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By: Katie MurrayUser:km11qa, Joey RoordaUser:jr14vp, Holly Smith User:hs14wt, Amanvir Sohal, Bianca Moga User:bm11pd Image:shanghaa.jpg Shanghai is located in the Yangtze River Delta in East China[1]

Image:chinaa.jpg[2] Image:shanggg.jpg[3]


Shanghai is China's largest city, and most populated. In 2013, the city was estimated at 23.9 million people. The city ranks first in China and the world in terms of population, and it has a population density of 3,700 people per square kilometer, or 9,700 people per square mile. The city has a total area of 6,340.5 square kilometers (2,448 sq mi) and it is mostly flat, except for a few hills in the southwest region, and the average elevation is just 4 meters. Shanghai also has an extensive network of rivers, canals, lakes and streams, all of which combines to create a perfect setting for a large population.[5] Shanghai is located in the Yangtze River Delta in East China, Shanghai sits at the mouth of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the Chinese coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. The municipality as a whole consists of a peninsula between the Yangtze and Hangzhou Bay, mainland China's second-largest island Chongming, and a number of smaller islands. It is bordered on the north and west by Jiangsu, on the south by Zhejiang, and on the east by the East China Sea. The city proper is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze that was first excavated and created by Lord Chunshen during the Warring States Period. The historic center of the city, the Puxi area, is located on the western side of the Huangpu, while the newly developed Pudong, containing the central financial district Lujiazui, was developed on the eastern bank.[6]

Shanghai is a global financial center, and a transport hub with the world's busiest container port.[7]

According to National Geographic, [8] Today’s Shanghai is a model of progress—not just in China but in all the world. In just a few short decades, the city—known in pre-communist years for its glitz and glamour—has reestablished itself as one of Asia’s most vibrant, forward-thinking, and cosmopolitan places to visit. “This is a city with its foot on the accelerator 24 hours a day, blasting off into the future at speeds that leave little time for nostalgia,” says local journalist Richard Baimbridge. But if you really want nostalgia, among the thrumming nightlife and gourmet restaurants, Shanghai has that, too: Neoclassical architecture, Mao memorabilia, historic museums, authentic food down gritty alleyways—all these and more await.


[edit] Globalization

[edit] Development as a Global Power


According to the Human Geography Canadian Edition Textbook, [10] Globalization is defined as "The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales". Shanghai is mainly known for the trade connections with other countries. Shanghai essentially works as a networking city. Scholar Manuel Castells defines a network [11] as "a set of interconnected nodes and an increasing multitude of networks-financial, transportation, kinship, corporate, nongovernmental, trade, government, media, education, and dozens of others-exist in the world, enabling globalization to occur and creating a higher degree of interaction and interdependence among people".

Globalization Development in Shanghai

The growing demand for tea, silk and Chinese products during the turn of the mid 19th century and its ready access to open water provided Shanghai with the opportunity to establish itself as a port city and a global trade power. It quickly surpassed China's then current largest trading port, by 1870 providing over 60% of China's foreign trade. By 1920 it became one of the 14 largest trading ports in the world and by the late 1930s had a gold trading market rivaled only by that of London and New York. Shanghai's industry began to thrive. Modern factories were built as new technologies became available and by the 1930's Shanghai was producing 51% of China's industrial goods. Modern businesses and banks began setting up headquarters in Shanghai. By 1937 35% of China's major banks had headquarters in Shanghai. Shanghai quickly became China's financial center.[12]

Image Of Trade Items in Shanghai [13]

In 1949 the communist party took control of China's government. The trade embargo imposed upon China by other countries as a result of the takeover severely crippled Shanghai's industries. The Chinese government decided to through China and subsequently Shanghai off of the course of globalization, effectively cutting off their economy from the rest of the world (save a few small exceptions) and most foreign companies had left Shanghai by 1949. The people of Shanghai still made an effort to remain as a significant economic power in China up until the economic reform in 1978 to great cost of it's citizens.

In 1978 China began re-opening its economy to the rest of the world, saving Shanghai from its economic downturn. In 1990 Shanghai had its chance at reform and instituted a plan to make Pudong, its largely agricultural sector at the time, China's main focus of reform. Shanghai’s stock exchange was open by 1992, quickly becoming one of the worlds largest. Shanghai re-established its Gold and other commodity markets and created the "Shanghai Property Exchange" and streamlined their business license application process to encourage business development. Up until 2007, Shanghai's international trade value jumped 20% annually. By 2010 Shanghai became the worlds busiest trade port, achieving the greatest success in the last 30 years of China's development.[14]

[edit] Current & Future Goals Of The Government

The municipal government is working towards building Shanghai into a modern metropolis and a global economic, financial, trading and shipping center by 2020. The city continues to open up to foreign investment and trade. By the end of 2011, Shanghai has absorbed investment from 151 countries and regions, registered 353 regional headquarters and 334 R&D centers set up by multinational companies, and attracted 240 investment firms. [15]

