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[edit] Toronto

Claimed by: Leah (lc08id), Hope, Sophy and Eric

[edit] Management Schedule

Introduction Leah

Globalization (Chapter 2) Eric

Political Geography (Chapter 3) Eric

Population (Chapter 4) Leah (lc08id)

Migration (Chapter 5) Sophy

Social Geography (Chapter 7) Sophy

Cultural Geography (Chapter 8) Hope

[edit] Introduction

Leah (lc08id)


Toronto, once known as the city of York, is one of the fastest growing cities in Canada. Many individuals choose Toronto, for it’s diverse way of life. This can be observed through the unique cultures presented in Toronto, the different events that the city has to offer, and the ethnicity that is present within the streets of Toronto. People from different regions can come to Toronto and experience a sense of local culture. Local culture is evident when a group of people with similar customs, traits and experiences cluster in a particular place, so that they can preserve the customs and traits in order to declare uniqueness and distinguish themselves from others (reference textbook). This is evident in places such as little China, Little Italy, and little Jamaica, that are situated in Toronto. Additionally, these individuals can experience different events, such as the Pan Am games. People from all over the world come to Toronto to watch sports games, participate in different events, or to attend one of Toronto’s highly regarded educational facilities. Finally, people who come to Toronto can enjoy outdoor activities, such as walking along the beaches, bike riding down the trails, or seeing some of the famous attractions.

[edit] Toronto - Bits and Bites

  • The city of Toronto started off as York, the capital of Upper Canada in 1793. York was incorporated and renamed Toronto in 1834.
  • Toronto is Canada's largest city, and the fourth largest in North America.
  • Toronto is home to a diverse population of about 2.8 million people.
  • Toronto is the largest financial centre in Canada.
  • Rogers Centre (formerly Skydome) was the world’s first stadium to have a fully retractable roof
  • Toronto is North America’s 5th-largest city after Mexico City, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago [2]
  • Toronto is a global centre for business, finance, arts and culture and is consistently ranked one of the world's most livable cities.[3]

[edit] Flag Of Toronto

Toronto flag
Toronto flag
Toronto Cityhall
Toronto Cityhall

Toronto, the capital of Ontario, Canada, has its own flag. In 1974, the design of 21 year-old George Brown College graphic design student,

Renato De Santis' flag was selected. The flag shows the letter 'T' for Toronto,

the outline of 2 towers of City Hall ( compare the photo on the right to the flag )

on a blue background and a red maple leaf representing the Council Chamber at the base of the towers. [4]

[edit] Maps Of Toronto

[edit] Map Showing Toronto Land Area

Map Of Toronto
Map Of Toronto [5]

The land area of Toronto is 5,906 square kilometres. The map on the right gives a visual representation of how Toronto is defined,

and there is more detail further on in this outline.

[edit] Map Showing Toronto Attractions

Map Of Toronto Attractions
Map Of Toronto Attractions [5]

If one were to enlarge the map on the right, you would get a sense of all the attraction sites that makes Toronto such a centre for tourism.

There are over 50 attractions listed on the map, and some of these will be highlighted in the "Social Geography" section, under "Places".

[edit] Map Showing Toronto Bike Paths and Shops

Map Of Toronto Bike Paths
Map Of Toronto Bike Paths [5]
Map Of Toronto Bike Shops
Map Of Toronto Bike Shops [5]

Toronto is known for its transit and subway systems, but there are extensive biking routes throughout the city.

The map on the left shows the bike routes presently laid out and the map on the right, shows all the bike, repair and rental shops.

[edit] The 2015 PamAm Games

Toronto Pan Am Games Logo

Toronto will be the host city for the 2015 Pan Am and Parapan Am games.

There are 41 countries and territories participating from Latin America, South America, Caribbean and North America.

It is anticipated that 7,600 athletes will attend this event.

The Pan Am games are from July 10 through to July 26 and the Parapan Am (disabled athletes) games will be from August 07 to August 15.

The cost of the events is estimated at $ 1.4 billion dollars (Cad), but the true cost will not be known till after all construction is completed.

The mascot for the games is known as Pachi. He is a porcupine with 41 colourful quilts representing each country involved in the games.

