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Teaching Methods And Strategies
From Brock University Teaching Wiki
For many professors, teaching consists only of lectures, assignments given to students, and a final exam. But there are other teaching strategies which can be incorporated with and within the lecture format in order to stimulate, motivate and foster student learning. The more teaching strategies you have at your disposal, the more flexible you are in your content delivery. In order to identify the strategies that are suitable for your course and that will meet your instructional objectives, you may ask yourself the following questions:
- When should I lecture, and when would holding a discussion work better?
- When should I show students how to do something, and when should I encourage them to try it themselves?
- When should I respond to a student question (give information) and when should I encourage other students to respond (give student the opportunity to practice skills)?
- If I see someone make a mistake in lab, should I correct the mistake, or should I let the student discover it?
- When should I review important concepts orally, and when should I use handouts?
- If I need to show students a lot of formulas or graphs, should I derive or draw them during class, or prepare hand outs/overhead transparencies and discuss them?
- When should I rely on my own expertise, and when should I seek outside sources (films, slide/tape programs, guest speakers, etc.)?
- How might I use quotes from others? This is a simple and fast way of bringing "another" voice into the lecture hall.
- When should I use web resources such as Sakai to augment my course and accept course discussions?
It is important that you consider the overall structure of the course as well as the physical constraints and time limits that might influence the delivery of the content, before deciding on teaching strategies. Two of the most popular strategies, lecturing and group discussion, will be presented here in their general format since there are many variations on lecturing and discussion. Other strategies such as case methods, instructional games, role playing, small groups, small groups in larger classes, tutoring, panel discussion, debate discussion and experience discussion will be briefly presented.
Lecturing may still be the most common form of teaching; but before adopting this method exclusively, you may want to stop and consider whether the material you want to get across and your objectives are best served by the lecturing format. If you are primarily interested in delivering a great deal of information or demonstrating an analytical process, then a lecture is probably the most efficient technique. If, however, you are mainly concerned with teaching problem-solving, developing critical thinking or having students weigh values or react affectively to your subject area, then you may want to try such methods as lecture discussion, small group interactions, role plays or simulations. These types of active learning strategies are known to foster higher-level cognitive objectives as well as affective objectives. Lecturing has its advantages and its disadvantages. Being clear about these may help to decide how and when to use the lecture format and when to use other strategies (Acitelli, 1989).
- a good method for delivering a great deal of information to large numbers
- provides an opportunity to convey the professor's enthusiasm for the material and may stimulate students interest; such interest will tend to elevate students' learning
- allows you to present unpublished papers or articles
- can complement and clarify readings
- communicates to many students at the same time
- can serve as a role model; how you think, talk, act often influences students' behaviour
- emphasizes learning by listening
- does not provide you with immediate feedback on how well students have learned
- places students in a passive role which can often be counterproductive to learning
- student concentration decreases with the length of the lecture
- does not consider the students' different learning pace, style and level of understanding
- does not provide as many opportunities for higher-level learning (application, analysis, synthesis)
- requires that professors have or learn effective writing, speaking and modeling skills
The way you structure a lecture can make all the difference in whether students retain the material. Whereas you may have thought about your material for a long while, the audience is probably hearing about it for the first time. They only get a once-through, and their attention is divided between thinking about what you say and deciding what to write down. Therefore it is crucial, first, that you try not to say too much at once and, second, that you indicate - by emphasis, repetition, and summaries - the major points and how they connect.
 Suggestions for Successful Lecturing
A good lecturer spends the majority of the hour aiding students' understanding and memory by the use of examples, questions, analogies, and restatements.
Tell them what you're going to tell them; tell them; then tell them what you've told them.
It is important that you guide your students through the lectures by stating your goals at the beginning, by indicating your progress during the lecture and, finally, by providing them with a summary of the whole process of the lecture.
- Preparing Your Lecture:
- fit your lecture to your students' level
- it is generally impossible to cover all the material; selecting a topic will focus your lecture and allow you to make changes
- prepare an outline for each lecture
- organize your material logically
- identify metaphoric examples
- be able to present both sides of issues; this fosters critical thinking
- make sure that all students hear you clearly
- be aware of mannerisms such as "ah" and "you know"
- provide an introduction and follow through with an outline (present your themes or objectives for that particular lecture)
- present your points in different ways
- give time for your students to think and write; silence can be beautiful; you do not have to be talking all the time
- organize and time your pauses; create dramatic effects through emphasis, suddenness, etc.