The government is now working hard to build itself into a clean and jural one serving the people and being responsible for the people. Shanghai will serve as the country’s bellwether in reform, opening and scientific development as required by the central government, stick to the policy of innovation and economic transformation, work hard, overcome obstacles down the road, and accelerate the realization of “four firsts” and creation of the “four centers” (of economy, finance, trade and shipping) as it strives to become a socialist, modern and international metropolis with dynamic economy, a sound legal system, prosperous culture, harmonious society, safe and ecological environment and happy people. [16]

The International Channel Shanghai reported this just this year in 2014. [17]

"In talking about the economy, the mayor targeted an economic growth rate of 7.5 percent this year - the same as last year's goal, when the economy actually grew 7.7 percent. "Shanghai will pursue innovation-driven growth as well as economic transformation and upgrading. We will drive reform in all fields and focus on improving the quality and efficiency of economic development through adjusting the economic structure, improving people's livelihood and promoting social harmony as well as stability," said Yang Xiong. Not surprisingly, much of the focus this year will be on Shanghai's pilot Free Trade Zone. Yang says this year's priority will be to form a framework that is aligned with international trade and investment norms. That will include cross-border payments in renminbi, currency convertibility under the capital account and interest rate liberalization. He says Shanghai will also revise the negative list in a timely manner. But achieving that growth requires a more favorable employment environment. This year, Shanghai plans to create 500-thousand jobs with priorities given to college graduates, young people and people with job placement difficulties. Another target is helping 10-thousand people start a business. One legialator pointed out that it's very important to let more people pursue what she calls their "Shanghai Dreams." Last year, Shanghai students came out on top in the worldwide UN-sponsored Program for International Student Assessment. But that doesn't mean the city really offers successful education. How to teach according to a student's ability, and improve our life-long education system is much more difficult than simply getting number one in PISA tests," said Yuan Wen. Mayor Yang also said that investment in environmental protection will be maintained at around 3 percent of the city's economic output. Other areas include public transport, caring for the elderly and public health. The city will break ground on the metro line 5 extension, as well as the new metro lines 14 and 17 this year."

[edit] Global Export and Trade


The Port of Shanghai is situated at the point of the Shanghai coastline where the Yangtse river flows into the sea [19]. It moves around 32 million containers a year and has generated $3.87 trillion dollars as of 2012. The Yangshan Deepwater Port that opened in 2005 is responsible for 12 million of those shipping containers [20]. According to the 'Travel China Guide' website:"Taking up only 0.06% of the country's land area, Shanghai now generates about 8.3% of China's gross industrial output value, 10% of its ports' cargo-throughput, 25% of the total value of the country's imports and exports and 12.5% of the total revenue of China. "[21]Over half (56% between 1990 and 2009) of Shanghai's total foreign exports are what are known as a re-export. A re-export is when a product is produced in another country (other than China) and use Shanghai as a "transshipment" point [22], creating a sort of shipment proxy.

[edit] Shanghai Free Trade Zone


China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone comprises four areas under the special administration of Customs -- Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area and Pudong Airport Free Trade Zone. The entire zone covers a combined 28.78 square kilometers.

[24] Map Of The China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone

There are 12 administrative members of China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone. Along with 10 departments running the organization. Departments include; the general office, the bureau of human resources, the office of policy and regulation speech, the bureau of economic development, the bureau of fiscal and financial services, the bureau of construction planning and enviornmental management, the bureau of comprehensive supervision and execution, the office of Yangshan free trade port, the office of Waigaoqiao free trade zone, and the office of Pudong airport free trade zone.

China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone marks a major milestone in the nation's commitment to forge ahead with domestic reforms and wider opening to world markets, in line with global economic trends. The priorities of the zone are to explore new routes and systems for China's opening-up policies, to accelerate the transformation of how government functions, to promote economic restructuring and to prioritize development steps to ensure effective but stable growth. The zone also aims to pioneer innovative ideas that can be replicated in future in other parts of the country. The launch of China (Shanghai) Free Trade Zone will nurture China's new global competitiveness and establish a new platform to bolster global cooperation and lift the quality of China's economic development to a new plane. [25]

Advantages Of The Free Trade Zone

The 10-square-kilometer Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, set up in June 1990, was the first free trade zone in China approved by the State Council. After more than 20 years of development, it has attracted tens of thousands of companies, making it the biggest special-administered area under Customs in terms of economic output and range of services. In September 2011, the zone was designated by the Ministry of Commerce as China's first National Model Area for the Promotion of Imports and Innovation. It has become an important trade center in Shanghai, dedicated to building professional trade platforms in 10 categories: liquor, watches, automobiles, engineering machinery, machine tools, medical devices, biomedicine, healthcare products, cosmetics and cultural products. The latter category was accredited by the Ministry of Culture as China's first National Center for Trade in Cultural Products, with trade volume of the products continuing to rise. In 2012, the zone accounted for 43 percent of the watches imported into China, 37 percent of liquor imports and 29 percent of cosmetics. Imports of pharmaceuticals jumped 40 percent to account for 24 percent of the national total, and imports of medical devices rose 29 percent, comprising 21 percent of the national total.