This is an event that Toronto can really show-case what it has to offer. People coming from outside Toronto will instantly capture the culture

and the social aspects of what Toronto and its people are all about. [6]

[edit] Globalization

Globalization is the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. [7] It is a process that encompasses much of the world’s spaces, and leads to increasing inter connectivity among these spaces. [7] Toronto is Canada's financial and business capital. Rated as one of the top four global cities with economic clout, and topped the North American Cities of the Future, behind only New York [8].

[edit] Bay Street

Bay Street [9] is a major part of Downtown Toronto. It is the center of Toronto's Financial District and is also thought of as the center of Canada's financial industry, succeeding Montreal's St. James Street since the 1970’s. Bay Street lies between Lake Ontario (Toronto Harbor) and north to Davenport Road.

The intersection at Bay and King Street is considered the center of Canadian banking. Four out of Five of Canada’s major banks have office buildings in this intersection; The Bank of Montreal (BMO), Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC), Scotiabank, and Toronto Dominion Bank (TD). The Fifth major Canadian bank, The Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) is located a block away. Bay Street is also home to the second tallest Skyscraper in Canada; The Trump International Hotel and Tower [10] .

The area attracts many people who work in the financial district, but it also attracts those who work in nearby hospitals and the nearby students of the University of Toronto and Ryerson University.

[edit] Education

64% of all Torontonians that are between the ages of 25-64 have attended post-secondary institutions.

Toronto universities include The University of Toronto, Ryerson University, York University, and The Ontario College of Art & Desgin (OCAD) [11].

In 2012, there were approximately 150,000 students enrolled at Ryerson, York, and the University of Toronto. Of those 150,000, approximately 130,000 were pursuing Undergraduate degrees. The other 20,000 were in Master’s and PhD programs [11].

Toronto colleges include Centennial College, George Brown College, Humber College, and Seneca College [11].

In 2012, over 73,000 students were pursuing their studies in Toronto Colleges.

In addition to Toronto's post-secondary institutions, Elementary and Secondary Schools are spread out over 3 school boards; The Toronto District School Board (TDSB), The Toronto Catholic District School Board (TCDSB), and Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud.

[edit] The Eaton Centre

The Eaton Centre is the largest shopping mall in Toronto. This building is home to 330 retail stores and a complex of offices on the top floors. It is located in the heart of Downtown Toronto. The Eaton Centre is Toronto’s top tourist attraction with approximately one million visitors per week.

The Eaton Centre is bordered by Yonge Street, Queen Street West, Dundas Street West, James Street and Trinity Square. The complex also contains three office buildings and the Ryerson University Ted Rogers School of Management. Additionally, the mall is attached to a 17-storey Marriott hotel, and to the flagship store of the Hudson's Bay Company; the largest in Canada [12] .

[edit] Political Geography

Political geography is concerned with why political spaces emerge in areas that they do, and how politics has affected the social, political, economic, and environmental practices in that space. [7] Originally called York, in 1834 York was renamed Toronto and officially became a city.

[edit] City Government

The municipal government of Toronto is a public corporation providing services to the City of Toronto. The government is administered by 44 elected Councillors that roughly represent 50,000 people each. Theses Councillors and Mayor make up the Toronto City Council. The Citizens of Toronto elect a new council every four years [13] .

The role of the City Council according to the City of Toronto Act details that the City Council is to represent the public and to consider the well-being and interests of the City, develop and evaluate the policies and programs of the City, to determine which services the City provides, to ensure that administrative policies, practices and procedures and controller ship policies, practices and procedures are in place to implement the decisions of Council, to ensure the accountability and transparency of the operations of the City, including the activities of the senior management of the City of Toronto, to maintain the financial integrity of the City, and to carry out the duties of Council under this or any other Act [13].

[edit] Mayor

The main duties of the Mayor as the head of council are to act as CEO, provide information and make recommendations to Council with respect to Council's role in ensuring that administrative policies, practices and procedures and controller-ship policies, practices and procedures are in place to implement the decisions of Council and in ensuring the accountability and transparency of the operations of the City, including the activities of the senior manage the City, preside over meetings of council so that its business can be carried out efficiently and effectively, provide leadership to council,represent the City at official functions, and carry out any other duties under the City of Toronto Act, 2006 or any other Act [13].

