coalitions; helping communities to ensure inclusion through a variety of programs
  2. Providing individualized information for participants with disabilities and their support system
  3. Promoting community and individual behaviour change through a health communications network channel allowing communication between services and organizations between disability and non-disability services
  4. Develop guidelines to promote inclusive policies in physical activity
  5. Develop a comprehensive training program for service providers in community health

These 5 guidelines help communities as a whole, learn about inclusion, how to be inclusive and provide support when needed for not only the individuals with a disability, but also their support system: friends, family, educators, coaches, and anyone else that looks to provide more assistance in their lives.

[edit] Six Tips to Inclusion

Although there is a list provided above to community inclusion, which of course, is relevant, there are really only six tips that any educator would need to keep in mind to ensure if that they are providing an inclusive classroom with the support for all individuals. According to Francis, Johnson, Lloyd, Robinson, and Sheehan (2011), these six tips are as follows:

  • Celebrate your success: tell them, share it with their parents
  • Avoid looking for issues: don’t focus on what they can’t but what they can do
  • Involve the participant: Ask HOW they would like to be involved
  • Provide opportunities for participants to shine: allow them to demonstrate the accomplishments they have achieved
  • Use instructional support: if support personnel is needed, allow them to actively participate along side the individual as well
  • Foster equal relationships: structure it so it is on an “as needed” basis instead of a needy framework (don’t customize too much!)

Professor James Mandigo (2014) has stated that 87% of Canadians agree that physical education and physical activity can help children develop self confidence. That is an outstanding percentage, and individuals with disabilities should be exempt from an overwhelming consensus agreeing that physical activity has the potential of helping their self-esteem and confidence.

[edit] Existing Physical Activity Programs

There are a great number of programs that are currently available to assist educators in learning how to be more inclusive and adaptive in the classroom. Some of these programs are geared towards a younger demographic than what has been previously stated as the target audience, nonetheless, they are still incredibly relevant, as without proper education during the fundamental years, the target audience of 14-19 would not have the basic understanding of physical literacy. If educators do not address the issue of inclusion throughout these years, the later years will prove to be even more difficult than where they are currently.
Image of collage of words to represent inclusion retrieved from
Image of collage of words to represent inclusion retrieved from

The following is a list of programs that are great stepping stones to inclusive instruction for educators, parents, as well as peers of individuals with physical disabilities:

  • PlaySport is an organization that is designed as a teaching resource which includes nearly 50 games that can be used for teaching the fundamentals to children aged 6-12, which obviously can translate over and be adapted to the next age bracket as well. For more information and the full website, please visit
  • The Free2BMe program is designed to provide physical activities in a safe, and judgement free environment, and is led by staff trained in adaptive physical activity (University of Alberta, n.d.). This program aims to cover the entire scholastic years of individuals. For the full website and information, please visit
  • The National Coaching Certification Program is partnered with Coach Education focus on the importance of how disabled children who participate in sports and physical activity are first and foremost athletes and that they have the same basic needs, drive, and dreams as any other athlete. Furthermore, this organization is based on one main principle, when working with a child who has a physical disability it is most important to primarily focus on their ABILITIES and not there DISABILITIES. For the full website, please visit
  • Penguins Can Fly is a program run through the YMCA in Kingston Ontario. It is a program run for youth with physical disabilities to help promote success in learning and achievement through physical activity. Founded in 2001 the program now offers swimming, basketball and running while also visiting schools promoting inclusion for those with physical disabilities. Penguins can fly provides a stable program in which youth with disabilities can join a comfortable learning environment while promoting confidence and personal development through physical activity. For the full website, please visit
  • Within the Niagara Region of Ontario, the SNAP program has been developed to help those in the community by offering a program that is a movement education-based embedded curriculum for youth and children with disabilities. It is a learning initiative that has been running since 1994 and created by then graduate student Jason Candy, who is now employed at Niagara College. SNAP facilitates instruction in physical activity in a one-on-one environment as peer mentoring type program. For more information, please visit