The 1.03-square-kilometer Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, set up in December 2003, was the first of its kind approved by the State Council. It was also the first place in the country to run a pilot project of “interactive development,” which allows companies to benefit from the policies and resources of both the free trade zone and the Port of Shanghai. Based those policies and tax rebates, the logistics park and the Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone create a major center where multinational companies can export and source products in northeastern Asia, and can import non-ferrous metals and information technology components.

The 14.16-square-kilometer Yangshan Free Trade Port, set up in June 2005, was the first free trade port approved by China's State Council. It comprises Little Yangshan Port and the Donghai Bridge connecting the island port to the mainland. The free trade port is a key cornerstone of Shanghai's goal to become a Comprehensive Experimental Zone for International Shipping. The port has attracted companies in industries such as information technology, electronics, automobiles and auto parts, food processing and name-brand clothing. The companies have sited distribution depots in the port and established links with major shipping companies. The port currently is the fastest growing and most profitable of China's 15 free trade ports. The 3.59-square-kilometer Pudong Airport Free Trade Zone, set up in July 2009, is designed to take advantage of its status as an Asian-Pacific and function as an “experimental area for innovative air services.”

Multinational companies in electronics, medical devices and high-end consumer goods have established distribution centers in the zone and become involved in related financial leasing projects. UPS, DHL and FedEx, the world’s top three express companies, have set up branches in the zone and helped it developed a strong business chain of air freight distribution, financial leasing, express transit and exhibitions of Asia-Pacific trade. [26]

Image:free trade zone.jpgChina(Shanghai)Free Trade Zone Opens in 2013[27]

In an article by Khoonming Ho and Lewis Lu [28], they discuss the overall plan for the Free Trade Centre:

" On July 3 2013, the State Council passed the Overall Plan for China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone (the zone). In August 2013, the establishment of the zone was formally approved. The zone covers a total area of 28.78km² and includes Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Bonded Logistics Park, Yangshan Bonded Port and Shanghai Pudong Airport Comprehensive Bonded Zone. The zone was officially launched on September 29 2013."

" The establishment of the zone will lead the way for innovation in China's trade supervision model."

"These reforms will effectively enhance the development of modern service industries in the zone, leading to the formation of an attractive and competitive international logistics centre."

"The establishment of the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone is a significant milestone for China's economic transformation and we expect this to be only the first of many new reforms to come in the near future. We suggest business pay close attention to the publication of relevant policies and take full advantage of the enhanced economic structure, regardless of whether they have established a presence within the free trade zone."

[edit] Internet

China's internet speeds are notoriously slow. There are conflicting reports on the subject. A report was published stating that Shanghai had the slowest internet in China at 73.2 kb/s in 2011, but in 2014 another report surfaced stating Shanghai has the highest speeds in the country at 5.4 Mb/s[29][30]. Another conflicting report states that Shanghai was recently outfitted with high speed broadband internet, with packages of 100 Mb/s for around 45$ CND a month[31].

[edit] Access, Policies and Censorship

China's major policies on censorship, usually jokingly referred to as the "Great Firewall", restrict it's citizens from accessing any form of information that sheds a negative light on government or politics[32] as well as access to western media sites such as various news sources or sites like Facebook[33]. China has the worlds most sophisticated internet filtering system that they have to maintain around the clock from 'hacktivists' attempting to break through[34]. In Shanghais free trade zone foreign telecommunications companies are able to operate relatively freely, allowing acess to otherwise blocked western sites like Facebook so that foreign business peoples can "feel like at home"[35]

[edit] Political Geography

According to Human Geography Canadian Edition Textbook, [36] Political Geography by definition is as follows, "A sub-division of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface. It is concerned with why political spaces emerge in the places that they do and with how the character of those spaces affect social, political, economic, and environmental understanding and practices". Political, generally refers to the organization, structure, and administration of a country and its relationships with other countries.[37]

Image:political g.jpg .[38]Image of Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Founded in 2001, Shanghai Cooperation Organization is Eurasian political, economic, and military organization made possible by leaders of countries like China, Russia, and Uzbekistan. The SCO is comprised of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistand, and Uzbekistan.[39] The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a 13-year private club that holds their goal of promoting more substantive progress and breakthrough in enhancing inter-region cooperation. This club that maintains high mutual trust, good neighborly relations and even consistent with security concepts is globally recognized. They also promote more efficient regional and international influence to the point that more and more nations are starting to show interest in joining and giving observer-states more urge to get in. SCO also shows good growth potential and strong vitality of a new-type of regional cooperation organization.[40] This shows how Shanghai is actively involved with political matters on a global scale.

[edit] Shanghai Government

The city of Shanghai has a mayor as well as 8 vice mayors. The mayor of Shanghai currently is Yang Xiong.