The City of Toronto is the fifth largest municipal government in all of North America. The City f Toronto also has an operating budget of $7.8 billion [13].

[edit] Municipality Changes

Prior to 1998, Six municipalities existed in what is now present day Toronto. The municipalities Toronto, Etobicoke, North York, East York, York, and Scarborough were amalgamated in 1998, creating one single municipality of Toronto. This decision raised a lot of criticism as a lot of the provincial services the individual municipalities once had, were downgraded to services only by the municipal government of Toronto [14].

[edit] Population

Leah (lc08id)

[edit] Population Introduction

  • Toronto is heralded as one of the most multicultural cities in the world and is ranked as one of the safest large metropolitan areas in North America.
  • Toronto is considered to be one of the most multicultural cities in the world because of its people.
  • Over 140 languages and dialects are spoken in Toronto, and just over 30 per cent of Toronto residents speak a language other than English or French at home [15].
  • Languages other than English and French are spoken in Toronto. Just ride the subways and that fact will hit home. Dual language street signs can also be found in Little Italy, Little Portugal and Chinatown.

[edit] Population - Census

Note-7 [16]

The Canadian government collects census data every four years from the residents of Canada.

This data is provided by Statistics Canada and can then be used by the various governments at the federal, provincial or municipal levels.

The last census was done May 09, 2011 in Canada.

[edit] Population - General

The total population ( Census data 2011 ) of the City of

Toronto was 2,615,060 people, a 4.5% increase over the 2006 Census.

According to the data, Toronto's population accounts for 7.8% of Canada's total population of 33,476,688. [16]

The land area of Toronto is 5,906 square kilometres. The population density (the number of people per square kilometer) is 945.4 people. [17]

[edit] Population - Composition

[edit] Age

Reference pg 8/17
Reference pg 8/17 [18]

[19] Age Distribution in years by % :
< 15 15.4 %
15 - 24 12.8 %
25 – 44 30.6 %
45 – 64 26.9 %
> 64 14.4 %

Toronto’s median age was 39.2 years ( meaning half the population is older, and the other half is younger). The national median age for the 2011 Census was at 40.6 years. [20]

[edit] Sex

Census 2011 - Note-16
Census 2011 - Note-16 [21]

Census 2011- Note-16
Census 2011- Note-16 [21]

The Census of 2006 indicated that Toronto’s population is 48% male ( 1,255,585 )

and 52% female ( 1,359,475 ).

The data shows there are 93 men for every 100 women,

a decrease from 94 men in 2006. [20]

[edit] Marital Status

Census-2011- Note-16
Census-2011- Note-16 [21]

The number of legally married persons increased by 11,190 ( or 1.1%) in Toronto to 991,700. The number of common law

persons increased by 15.7% in Toronto from 2006 and 2011. In 2011, the number of census families in Toronto was 690,340.

Which represents a change of 3.0% from 2006. This compares to a growth rate for Canada of 5.5% over the same period.

In Toronto, 68.6% of the census families were married couples in 2011, while 10.1% were common-law couples and 21.3% were lone-parent families. [21]

Census 2011- Note-16
Census 2011- Note-16 [21]

[edit] Education

Census 2011 - Note-17
Census 2011 - Note-17 [22]

As per the 2006 Census, 7% of the Toronto population aged 25-34 hold a high school degree and 64% hold a post-secondary education. Of the 64% post-secondary group, 24.2% have university degrees.[19]

In 2011, 63.9% of the 3,798,755 adults aged 25 years and older in Toronto had completed some form of postsecondary education, compared to 59.6% at the national level.

Of the population 25 years and over in Toronto, 39.2% had a university certificate or degree. An additional 18.5% had a college diploma and 6.2% had a trades certificate.