- Maintaining Motivation and Interest:
- vary your inflection, gestures, position and the pace of your lecture
- communicate your enthusiasm for the material
- break the monotony of the lecture with visual aids, with humor, a debate, a problem-solving situation, etc.
- Fostering Interaction and Feedback:
- be aware of the nonverbal clues from students
- ask your audience questions
- reinforce students' answers; make positive comments when they are warranted
 Practical Pointers On Preparing And Giving Lectures
These tips are designed to optimize the learning potential of lectures, in particular with reference to teaching and learning processes, and to remind you of the way in which large-group sessions can pay real dividends to students.
- Make the most of opportunities when you have the whole group together. There are useful benefits of whole-group shared experiences, especially for setting the scene in a new subject, and talking students through known problem areas. Use these sessions to develop whole-group cohesion, as well as to give briefings, provide introductions, introduce keynote speakers, and hold practical demonstrations.
- Make sure that lectures are not just 'transmit-receive' occasions. Little is learnt by students just writing down what the lecturer says, or copying down information from screens or boards. There are more efficient ways of providing students with the information they need for their learning, including the use of handout materials, textbooks and other learning resource materials.
- Be punctual, even if some of your students are late. Chat to the nearest students while people are settling in. Ask them, 'How's the course going for you so far?' for example. Ask them, 'What's your favourite topic so far?' or, 'What are the trickiest bits so far?'
- When you are ready to start, capture students' attention. It is often easier to do this by dimming the lights and showing your first overhead, than by trying to quiet down the pre-lecture chatter by talking loudly. Do your best to ignore latecomers. Respect the courtesy of punctuality of those already present, and talk to them.
- Make good use of your specific intended learning outcomes for each lecture. Find out how many students think they can already achieve some of these - and adjust your approach accordingly. Explaining the outcomes at the start of the session, or including them in handout materials given out to students, can help them to know exactly what they should be getting out of the lecture, serving as an agenda against which they can track their individual progress during the minutes which follow.
- Help students place the lecture in context. Refer back to previous material (ideally which a short summary of the previous lectures at the beginning) and give them forewarning of how this will relate to material they will cover later.
- Use handout material to spare students from copying down a lot of information. It is better to spend time discussing and elaborating on information that students can already read for themselves.
- Face the class when using an overhead projector, or computer-aided presentations on-screen in the lecture room. Practice in a lecture room using your transparencies or slides as an agenda, and talking to each point listed on them. By placing a pen on a transparency you can draw attention to the particular point on which you are elaborating, maintaining vital eye contact with your students.
- Work out some questions which the session will address. Showing these questions as an overhead at the beginning of the session is a way of helping students to see the nature and scope of the specific learning outcomes they should be able to address progressively as the session proceeds.
- Give your students some practice at note-making (rather than just note-taking). Students learn very little from just copying out bits of what they see or hear, and may need quite a lot of help towards summarizing, prioritizing, and making their notes their own individual learning tools.
- Get students learning by doing. Just about all students get bored listening for a full hour, so break the session up with small tasks such as problems for students to work out themselves, applying what you have told them, reading extracts from their handout material, or discussing a question or issue with the students nearest to them. Even in a crowded, tiered lecture theatre, students can be given things to do independently for a few minutes at a time, followed by a suitable debriefing, so that they can compare views and find out whether they were on the right track.
- Variety is the spice of lectures. Make sure that you building into large-group lectures a variety of activities for students, which might include writing, listening, looking, making notes, copying diagrams, undertaking small discussion tasks, asking questions, answering questions, giving feedback to you, solving problems, doing calculations, putting things in order of importance and so on.
- Ask the students how you are doing. From time to time ask, 'How many of you can hear me clearly enough?', 'Am I going too fast?', 'Is this making sense to you?' Listen to the answers and try to respond accordingly.
- Use lectures to start students learning from each other. Getting students to work in small groups in a lecture environment can allow them to discuss and debate the relative merits of different options in multiple-choice tasks, or put things in order of importance, or brain-storm possible solutions to problems. After they have engaged with each other on such tasks, the lecturer can draw conclusions from some of the groups, and give expert-witness feedback when needed.