Yang Xiong is now Deputy Secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee, Acting Mayor of Shanghai and Secretary of the Party Leading Group of the Shanghai Municipal People’s Government. [41]

Image:mayor of shanghai yang xiong.jpg[42]

8 Vice Mayors of Shanghai Include:

Weng Tiehui, vice mayor of Shanghai, is in charge of education, health care, family planning, medical insurance, culture, broadcast, TV and film, press and publication. [43]

Tu Guangshao, executive vice mayor, is in charge of fiscal affairs, , taxation, financial development, supervision, foreign affairs, Hong Kong and Macao affairs and management of legislative bills. [44]

Bai Shaokang, vice mayor of Shanghai and director of the Shanghai Public Security Bureau, is in charge of fire control, traffic safety and comprehensive public security management. [45]

Zhou Bo, vice mayor of Shanghai, is in charge of industry, information technology, science and technology, commerce, foreign investment and trade, state assets management, power supply, and production safety.[46]

Ai Baojun, vice mayor, is in charge of development and reform, planning, establishment, population management, statistics, pricing, energy, exit and entry ports, petition management and social stability. [47]

Shi Guanghui, vice mayor of Shanghai, is in charge of agriculture, human resources, social security, civil affairs, food and drug safety, industrial and commercial administration, quality inspection, external cooperation and exchanges, district affairs, public administration schools, and paramilitary units. [48]

Zhao Wen, vice mayor, is in charge of sports, tourism, intellectual property rights protection, literature and history, proposal presentation on government policies and protecting the rights of children and women. [49]

Jiang Zhuoqing, vice mayor of Shanghai, is in charge of urban and rural construction and management, housing, land resources, water affairs, transportation, ports, greenery and sanitation, environmental protection, civil defense and earthquake rescue. [50]

Mayor Yang Xiong spoke to representatives on October 29th, 2014.

His Speech titled: New Mentality Needed To Develop Economy [51]

Shanghai Mayor Yang Xiong told a group of non-Party representatives that high GDP growth at the sacrifice of land and resources is unsustainable. Shanghai must get used to zero or even negative growth in land supply and rely on new technologies and bold reforms for economic growth. Speaking at a training class, Yang said the Party leader Xi Jinping repeatedly urged officials to adapt to changing situations and abandon the traditional growth model, practices and methodologies common in double-digit-growth years. He said Shanghai is now focusing on quality of economic growth, administrative reform, innovation and transformation. The government is letting the market play the decisive role in distribution of resources so as to achieve healthy, sustainable economic growth. The mayor noted that Shanghai’s economy operated smoothly this year with improved industrial mix and efficiency. Service industry and new-growth industries are developing faster and having a bigger share in the local economy. “To develop a service-led economy doesn’t mean we will do away with the manufacturing industry,” Yang said. “Shanghai shall not make the same mistakes as other foreign cities. We welcome manufacturing projects with advanced technologies, low energy consumption, low emissions and low market risks. He said Xi expected Shanghai to become a global innovation center when the president visited the city in May. Shanghai has the foundation to become an innovation center but it lacks creative talent and policy support. Shanghai needs to create better environment to attract international talent and stimulate innovation. Yang also spoke about the city’s effort to change government functions and improve people’s living, and exchange views with the trainees about talent recruitment and developing the cultural industry. Sha Hailin, director of the United Front Work Department of the CPC Shanghai Committee, chaired the meeting.

In an article addressing the government of Shanghai, Schilbach[52] states that " The official vision of Shanghai as a global city remains, above all, an economic one. In recent years, however, visions of the global city have sought to complement economic competitiveness with more attention to cultural cosmopolitanism. The prominence, resources and the very scope of Shanghai's global ambitions have encouraged a cultural rescaling for addressing the challenges of local governance."

[edit] Economy

Shanghai is the commercial and financial center of mainland China, and ranks twentieth in the 2014 edition of the Global Financial Centers Index published by the City of London. By the end of 2009, there were 787 financial institutions, of which 170 were foreign-invested. In 2009, the Shanghai Stock Exchange ranked third among worldwide stock exchanges in terms of trading volume and sixth in terms of the total capitalization of listed companies, and the trading volume of six key commodities including rubber, copper and zinc on the Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first in the world. In September 2013, with the backing of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang the city launched the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone-the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The Zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to create a preferential environment for foreign investment. In April 2014, The Banker reported that Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January 2014.In August 2014, Shanghai was named FDI magazine's Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15 due to "particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories", as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories. [53]

In 2011, Shanghai's total GDP grew to 1.92 trillion yuan (US$297 billion) with GDP per capita of 82,560 yuan (US $12,784). The three largest service industries are financial services, retail, and real estate. The manufacturing and agricultural sectors accounted for 39.9 percent and 0.7 percent of the total output respectively. Average annual disposable income of Shanghai residents, based on the first three quarters of 2009, was 21,871 RMB.[54]

Shanghai is one of the main industrial centers of China, playing a key role in China's heavy industries. A large number of industrial zones, including Shanghai Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and Shanghai Caohejing High-Tech Development Zone, are backbones of Shanghai's secondary industry. Heavy industries accounted for 78% of the gross industrial output in 2009. China's largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China's largest shipbuilding base -- Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Group, and the Jiangnan Shipyard, one of China's oldest shipbuilders are all located in Shanghai. Auto manufacture is another important industry. The Shanghai-based SAIC Motor is one of the three largest automotive corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen and General Motors. The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just RMB950 (US$153). .[55]