The share of the adult population that had completed a high school diploma their highest level of education attainment was 21.9%, and 14.1% had completed neither high school nor any postsecondary certificates, diplomas or degrees. [22]

[edit] Occupational Typology

In Toronto ( 2006 Census ), the Creative Class workers made up 34%          Creative Class – Engineer, Manager, Programmer      Total jobs in the city of Toronto      1,378,840
of the workforce. These workers are paid for their thinking and                                                                 Employed city residents with a
problem solving skills. The Service Class workers made up 46%.              Service Class  – Daycare Worker, Hair Stylist                        place to work           925,265
Service workers are paid to perform routine work directly for, or on                          Hotel Maid, Waitress              Non-residents with a place to 
behalf of clients. The Working Class workers made up 20%  and they          Working Class  – Carpenter, Trades, Packager                       work in Toronto           453,575
are paid to maneuver heavy machinery and perform skilled trades.[23]

In Toronto, 67.1% of the people who live in Toronto, also work there
as well, according to the 2011 Census.[24]

[edit] Yearly Median Income

The table below shows that Toronto is in third place behind Oshawa and Hamilton. One possible reason is that the other
two cities are heavily unionized and thus the reason for the ranking. By referencing the footnote one can get a listing
of all the yearly median incomes across Canada.
--- City ---[25] --- 2008 --- --- 2009 --- --- 2010 --- --- 2011 --- --- 2012 ---
Oshawa 83,220 81,560 82,270 84,070 86,160
Hamilton 76,220 74,660 76,730 78,520 80,400
Toronto 68,120 66,790 68,110 69,740 71,210

[edit] Language

Census 2011 Note-19
Census 2011 Note-19 [26]

Census 2011 Note-19
Census 2011 Note-19 [26]

Toronto continues to be a mosaic of languages. 51% of the residents

mother tongue is English, but Mandarin is the fastest growing second language

in the Toronto area. [27]

[edit] Religion

Census 2011 Note-15
Census 2011 Note-15 [28]

76% of those people living in Toronto identified themselves with a religious affiliation.

54% of Toronto residences identified themselves as Christians. Of the Christian faith, 52% identified themselves as Catholic.

24% living in Toronto had no religious affiliation. [28]

[edit] Ethnic and Visible Minorities

Census 2011 Note-15
Census 2011 Note-15 [28]

As of the 2011 Census, the Toronto data shows that 49% consider themselves as a visible minority, or 1,264,395 people.

In Toronto, the top three visible minorities as reported on the Census 2011 was South Asians (12%), Chinese (11%) and Black (9%). [28]

[edit] Crude Death Rate

Census 2011 Note-9
Census 2011 Note-9 [29]

The crude death rate is the total number of deaths per year per 1,000 people. The overall mortality rate in 2009 in Toronto was 443.8 deaths per 100,000 people.

The leading cause of death in Toronto in 2009 was Ischaemic ( a reduced blood supply to the heart ) Heart Disease . [29]

The 2009 breakdown is as follows: [29]

Sex Mortality (per 100,000) Number of Deaths
Females 42.1 1,048
Males 87.1 1,346

[edit] Crude Birth Rate

Census 2011 - Note-12
Census 2011 - Note-12 [30]

Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population.

In Toronto, the general fertility rate remained relatively stable in the past 10 years, at about 42 births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 49 years. [30]

[edit] Life Expectancy

Note-19 [31]


As of 2009, the life expectancy of females in Toronto was 85.2 and for males was 80.2 years.

As people take better care of themselves, and medical services improve, one can expect the life expectancy in years will increase. [32]


As the table on the left shows, the aging population in Ontario is very similar to that of Toronto.

If one were to attain the age of 65, you will notice the life expectancy increases by a few years.[33]

[edit] Migration


[edit] Introduction

Toronto is a multicultural society whose ethnocultural make-up has been shaped over time by immigrants and their descendents. Each new wave of immigration has added to the city's ethnic and cultural composition. Over time, patterns of immigration have shifted. Historically, most immigrants came from Europe. More recently, the largest group of newcomers to Canada has come from Asia (including the Middle East).

[edit] International Migration

·Asia,the largest source of immigrants

Canada's immigrant population reported close to 200 countries as a place of birth in the 2011 NHS. On a regional basis, Asia (including the Middle East) remained Canada's largest source of immigrants between 2006 and 2011.Among all recent immigrants who arrived between 2006 and 2011, roughly 661,600 or 56.9% came from Asia (including the Middle East). About 159,700 European-born immigrants arrived in Canada between 2006 and 2011. They comprised the second largest group of newcomers and accounted for 13.7% of all recent immigrants.The share of European-born immigrants from subsequent periods of immigration has declined steadily.