- Use lectures to help students make sense of things they have already learnt. It is valuable to make full use of the times when all students are together to give them things to do, to allow them to check out whether they can still do the things they covered in previous sessions.
- Use lectures to help shape students' attitudes. The elements of tone of voice, facial expression, body language and so on can be used by lecturers to bring greater clarity and direction to the attitude-forming shared experiences which help students set their own scene for a topic or theme in a subject.
- Genuinely solicit students' questions. Do not ask, 'Any questions?' as you are picking up your papers at the end of a class. Treat students' questions with courtesy even if they seem very basic to you. Repeat the question so all students can hear, and then answer in a way that does not make the questioner feel stupid.
- Do not waffle when stuck. Do not try to bluff your way out of it when you do not know the answers to some of the questions students may ask. Tell the questioners that you will find out the answers to their questions before your next lecture with them - they will respect you more for this than for trying to invent an answer.
- Use some lecture time to draw feedback from students. Large group sessions can be used to provide a useful barometer of how their learning is going. Students can be asked to write on slips of paper (or post-its) questions that they would like you to address at a future session.
- Use whole-class time to explain carefully the briefings for assessment tasks. It is essential that all students have a full, shared knowledge of exactly what is expected of them in such tasks, so that no one is disadvantaged by any differentials in their understanding of the performance criteria or assessment schemes associated with the tasks.
- Show students how the assessor’s mind works. This can be done by devising class sessions around the analysis of how past examples of students' work were assessed, as well as by going through in detail the way in which assessment criteria were applied to work that the class members themselves have done.
- Record yourself on video every now and then. Review the video to help you see your own strengths and weaknesses, and look for ways to improve your performance. Your keenest critic is likely to be yourself, so do not try to resolve every little habit or mannerism at once; just tackle the ones that you think are most important, little by little. It may also be useful for a group of colleagues together to look at each other's videos, and offer each other constructive comments. This is excellent practice for inspection or other quality assessment procedures.
- Use all opportunities to observe other people's lectures. You can do this not only in your own department, but also at external conferences and seminars. Watching other people helps you to learn both from what others do well, that you might wish to emulate, and from awful sessions where you resolve never to do anything similar in your own classes.
- Put energy and effort into making your lectures interesting and stimulating. A well-paced lecture which has visual impact and in which ideas are clearly communicated can be a motivating shared experience for students. Become comfortable using overhead projectors and audio-visual equipment in imaginative ways.
- Watch the body language of your audience. You will soon learn to recognize the symptoms of 'eyes glazing over' when students are becoming passive recipients rather than active participants. That may signal the time for one of your prepared anecdotes, or better, for a task for students to tackle.
- Do not tolerate poor behaviour. You do not have to put up with students talking, eating or fooling around in your lectures. Ask them firmly but courteously to desist, and as a last resort, ask them to leave. If they do not do so, you should leave yourself for a short period to give them a cooling-down period.
- Do not feel you have got to keep going for the full hour. Sometimes you will have said all you need to say, and still have ten or fifteen minutes in hand. Do not feel you have to waffle on. It may come as a surprise to you, but your students may be quite pleased to finish early occasionally.
- Do not feel that you have to get through all of your material. Even very experienced lecturers, when preparing a new lecture, often overestimate what they can cover in an hour. It is better to cover part of your material well, than to try to rush through all of it. You can adjust future sessions to balance out the content.
- Use large-group sessions to identify and answer students' questions. This can be much more effective, and fairer, than just attempting to answer their questions individually and privately. When one student asks a question in a large-group session, there are often many other students who only then realize that they too need to hear the answer.
- Help the shy or retiring students to have equal opportunity to contribute. Asking students in large groups to write questions, or ideas, on post-its helps to ensure that the contributions you receive are not just from those students who are not afraid to ask in public. It can be comforting for students to preserve their anonymity in asking questions, as they are often afraid that their questions may be regarded as silly or trivial.
- Come to a timely conclusion. A large-group session must not just fizzle out, but should come to a definite and robust ending. It is also important not to overrun. It is better to come to a good stopping place a few minutes early, than to end up rushing through something important right at the end of the session.