[edit] Population

According to the Human Geography Canadian Edition Textbook[56], Population Geography is defined as " The study of why populations have certain characteristics and why they distribute themselves across space in particular ways. Population Density is "the measurement of the number of people per given units of land". Shanghai has a population density of 24 million throughout the entire city.[57]

[edit] Shanghai Population

Streets of Shanghai[58]

In 2013 Shanghai population is estimated at 23.9 million, making it the most populous city in China. Currently the population density sits at a heavy 3700 people per square kilometer. The region is mostly flat and has an abundance of rivers, canals and lakes steams which form the perfect setting for a large population. The population has showed a steady increase as over the last year the population has grown over 200000 since 2013. Shanghai has been one of the fastest developing cities in the world, with double digit growth almost every year since 1992. [59]

Shanghai's Population Growth From 2000-2010 Shanghai experienced a significant population growth. Virtually all of the population gain was among migrant (non-permanent) residents who lack official Shanghai registration (Shanghai Hukou status). The migrant population rose from 5.9 million to 8.1 million, an increase of 153 percent (Estimates place the number of non-permanent urban residents of China as high as 200 million). There were 14.1 million permanent residents (with Shanghai Hukou status), a seven percent increase from the 2000 figure of 13.8 million.[60]

Image:population shanghai.png Shanghai Population Growth Graph[61]

Non-permanent residents, who must have lived in Shanghai for six months to be counted, now account for 36.4 percent of the provincial level municipality's population, nearly double the 19.4 share in 2000. Results are expected soon from the China national census, which began in November of 2010. Ding Jinhong, director of East China Normal University's School of Social Development has suggested that the census may report a population as much as 23 million, with a non-permanent resident population of 9 million. [62]

[edit] Demographics

According to the 2010 census [63] Shanghai’s population was 89.3% urban and 10.7% rural. The number of long-term migrants living in Shanghai has tripled in the last year and now sits at 39%. Migration makes up the largest percentage of the cities growth rate since 1993 because of the low fertility rates. Since 1993 Shanghai’s natural growth rate has been negative.The large majority of the population (98.8%) is of Han Chinese ethnicity, with only 1.2% of the population being of the minority. Additionally Shanghai has one of the highest life expectancies in the world at 82.13 years.

Permanent Residents

The permanent residents of Shanghai come from 44 ethnic groups. The Han nationality makes up 99.53% of the total. The small percentage that is left are Hui, Man, Mongolian nationalities and Zhuang. Of those who practice religion, most are Islam. Beside Islam, many ethnic groups in Shanghai have also believed in Buddhism after it was introduced from Tibet. The people of Shanghai draw strength from their religious faith [64]

Ageing Population

With sub-replacement fertility rates (despite government incentives programmes – ‘guaranteed rent control for families with three or more children!’ and rising life expectancies (from 73 to 80 by 2050), Shanghai’s population will age rapidly. By 2050, for every 100 working-age Chinese, there will be roughly 60 elderly Chinese to take care of, compared to 20 in 2008. As Chinese social mores becomes more globalised, the sense of filial responsibility will decline, with many elders being shipped off to retirement villages in central and southern China, Australia and New Zealand. [65]

[edit] Future Population

Image Of The Street in Shanghai[66]

It is predicted that Shanghai will have a population of more than 50 million by 2050. The estimate has been made as a result of the fast-paced urbanization in the region and strong economic growth. The increasing migration rates will fuel population growth for decades to come. [67] From the graph showing the major increase of population in just ten years in Shanghai, assumptions can be made that the population will continue to increase.


In this video, Leading players in high-rise from across China and around the world gathered in Shanghai to focus on the radical repositioning of our cities in the face of global population growth, urbanization, pollution increase and climate change. The theme of the conference was “Future Cities: Towards Sustainable. [69] The video shows the need to continue to expand the city of Shanghai to accommodate the massive population growth they are facing. The future population expectations require conferences such as ones in this video, to discuss the changes that need to be made to accommodate the population increase.

[edit] Migration

[edit] Introduction To Mobility

According to the Human Geography Canadian Edition Textbook[70], Migration is defined as "A change in residence intended to be permanent". Mobility is - the socially produced movements that make up everyday lives-we often assume it is universal and always positive. In other words, we assume mobility is good. As geographers we must engage and ask questions about increased movement of goods, people, information, and capital at the global, national, regional, and local scales. Mobility is tightly regulated and controlled. We carefully "secure" borders through the use of technology, walls, fences, borders, etc.[71] Many people chose to international migrate to Shanghai. The attraction of employment, and new experiences await their arrival. In a journal Article By Laurence Roulleau-Berger and Shi Lu,[72] they explain Shanghai's migration. With the establishment of a globalised economy, internal migration in China has become more complex, while the social policies designed to deal with the phenomenon have been redefined at the national and regional levels, particularly in the large cities like Shanghai. The steps required to gain access to employment have been altered, producing new forms of social and economic inequality. Thus the figure of the migrant labourer with few qualifications provides us with the means to analyse the process that segregates and cordons off the impoverished sections of the population. In Shanghai, the organs for controlling migration discriminate against workers with few cultural or economic resources, but although these labourers are most often relegated to disadvantageous positions within the labour market, they are nonetheless able to develop skills needed for integration. This can be seen by their occupational mobility and their entrepreneurial activity. This article is based on the following hypothesis : although semi-skilled migrant labourers in Shanghai are economically and socially subjected to forms of urban segregation that publicly stigmatise them and confine them to economic enclaves, they are nonetheless able to mobilise various skills and resources within strategies which produce situations of social affiliation or disaffiliation.