·Increased share of recent immigrants from Africa,Caribbean,Central and South America

The 2011 NHS results showed a slight increase in the share of immigration from Africa, Caribbean, Central and South America during the past five years.Between 2006 and 2011, about 145,700 immigrants arrived from Africa, 12.5% of the newcomers who arrived during that period. This was up from 10.3% among those who arrived during the previous five-year period.[34]


[edit] Migrant Labour

Toronto,which is essentially a city of immigrants, has consistently required the importation of skilled and unskilled workers to assist its economic development.As Canada approaches the 21st century there is renewed debate about the issues of importing labour to do the jobs that Canadians don't want. For some employers there is still a need for cheap and willing workers; perhaps this is best obtained through the temporary employment authorization scheme that was created during the 1970s. In contrast, organized labour and humanitarian groups claim that this type of guest worker arrangement is both exploitative and ethnocentric, since many of the migrant workers are non-white. [36]

[edit] Push & Pull Factors

As the biggest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario,Toronto carries enough reasons for immigrants to leave their mother country. Health care,living environment and social problems are three of the main factors for people to immigrate.

Image:Push & pull.jpg[37]

[edit] Kinship Links and Chain Migration

This kind of migration is rather common,when one or more family member choose to migrate,the rest of the family would follow their step and migrate for reunion.

One special case of chain migration was in1997.It was the year of reunification for Hong Kong.With decades’ dominance without China,part of the citizens in Hong Kong chose to settle in Canada instead.Which made the few years before 2000 the high peak with Cantonese immigrating.

[edit] Social Geography


[edit] Ethnicity

Toronto's rich multicultural diversity is expressed by the more than 200 distinct ethnic origins residents identified in their response to the 2006 Census.In 2006, twenty-eight percent of all ethnic origin responses in Toronto were European; 19 per cent identified themselves with the British Isles (including England, Scotland, and Ireland); 16 per cent as East or Southeast Asian; and 10 per cent as South Asian in origin.[38]

Image:Ethnicity.jpg[39] Image:Ethnicity2.jpg[40]

[edit] Space

·The Toronto Transit Commission(TTC) was established 1921 and offer rides to 540 million with various transportation.

·Toronto Water treats,transmits,stores and distributes more than one billion litres of potable water daily which it distributes through 6,000 km of watermains.

·100 library branched across the city which are open for approximately 270,816 hours,with an estimated 19.3 million visits,6.3 million workstation uses and 1.5 million wireless sessions.

·Toronto has more than 1,600 public parks and 600 km of trails

·Toronto has 5 golf courses and 676 sports fields

·The City of Toronto offers 595,000 hours of instructional recreation programs, 42,000 hours of leisure recreation programs and various services and facilities for people of all ages and abilities, promoting active and healthy lifestyles

·Toronto sustains urban forests by planting approximately 97,000 trees annually, reviewing 6,900 applications for construction and development near trees and tree removal[41]

[edit] Place

·The Eaton Centre

The Eaton Centre is a bright and airy shopping mall in the heart of Toronto's downtown that houses more than 250 stores. The stores will appeal to the budget conscious and spendthrifts alike.

·The CN Tower

At 1,815 feet the CN Tower has lost its title as the tallest free standing structure in the world, but still attracts millions of tourists looking for a bird's eye view of Toronto and the surrounding areas. A glass elevator whisks you to the 1,122 foot high indoor/outdoor observation deck where a portion of the floor is transparent.

·Casa Loma
Casa Loma
Casa Loma

Built by wealthy Toronto businessman Sir Henry Pellatt in the early 1900s, Casa Loma, similar to Hearst Castle in Calfornia, represents one man's architectural dream. In the case of Casa Loma, however, Pellat's dream went awry and contributed to his downfall.Notable for its location proudly overlooking the city, the "House on the Hill" boasted many modern-day conveniences, such as central vac and an elevator. The Casa Loma building also was used as a location shoot for the 2002 movie Chicago.