Getting students to organize and integrate the ideas and concepts they have learned from readings and lectures is the central goal of a discussion. A good discussion requires participants to engage in the higher cognitive functions. In a lecture, the students are passive receivers of information; in a discussion they should be active participants in an intellectual endeavor. This central goal and the student behaviour expected should be stated at the beginning of the discussion session. The success of a discussion session relies on the quality of the professor/student relationship and requires an honest and open interaction between students and professor. The benefits of a discussion are the promotion of independent thinking, student motivation and student participation.
The dynamics of a good discussion require the leader to follow a disciplined procedure until students become comfortable enough with the discussion format for the leader to improvise. To attain the objectives of the discussion session, students should have the data necessary for the discussion, the leader should have planned a series of questions related to the content of the course, and the leader should respond to students' answers in such a way as to encourage participation. This last point is most crucial, since your response will probably influence both the student offering the comment and those observing the interaction. There are other considerations to be aware of when using the discussion format:
- allow students to react to each other's responses
- after posing a question and before calling on a respondent, wait a few seconds so all the students can formulate a response
- don't require students to raise their hands before speaking if the class is small
- never belittle student questions
- never belittle student responses
- don't get sidetracked by individual students: when students wish to plead special interests, they should be invited to stay after class or stop by during office hours
- don't lapse into lecture; this is one of the single greatest obstacles to student participation
- when you have a large class, it is best to separate students into small groups: after the students have considered the questions in small groups, it is easier to obtain full participation during a whole-class discussion.
The use of discussion requires that you develop good communication skills. It also requires that you sense the mood and climate of the class. To be effective, discussion should be used for an intended purpose, not simply because it provides a voice for the students. The use of discussion should also be weighed against certain constraints such as time, number of objectives to attain, and physical space. For instance, discussion is not an effective means for transmitting information. It can be very effective for fostering application and exercising critical thinking and communication skills. The time factor is the most imposing constraint on discussion. Trying to provide "air time" for all the students and covering the course content may prove difficult.
A balance between lecturing and discussion often serves best, since this meets the needs of both the dependent and independent students and, at the same time, facilitates both knowledge acquisition and comprehension, as well as fostering the higher cognitive objectives.
“There are many political, emotional “eggshell” issues that must be discussed in classrooms. One way to ensure that every student’s voice is heard is to have students respond in writing to a “jump start vehicle”, such as a song, video clip, picture, etc. Let them write down their reactions for a few minutes, but do not have them put their names on their papers. Collect them, “accidentally” drop them on the floor, and randomly pass them out. Have the students read the papers they’ve received. Emotions, ideas and voices are heard through the mouths of others. Also this strategy ignites further discussions.” 
 Group Discussions
Description:Opportunity to pool and test ideas, experience and knowledge.
When Used:Any time greater group participation is desired.
Procedure:Requires pre-planned outline. Facilitator encourages and guides participation.
Limitations:Practical only with no more than 20 participants. Becomes disorganized without careful planning of material to be covered and skillful direction from the facilitator.
 Buzz Groups
Description: Allows total participation by group members through small subgroups of participants, followed by discussion among the entire group.
When Used:Use in conjunction with other group methods when participation from every group member is desired.
Procedure:Prepare one or two questions on the topic to give to each group. Divide the members into small subgroups of four to six individuals. A leader is chosen in each subgroup to record and report pertinent ideas to the whole group.
Limitations:Thought must be given to the purpose and organization of the groups.
Description: A discussion in conversational form among a selected group of persons with a leader, in front of an audience that joins in later.
When Used: As a technique to stimulate interest and thinking, to provoke better discussion.
Procedure:The leader plans with the four to eight panel members. The panel discusses informally without set speeches. The leader opens the discussion to the larger group, and summarizes.
Limitations: The discussion can get off-track. The personality of the speaker can overshadow the content of the discussion. A vocal speaker can monopolize the program.
Description: A discussion in which a topic is broken into various parts. Each part is presented by an expert or well-informed person in a brief, concise speech.
When Used: When you want to transmit specific information.
Procedure:The facilitator meets with three or four group members and plans an outline. The participants are introduced and give reports. The group questions the speakers. At the end of the discussion, the facilitator summarizes the main issues.
Limitations: Speakers and groups can get off track. The personality of the speakers can overshadow the content. A very vocal speaker can monopolize the conversation.
Description:A pro-and-con discussion of a controversial issue. The objective is to convince the audience rather than display skill in attacking the opponent.