[edit] Migration Trends

[73] Migration Trends in Shanghai from 1985-2003.

Shanghai's industry and commerce has been growing rapidly causing many Chinese farmers and youth from the rural parts of China to migrate to Shanghai in search of a better life and more opportunities. Shanghai's various pull factors including its location on the coast of the China Sea have led to its success as a destination for rural farmers.[74]

Why Migrate to Shanghai?

•Location: Located in the lower area of the Yangtze River and along the coast of China

•Resources: Abundant water/underground water supply from surrounding bodies of water. ◦High fertility of soil around the bodies of water ◦Higher production of goods and easier availability of resources due to industrial urban development

•Employment:Higher availability of job opportunities therefore lower unemployment rate. ◦Access to aid for the foundation of businesses ◦Higher income.

•Education: High standard of education shown by the majority of population that attend secondary school and college

•Standard of living:◦Better housing ◦Advanced medical care ◦Social services such as retirement homes, day care centers, safety and security, etc. [75]

[edit] Impacts Migration Has On Shanghai

Due to the recent and sudden economic boom in China, the population in Shanghai has risen to over 20 million people. People from all over China are looking to move to Shanghai for work due to their growing economy and workforce. About 13.5 million of Shanghai’s population is considered permanent, this means that they have residence status, but are not yet citizens, and the rest are considered to be a floating population. Shanghai is considered to be China’s business capital and a growing number of people, even those in low classes are moving to Shanghai in search of higher paying jobs, better living conditions and a higher chance for a better future because of their economic growth. China’s government is taking advantage of the economic growth and encouraging more people to move into urban areas to maintain and possibly promote economic wealth. The government’s plan is to move about 300 million people from rural to urbanized centers, unforeseen to the government, this plan is causing overpopulation and in turn, Shanghai’s traffic is consistently growing by approximately 25% every year. The government’s plan to combat this growing traffic problem is to encourage factories to create night shifts to evenly distribute the flow of people because the electricity supply could not meet its demand during the day. Only about 1.6% of China’s population is accounted for in Shanghai, however it attracts a great deal of foreign attention from business owners, manufactures and other companies looking to outsource or expand their company or means of production. About 10% of foreign investment and about 5% of China’s GDP is attributed to Shanghai. It attracts this attention though many economic activities including diversified industrial production, financial markets and high-tech sectors. It also has a port that allows for water transportation access, which causes Shanghai to be able to make quick, efficient and profitable trades globally .[76]

[edit] Social Geography

Image:social.png Landscape Image Of Shanghai[77]

According to the Human Geography Canadian Edition Textbook, Social Geography looks at how our social lives and the places we live work and play are intertwined. We must focus on the relationship between the social and the spatial with a focus on the contemporary issues of race, gender class and ethnicity. [78]

[edit] Machine Industry

Shanghai’s machine and machine tool industry has been especially important in China’s modernization plans and continues to employ many of the Shanghai residents. The chemical and petrochemical industries are almost fully integrated and there is an increasing cooperation among individual plants in the production supply of chemical raw materials for plastics, pharmaceuticals, paint etc. Light industry is now favored in an effort to reduce pollution, alleviate transportation congestion and compensate for energy and raw material shortages associated with heavy industry. This increase in awareness in the environment demonstrates the changes that Shanghai is attempting to make towards a greener city.[79]

[edit] Education and Research

Shanghai has become China’s leading centre of higher education and scientific research. There are numerous universities and other institutions of higher learning as well as technical education institutes. China’s overall economy has experienced a roughly ten percent annual increase of the last three decades. While obviously Shanghai has come to appreciate the value of education and the wealth that comes from it, the gap between the rich and poor has grown to its highest point since 1978. [80]

[edit] Homosexuality

Image:pride.png [81]

Shanghai is seen as the "Gay capital of China", being listed at one of the 5 top cities in the world for improvement in tolerance for homosexuality in 2008 [82]. In 2009 Shanghai held China's first ever gay pride festival since its legalization in 1997. The festival was not a traditional parade style celebration, but rather a a series of exhibitions, film screenings, seminars, and lectures aimed at making the homosexual community "more visible" [83]. The social structure of Shanghai's homosexual is strati graphed between various groups, each with their own sense of 'identity'. For example: the 'gays' whom are the more traditional western style flamboyant; The younger tongzhi who put more emphisis on emotional attachment and suzhi or 'quality'/civility, usually using sporting courts and gyms to host their social events; and the older tongxinglian who are usually married and attend social gatherings in a more traditional style ballroom setting [84] to name a few.