[edit] Best Practice Activity Suggestions

Inclusion is something that is a constant struggle for educators, as it is not something that is readily taught and it is up to the educators to be aware of each individual that they instruct. The following are a list of activities that are easily modifiable to accommodate any individuals with physical disabilities. They can include the use of verbal and visual prompts, or alteration to the size of the equipment or area of play. The action of inclusion is to not isolate, but to make sure everyone is able to perform in the physical activity to his or her own capabilities without feeling centered out. This list will contain more advanced type games because it is assumed that they will have learned their fundamentals of movement at a younger age (this is in an ideal setting). The idea is to not exclude them to a specific role, but have modifications so that they can be near to or at the same level as the rest of the class:

  • Creative Dance: This is a non-competitive activity in which personal growth and ability is dependent on the individual. Whether they are in a wheelchair, use a walking assistance device, or do not have any visual identification to having a physical disability, providing basic steps and allowing for interpretation to one’s ability can be very rewarding and help with self confidence (Francis, Johnson, Lloyd, Robinson, & Sheehan, 2011).
  • Goalball: This is an interesting game because it is actually specifically designed for individuals who are blind. Although this may not seem like a game in which someone with a physical disability would be inclined to play, most with vision wouldn’t either. This would literally put any individual at the same level of understanding and capability. It is played in a completely silent gym, with a ball that jingles. This is a game of communication and without sight. Precautions would need to be taken to ensure the safety of individuals, but would be an excellent way to be completely inclusive. It should be noted that every player should rotate positions (from scorers to goal keeper) (Canadian Paralympic Committee, 2013).
  • Educational Gymnastics: Just like creative dance, there is no “wrong way” of doing something as long as the fundamentals are being executed. Instead of providing specific equipments for those individuals with disabilities, there should be options because even those participants that are not disabled could still potentially have difficulties performing certain acts. This is an activity that allows for personal goals as opposed to team setting again (Francis, et al., 2011).
  • Baseball: The American pastime, and a game that is incredibly adaptable. It is also a game in which the participants are encouraged to go outside. Whether it is creating a pairing system, in which one partner bats and the other runs, or modifying the size of the diamond or the equipment itself (maybe soccer baseball instead of the traditional version), there is really an endless amount of possibilities to have this game be all inclusive.
  • Bocce Ball: A target game in which the goal is to roll a ball as close to the target as possible. This game can be played inside or outside and is all about the technique and strength. It can be played in pairs vs. pairs, or one-on-one. This game can be quite repetitive and may be a little boring after a while, so pairing it in the classroom with another target based activity (in which they are using the same skills, i.e. weight distribution) would be beneficial and prevent the class from lack of enjoyment (World Bocce League, 2012).

[edit] Future Directions

There are a number of traits and characteristics that any educator will need in order to be successful at creating an inclusive classroom; whether it be in a traditional learning system, or in a physical education setting. Below there are some suggestions on what will make for a successful inclusive learning environment, not only for the adolescence years, but also prior to and beyond those time periods:

  • Patience: Recognising some participants will take longer to develop skills or make progress than others
  • Respect: Acknowledging difference and treating all participants as individuals
  • Adaptability: Having a flexible approach to coaching and communication that recognises individual differences
  • Organization: Recognising the importance of preparation and planning
  • Safe practices: Ensuring every session, whether with groups or individuals, is carried out with the participants’ safety in mind
  • Knowledge: Utilising knowledge of training activities and how to modify them in order to maximise the potential of every participant

The direction and purpose behind the theme of inclusion is to insure equality and acceptance in sport and physical activity, but most important to further educate educators on ways to handle situations in regards to disabled children effectively. Also, the purpose of inclusion is to see a disability, not as a weakness but as a modification and to insure that everyone feels equal and not singled out.