When Used:When discussing a controversial issue on which there are fairly definite opinions on both sides to bring these differences out in the open in a friendly manner.
Procedure:The group is divided into sides of pro and con. Each speaker should be limited to a predetermined time followed by rebuttal, if desired.
Limitations:Members may not be objective about the subject.
 Experience Discussions
Description:A small or large group discussion following a report on the main point of a book, article, or life experience.
When Used: To present a new point of view or an issue, to stimulate thought and discussion.
Procedure:Participants plan how the review is to be presented, then have an open discussion on pertinent issues and points of view as experienced.
Limitations: Inability of some participants to relate to others and motivate thinking.
 Concentric Circles
Description:A small circle of group members forms within a large circle. The inner circle discusses a topic while the role of the outer circle is to listen. The discussion is then reversed.
When Used:As a technique to stimulate interest and to provoke good discussion. It is especially good to get more response from a group that is slow in participating.
Procedure:The facilitator and planning group develop questions to be discussed by the concentric circle, then the larger circle.
Limitations:Much thought and preparation needed in preparing questions for discussion. A room with sufficient space and movable chairs is needed.
 Reaction Sheet
Description:A method of reacting to ideas that are controversial, are new, really "hit home."
When Used:As a way to get the group to react. It can be combined with other discussion methods.
Procedure:Participants prepare a topic and reaction sheets. They then explain and distribute the reaction sheets with instructions to write as they listen, watch, or read. A group discussion follows.
Limitations:Topic needs to be somewhat controversial.
 Phillips 66
Description:A spontaneous method where six people express their opinions for six minutes.
When Used:To add spice and variety to methods of presentation.
Procedure:Participants first define the topic of discussion. The facilitator selects six people and allows them six minutes for discussion. A group discussion follows.
Limitations:The group and topics of discussion must be used somewhat flexibly.
 Role Playing
Description:The spontaneous acting-out of a situation or incident by selected individuals.
When Used:As a basis for developing clearer insights into people's feelings, and the forces in a situation that facilitate or block good human relations.
Procedure:The facilitator or group chooses an appropriate situation or problem. The group defines the roles and general characteristics of each player, then enacts the scene. The facilitator observes and discusses specific behaviours, underlying forces or emotional reactions.
Limitations:Requires skilled facilitation, so actors play roles seriously, without self-consciousness.
 Picture Making
Description:A way of bringing out ideas or principles on a topic by means of simple illustrations made by group members on a blackboard or large chart paper.
When Used:As a technique to stimulate interest, thinking, and participation. Very good for flowcharts and models.
Procedure:The facilitator and planning-group members select general principles or questions which would be suitable to illustrate. Facilitator divides the group into four or five subgroups. Each subgroup is given a statement or problem to illustrate. After completing the picture making, each group shows and explains its picture. This is followed by a discussion.
Limitations:The facilitator must clearly state the value of picture-making and supply adequate materials.
Description:Technique of creative thinking in which group members think about a problem or topic and express their ideas.
When Used:To get new ideas and release individual potential in thinking about ideas.
Procedure:The facilitator and members of the planning group select suitable problems or questions on the topic selected by the entire group. The leader explains to the group the meaning of brainstorming and the following rules: critical judgments are ruled out; criticism is to be applied late; a large quantity of ideas is wanted; the more ideas generated, the better the chance of obtaining good ones; free wheeling is welcomed; the wilder the idea the better, since it is easier to tame them down than to pump them up; and hitchhiking is legitimate, if you can improve someone else's idea. A recorder lists the ideas. As a follow-up, a copy of the list of ideas is distributed to group members before the next meeting in order to generate more structured discussions.
Limitations:Practical with no more than 20 persons. Becomes disorganized without careful planning of material to be covered and skillful direction from discussion leader.
 Media and Audio-visual Material
Description:Media and audio-visual material is employed as a means of presenting information.
When Used:When information from various sources is available for group presentation. Students can also be asked to bring relevant newspaper clippings to class over a period of time which discuss or study a topic.
Procedure:The facilitator views the material in advance for appropriateness and to devise questions for participants. Specific methods include: television programs, song lyrics, videotapes, audiotapes, pictures, slides, films, film strips, three-dimensional models, posters, demonstration objects, overhead transparencies, multi-media presentations using computers, photos, board displays and diagrams, flip chart papers. The class views the presentation and follows with discussion, role-play, etc.