[edit] Religion

In the early days of china's communist reign, religious groups were forced out of the common eye. Up until 1980 china's Buddhist association only had one temple and until 1990 they "only had twelve monks, but now [they] have more then three hundred"[85]. The recent increase in religious attendance and identification marks a new age for Chinese society.[86] Shanghai itself has various religious buildings scattered throughout its city. The city contains temples of Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism (the most greatly represented religion in Shanghai, followed by Taoism), as well a Christian and Catholic churches. The city also have various Muslim, Jewish and Eastern Orthodox communities[87].

[edit] Cultural Geography

Shanghai Municipal Flag[88]

Distinctive cultural traditions, norms, and values are interwoven into place and have an impact on those who live in or experience those places. As geographers, we are interested in how certain values, norms, and ideas become embedded in the landscape. In the Human Geography Canadian Edition Textbook, [89] cultural theorist Raymond Williams, believed culture is both "ordinary" and a "whole way of life." A culture is a set of shared belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a particular group of people. A local culture is a group of people in a particular place who understands that they share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to distinguish themselves from others.[90] Cultural Geography can then be defined as a set of shared beliefs, norms, and values within a specific location.

[edit] Culture & Attractions

Its skyline may be ultra-modern, but amidst the skyscrapers travelers will discover the seductive allure of Shanghai culture. From its stunning Art Deco buildings to its modern theatres, Shanghai is brimming with exciting cultural attractions.

A Glimpse Of Old Shanghai For centuries, Shanghai has been the place where east meets west in China. Its architecture is a heady mix of traditional Chinese, western colonial and modern magnificence. For a taste of ancient Chinese culture, visit one of the many temples in the city. Popular temples with travelers include Jing’an Temple, and the Jade Buddha Temple, while a stroll around the Yuyuan Garden feels like a step back in time to the Shanghai of old. An alternative way to experience Shanghai culture is to visit a traditional tea house, which will typically serve a variety of Chinese tea and local specialties. For a truly unique historic experience in Shanghai, visit Zhujiajiao, a picturesque water town whose history stretches back over 1700 years. Traverse its waterways on small covered boats and cross its many traditional bridges as you explore this impressively well preserved suburb.

Shanghai’s Top Cultural Attractions

Image of The Shanghai Grand Theatre[91]

Shanghai’s cultural attractions include museums, historical sights and scenic gardens. In 2000 the former Shanghai Revolutionary History Memorial Hall was combined with the former residence of revolutionary leader Chen Yun to create a museum based on Chen’s life. Shanghai’s Dashije was founded in the 1920’s and is the leading theatrical center and offers operas, dance performances and plays. Parks, open spaces and playing fields were expanded after 1949. Every section of the city now has large parks and playing fields. The largest are the Hongkou Arboretum and Stadium, Peace Park, Pudong Park, Longhua and Fuxing. [92]

Shanghai holds a unique place in the art and culture of China. At the heart of this is the Shanghai Grand Theatre, which encompasses three cutting-edge theatres and regularly hosts the world’s leading orchestras, dance troupes and theatre companies. As the political and cultural center and a symbolic landmark of Shanghai, the 40-meter (131-feet) tall Shanghai Grand Theater has ten stories, two underground and eight above ground. Shanghai Grand Theater is composed of three theaters of different sizes, the Great Theater the Middle-sized Theater and the Small-sized Theater. [93] Other attractions like the Shanghai Art Museum and the Shanghai Propaganda Poster and Art Centre offer a fascinating overview of its diverse cultural strands. The Shanghai Museum in People’s Square boasts an enviable array of Chinese artifacts, while the Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival attracts international designers to the city every year.

To the east of the Huangpu River is Pudong, celebrated around the world for its visionary architecture and striking skyline. For a birds-eye view of the city, visit the observation deck at the Orient Pearl TV Tower, a skyscraper that is distinguished by the orb and spire at its apex. Other buildings with observation decks in Pudong include the Shanghai World Financial Centre and Tower, and the Jinmao Tower.

Travellers in Shanghai with families can visit the Shanghai Ocean Aquarium and the interactive Science and Technology Museum, while the Himalayas Shopping Centre showcases an eclectic range of international and Chinese designers. [94]

[edit] Shanghai World Expo 2010


World Expositions are galleries of human inspirations and thoughts. Since 1851 when the Great Exhibition of Industries of All Nations was held in London, the World Expositions have attained increasing prominence as grand events for economic, scientific, technological and cultural exchanges, serving as an important platform for displaying historical experience, exchanging innovative ideas, demonstrating esprit de corps and looking to the future. With a long civilisation, China favours international exchange and loves world peace. China owes its successful bid for the World Exposition in 2010 to the international community's support for and confidence in its reform and opening-up. The Exposition will be the first registered World Exposition in a developing country, which gives expression to the expectations the world's people place on China's future development. [96]

The theme of the 2010 Expo was "Better City, Better Life".