There is quite a lot of information that is currently being circulated. There are several organizations that dedicate time and effort to providing more training and resources for future and current educators on inclusion. There are also several programs that encourage the continued participation of all children in sport; regardless of the age range provided, it is necessary to keep in mind the importance of learning the fundamentals at a younger age, as well as providing a safe, secure environment for any individuals wishing to participate.

At Worcester University (2013) they have started to provide a new Sports Coaching Science with Disability Sport BSc (Hons), which is “dedicated to producing experts in disability sport and fitness who can go on to follow careers helping and coaching people with disabilities who wish to engage in sport and physical activity.” This is something that should be taken into consideration in North America, as England currently seems to be at the forefront of providing proper training and education to those seeking to become educators. Their involvement with inclusion and their desire to provide the best training makes it inspirational to know that there are programs specially designed for educators to get the best knowledge and practice on how to run an all-inclusive classroom.

[edit] External Links

There are multiple additional resources that can aid in the comprehension of the importance of inclusion, as well as numerous organizations that can provide activity based learning and volunteer opportunities for anyone looking to become more involved in the movement. Please check out the following links for ideas and information.

Physical and Health Education Canada

Volunteer opportunities within the Paralympic community

Inclusion and Adaptations in Sports

The Inclusion Club

War Amps Canada

Sean Healy 'Adapt It Sport'

Niagara Penguins

[edit] Notes and References

Canadian Paralympic Committee retrieved from 2013.

Crocker, P.R.E. (Ed.). (2011). Sport and Exercise Psychology; a Canadian perspective, Second edition. Toronto, ON; Pearson Canada Inc.

Durstine, J.L., et al. "Physical Activity For The Chronically Ill And Disabled. / Activite Physique Pour Les Sujets Souffrant De Maladies Chroniques Et Les Handicapes." Sports Medicine 30.3 (2000): 207-219. SPORTDiscus. 2014. Francis, N., Johnson, A., Lloyd, M., Robinson, D., & Sheehan, D. (2011). Fundamental Movement Skills: The building blocks for the development of physical literacy. Ottawa, ON; Physical and Health Education Canada.

Harrower, J.K. (1999). Educational Inclusion of Children with Severe Disabilities. Journal of Positive Behaviors Interventions, 1(4), 215-230.

Hodge, S.R., Ammah, J.O., Casebolt, K., Lamaster, K., & O'Sullivan, M. (2004)High School General Physical Education Teachers' Behaviors and Beliefs Associated with Inclusion. Sport, Education and Society, 9 (3), 395-419.

Lathrop, A. (2014) Lecture from Tuesday January 28th, History: Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome. Brock University.

Mandigo, J. (2014) Lecture from Tuesday March 11th, Current Issues Surrounding Physical Activity. Brock University.

Museum of disABILITY retrieved from 2014.

Oxford Dictionary retrieved from 2004.

Paralympics Committee retrieved from n.d.

PBS retrieved from 2014.

Pressé, C., Block, M.E., Horton, M., & Harvey W.J. (2011). Adapting the Sport Education Model for Children with Disabilities. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 82(3), 32-39.

Robinson, D.B., & Randall, L. (2014). Teaching Physical Education Today: Canadian Perspectives. Canada; Thompson Education Publishing Inc.

Strohkendl, H. (1996). The 50th Anniversary of Wheelchair Basketball: A History. New York, Waxman.

The Committee on Adapted Physical Education retrieved from: Sherrill, C. "A Celebration Of The History Of Adapted Physical Education." Palaestra 20.1 (2004): 20-24;45-47. SPORTDiscus. 2014.

The National Center of Health, Physical Activity and Disability (NCHPAD) retrieved from 2014.

The UN Web Services Section retrieved from 2006.

Thote, P., Mathew, L., & Rathoure, D.P.S. (2013). Inclusive Early Childhood Education: Teachers and Parents Perspective. Golden Research Thoughts, 2(10).

Willen, C. (2014). Physical Activity in Persons with Late Effects of Polio: A Descriptive Study. Med Rehabilitation.

Worcester University retrieved from 2013.

World Bocce League retrieved from 2012.

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