·Royal Ontario Museum (ROM)

With more than 40 galleries of art, archaeology and natural science, the ROM offers up a world of interest and fun. The diverse ROM galleries feature one of the world's finest collections of artefacts from China, a more than six-storey tall totem pole and much more. A discovery gallery at the ROM and other interactive exhibits mean everyone's senses get a workout and kids stay interested.

·Centre Island
Centre Island
Centre Island

Centre Island is one of a series of small islands that comprise the largest urban car-free community in North America (some service vehicles are permitted). Centre Island, also called Toronto Island, offers a place for recreation and relaxation and features an amusement park, recreation areas, beaches, a yacht club, and restaurants.

·The Distillery District
The Distillery District
The Distillery District

The Distillery Historic District is a great place to spend a few hours to get away from the usual downtown stuff. This pedestrian-only village is set amidst fabulous heritage architecture and is devoted to promoting arts and culture.


Yorkville is a charming anomaly amidst Toronto high rises and shopping malls. Tucked into a pocket of downtown, the quaint Victorian architecture in Yorkville houses dozens of restaurants, boutiques and art galleries. The dining and shopping is upscale and the galleries represent some of the finest Canadian and international artists. Many celebrities have been spotted strolling the sidewalks of Yorkville, especially during the Toronto International Film Festival. 

·Hockey Hall of Fame

Hockey Hall of Fame is an outstanding facility, full of interactive exhibits that put kids or adults in the heat of NHL action. The Broadcast Pods let people call the action of some of the most famous hockey games, including the 1972 Canada / Russia series: "Henderson shoots, he scores."

·Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO)

The AGO houses an impressive collection of more than 40,000 works, making it the 10th largest art museum in North America. The AGO is a superb document of Canadian art heritage but also features masterworks from around the world, spanning 100 AD to the present and housed in a stunning Frank Gehry building.


Toronto has the second largest Chinatown in North America. People will find bargains on exotic trinkets, jewellery, clothing and household items. Plus,there are dozens, maybe hundreds, of restaurants serving not just authentic Chinese, but also Vietnamese and other Asian fare.

[edit] Meteronormative

In a 2006 study,geographer Catherine Jean Nash studied Toronto’s gay village,the historical debate over the meaning of homosexual identity,and how that played out in the Toronto neighbourhood.Her research demonstrated that homosexual “identity”and its association with certain urban spaces changed as the gay village developed.

With the legalization of same-sex marriage in Canada in 2005,Statistics Canada began to collect information on same-sex couples in the 2006 census.Given the connections between urban life and gay and lesbian identity,most married same-sex couples live in Canada’s three largest cities:Toronto,Montreal,and Vancouver.

Half of all same-sex couples reside in Toronto(21.2 percent),Montreal(18.4 percent),and Vancouver(10.3 percent).Of those same-sex couples who were married as of 2006,53.7 percent were men,and 46.3 percent were women.Moreover,9 percent had children under the age of 24 living in the home.

[edit] Cultural Geography

[edit] Overview

When thinking about culture, many would associate it with some type of religion or background of a particular place or person. Culture actually has a lot more aspects then you would think. A culture is a set of shared belief systems, norms, and values practised by a particular group of people [7] . And any cultural is a riot of colours and discordant sounds until you learn the rules that guide and make sense of it [42]. Many people look at their own cultural as a sense of normality and look at peculiarity of other groups [42]. Cultural can been shown in many different ways. Culture can be shared through certain aspects of life such as in building styles, music, food, religion, dance, art , landscapes, special activities or ceremonies, and many more [7] . There are vast number of different festivals and rituals supported by different religions and the cultures associated with them [42]. Different cultures are present in different places, and culture both shapes and is shaped by the places in which it emerges [7] . To start off, Canadians are considered to be world leaders in innovating social policies that encourage culture [43]. The City of Toronto represents the perfect example of Canadians who welcome and encourage culture from all different areas around the world.