The city is a crystallisation of human civilisation. Just as the American social philosopher Lewis Mumford put it,"the city is a special structure which, fine and compact, has been designed to preserve the fruits of human civilisation." Many Western languages have derived their versions of the term "civilisation" from the same Latin word "civitas"(meaning "city" ), and it is by no means a coincidence. By virtue of its embracing and regenerating nature, the city has played a significant role in the perfection of order in human society. [98]

China's first world's fair and the largest in history by size, attendance, and international participants, Expo 2010 even saw the largest world's fair attendance in a single day: over one million on 16 October 2010. Expo 2010 broke the record for area previously held by the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the record for attendance previously held by Expo 70. Shanghai won the bid on 3 December 2002 against four competing cities: Yeosu, South Korea (who subsequently won the smaller Expo 2012); Moscow, Russia; Querétaro, Mexico, and Wroclaw, Poland. Expo 2010 followed Beijing's 2008 Olympics and attempted to promote China as a central player in the 21st Century. [99]

[edit] Cultural Cuisine: Shanghai Food

In contrast to local cultures, which are found in relatively small areas, popular culture is ubiquitous and is practiced by a heterogeneous group of people from any and all local cultures, anywhere in the world. Popular Culture encompasses, among other things, architecture, music, dance, clothing, food preferences, religious practices, and aesthetic values. [100] Popular Culture in Shanghai is very prevalent, all over the large city. Cuisine in the country of China is celebrated as a culture. Shanghai, being a relatively new city in China, does not really have a cuisine of its own, but successfully refines all the work of the surrounding provinces such as Zhejiang and Jiangsu. Through years of culinary practice and the assimilation of the art in other styles of cuisine, Shanghai chefs have also created a style of cuisine peculiar to the region. Shanghai dishes are usually characterized by the use of heavy and highly flavored sauce. The use of sugar is another uniqueness found in Shanghainese cuisine and, especially when used proportionally with soy sauce, the taste created is not so much sweet but rather savory. Household in Shanghai would consume as much soy source as sugar. Visitors are often surprised when the "secret ingredient" was revealed by local Shanghainese. [101]

The following dishes are considered traditional dishes to Shanghai:

Da Zha Xie - is a special type of crab found in rivers, and is normally consumed in the winter. The crabs are tied with ropes or strings, placed in bamboo containers, steamed and served. There few other artificial ingredients added to the dish yet it tastes fantastically good. Da Zha Xie is usually consumed with vinegar. Locals are also quite fussy about when to consume male crabs and when to consume female crabs.

Image:Da Zha Xie.png Traditional Shanghai Da Zha Xie Meal[102]

Smoked Fish Slices - An ideal menu for those who like highly spiced food. the Smoked Fish Slices (fresh fish marinated and spiced to taste like smoked fish) make a delicious, unusual hors doeuvre, while the strong-tasting Stewed Pork Flavoured with Dried Squid dish is offset by the vegetable rice to make a substantial meal.

Shanghai Pepper Duck - fresh duck steamed with szechwan peppers, ginger and scallions until tender, lightly fried and served with plum sauce and steamed bread 10.00/19.00

Beggars Chicken - Seasoned chicken wrapped in lotus leaves and baked in a dough pastry.

Red-Cooked Chicken - Red cooking is a popular cooking technique in eastern China.

Pi Dan (Preserved Eggs)- Deep flied duck, then covered with braised with the fresh Lotus leaf, together with some meat, shrimp, mushroom, preserved ham. [103]

Shanghai Featured Restaurants

1221 Restaurant The décor is modern and stylish and the menu offers a mix of traditional and innovative Shanghainese cuisine that is very tasty. Try the 'la la ji ding' or spicy cold chicken noodles or any other of their fabulous cold appetizers. An unique dish is the stir fried beef with deep fried dough sticks, a mix of crispy and soft textures. Service is friendly and attentive. Tips: A. Opening Hours: 11:00-14:00,17:00-23:00 B. Add: 1221 Yanan Xi Road

Mei Long Zhen Traditional Shanghai food in an authentic Shanghainese restaurant founded back in the 30s. Service with a scowl but very efficient. A good place to try lots of local specialities - shi zi tou (lionhead meatballs) and of course Shanghai dumplings (they even have crabmeat filling!). Prepare to be amazed by the guys who fill your teapot and sit back and enjoy a little old world Chinese style. Tips: A. Opening Hours: 11am-2pm, 5pm-10pm B. Add: Lane 1081 22 Nanjing Road

M on The Bund One of Shanghai's very best. The large terrace offers unparalleled views of Pudong and the Bund. The food has been described as "eclectic European" and has strong Turkish, Lebanese, French and Italian influences. Great care is given to freshness, quality and presentation. There is an excellent selection of wines to complement your meal and the dessert, especially the pavlova is superb. If you can't get a table, enjoy the scene at the very cool bar. Conde Naste magazine considers it one of the best 100 restaurants in the world. Tips: A. Opening Hours: Tue-Sun 11.30am-2.30pm, 6.15pm-10.30pm B. Add: 7/F 20 Guangdong Road [104]

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