Limitations:The facilitator must spend time reviewing the material prior to class presentation. Special equipment is often needed and must be arranged prior to class time.
 Guest Speakers
Description:A way of bringing new ideas and people into the classroom.
When Used:When someone other than the facilitator is an expert in a field and is available for guest appearances.
Procedure:The class leader and guest speaker discuss the topic to be covered and details of the class time, how the topic fits into the course, etc. The guest speaker may appear virtually, through videoconferencing or on Sakai discussions.
Limitations:Guest speakers are often difficult to fit into the class schedule and often require travel expenses be paid.
 Team Teaching
Description:A way of bringing new ideas and people into the classroom. Similar to guest speakers, but the speaker is involved in the class for more than one session.
When Used:When two or more facilitators can effectively combine their interests and areas of expertise, and share the class time and work.
Procedure:The facilitators decide who covers each topic and when sessions will be conducted. Each is responsible for a section; sections are taught independently except for discussion on how sections flow together.
Limitations:Requires a coordinated effort by the team members or it may be very disjointed.
 Socratic Method
Description:A dialogue in which the leader asks leading questions of the group.
When Used:To vary the routine of a regular class and when class participation is desired.
Procedure:The facilitator prepares a topic for discussion, then leads the class through it by asking leading questions.
Limitations:The facilitator carries the responsibility for the progress of the discussion, and must be well-prepared with questions.
Description:A visual way of presenting information to a group; often supplements a written presentation or lecture.
When Used:When a topic or idea will have more direct impact if presented visually.
Procedure:The facilitator either prepares the demonstration or asks a guest to do so.
Limitations:All group members must be able to see the demonstration clearly. It must be rehearsed to work smoothly on the presentation day.
 Case Studies
Description:An actual account of a particular incident and/or problem is presented to the class. How the matter was resolved is included.
When Used:When a specific example is the best means of illustrating a topic. This method is often used to supplement traditional lecture approaches to a topic. Can be used to synthesize ideas and apply theory to practical problems.
Procedure:The facilitator documents a case study, altering actual names and places if required. The case study is presented to the class and is generally followed by a discussion.
Limitations:Case studies require additional work by the facilitator to ensure that they are straightforward and appropriate examples of what is being presented.
 Committee Work and Reports
Description:Students work in small groups to develop interpersonal and organizational skills, and take a more active role in learning. This provides practice in presenting ideas to a group.
When Used:When a topic can be broken into small components that can be handled by different groups. It allows students to be more active in the learning process.
Procedure:The facilitator organizes the topic in components, group’s students into small units, then gives groups instructions on how to approach their task, where to seek information, and/or how to carry out their activities. The units are given a period of time in which to complete their reports, which are then presented to the whole class, followed by discussion.
Limitations:Interpersonal conflicts can occur when personalities clash or some members do most of the work.
 Online Discussion
Description:Opportunity to pool and test ideas, experience and knowledge.
When Used:As a supplement or instead of a face-to-face discussion.
Procedure:Requires access to online discussion area, see Section on Educational Technologies and requesting a course in Sakai
Limitations:Guidelines should be established early as to what the requirements for participation are. If expectations are for a certain level of response, then modeling and examples should be provided. If it is not tied to assessment, some students won’t bother to participate.
 Two other alternative methods are
 Instruction Games and Simulations
Simulations or instruction games involve students in some kind of competition or achievement behaviour in relation to a specific objective. By placing the student in a learning situation, this strategy enables the student to contextualize the problem or situation in order to identify different solutions or alternatives. The advantage of such a strategy is that students are actively involved in the learning process and must react to the information instead of passively receiving the content of the course.
A tutor guides a student, usually individually, in a particular subject or for a certain purpose. This allows interaction with students who in large settings are uncomfortable about asking questions and seeking clarifications. Independent studies entail use of this teaching method.
 Notes and References
- ↑ Excerpt from Race, Phil. The Lecturer’s Toolkit: A Practical Guide to Learning, Teaching & Assessment, Second Edition, by Phil Race. Kogan Page, 2001. < http://cgi.stanford.edu/~dept-ctl/cgi-bin/tomprof/posting.php?ID=491&search=Practical%20pointers >
- ↑ Hilsen, Linda (1992) “How to Jump Start Discussions” in The Teaching Professor, 6(7), p.7.