[edit] Different Cultures and the Uniqueness withinToronto

Anderson (2003), looks at cultural geography as the values, beliefs, languages, meanings and practices that make up people's 'ways of life'. The City of Toronto, is home to 2.5 million people, of whom 49% were born outside of Canada [43] . This statistic can then give you a broad representation of how many different cultures exist in Toronto.When thinking and talking about all the different cultures that surround the streets of Toronto, you must consider a couple of things. Starting off with landscape and its association to culture. Culture is geographical. It is shown that dominant cultural beliefs, norms, and values are reflected in cultural landscapes [7] . At the same time, cultural landscapes influence the ideas, beliefs, and values of those who experience them in distinctive and not always expected ways [7] . The landscaping has a big influence on all culture in Toronto. Because of the variety of different groups within the city it is important to create a sense of belonging within in the city through different aspects, landscaping being one of many. Fouberg [7] used the example of what if, billboards, advertisements, and images around the place you lived contained only images of a particular ethnic or racial group of which you are not a part of, you would feel a huge sense of not belonging or rejection. Due to the many different cultures in the city, exploring through Toronto you will see many different cultural traits, such as language and religion. Cultural traits around Toronto can be seen in advertisements, shops, or different restaurants. In my own opinion, Toronto is more defined as popular culture opposed to folk culture. Popular culture is understood as invasive, it incorporates heterogeneous population with cultural traits changing quit often [7] . A heterogeneous population is classified as one group of many other sub groups. The City of Toronto is filled with many different cultures along with uniqueness. Popular culture is resembled through traits such as dress, diet and music, and is always changing through different influences such as media from different societies [7] . Toronto's media world is a constant influence to different cultures throughout the town, and can be noticed just by walking down the street.

[edit] Toronto's Culture in Relation to Place

Placelessness is another term used by geographers to describe the loss of uniqueness of a certain place in cultural landscape, to the point that one place looks identical to the next [7] . Although Toronto does have some placelessness, just as mainly every city does, Toronto still carries its own character and uniqueness within. While venturing through the streets of Toronto, you will come across the typical Tim Hortons, Wal Mart and KFC, however The City of Toronto is also filled with much more. Must [44] shares how there is much more to Toronto than the CN Tower and the Blue Jays. Although these things do bring uniqueness to the city, when exploring the city you will also find 356 restaurants, 146 intriguing neighborhoods, hundreds of shops, some family owned and some franchised, tons of parks, infectious nightlife, theaters and insights [44] . All of which give Toronto their culture. Cultural geography looks at the way different processes come together in particular places and how these places develop meanings for people. Cultural geography is about how the world, spaces, and places are interpreted and used by people; and how those places then help to perpetuate that culture [42] . Toronto is known for its sky high buildings, phenomenal theater presentations, different nationalities/ languages, and more , all of which in different ways create Toronto's sense of place for the people who live within. Sense of place and cultural geography are very closely related in the sense that culture and landscape are also associated with each other. To further explain, culture is commonly seen through the landscape as discussed above and landscape of a particular place is closely associated with how people within connect themselves with a sense of place. Another important aspect of cultural geography to look at, is how culture diffuses from place to place. Cultural traits can be diffused across a variety of scales from local to the global [7] . Some cultural traits of Toronto that have been diffused to other areas can be as drastic as musicians that started out in the city, Drake as an example, or something as simple as fashion in which Toronto is very known for. This diffusion can occur through simple word of mouth and local circulation or through global transportation, marketing, and communication networks [7] . Diffusion can occur quite rapidly or take place over many years.

Culture geography is a set of shared belief systems, norms, and values practised by a specific group of people [7] . Geographers study how culture is reflected in landscapes. Some geographers look at culture as a 'way of life' that you can see through building styles, music, food, fashion, and language [7] . The City of Toronto has many different cultures within and displays each in an ethical manor. Everyone in the city works together and accommodates to each. The environment and landscaping creates a sense of place for people regardless of one's culture and what culture surrounds them.

[edit] Notes and References

  1. Toronto filmed in 2010. Taken from
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 Fouberg, Alexander, De Blij, & Nash, 2012
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3
  16. 16.0 16.1
  19. 19.0 19.1
  20. 20.0 20.1
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4
  22. 22.0 22.1
  26. 26.0 26.1
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2
  30. 30.0 30.1
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 Crang 1998
  43. 43.0 43.1 Gudaitis & Bunch, 2008
  44. 44.0 44.1 NO REFERENCE GIVEN - lc08id
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