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[edit] Individuals Working On This Topic

Seminar 3, Group 3

Carson Nicol

Noah Shafir

Vanessa Villanucci

Photo Taken By Vanessa Marie, 2014
Photo Taken By Vanessa Marie, 2014
Photo Taken By Vanessa Marie, 2014
Photo Taken By Vanessa Marie, 2014

[edit] Globalization

Section by Noah Shafir[1]

Roman Empire at it's greatest extent, in 117 AD, with Rome signified by a yellow point (Tataryn77)
Roman Empire at it's greatest extent, in 117 AD, with Rome signified by a yellow point (Tataryn77)

The globalization of Rome stems from the era of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire expanded outwards in it's storied existence to become one on the largest empires of human history. At it's height, it was home to 70 million people (about 21% of the world's population at the time) and covered 6.8 million kilometers of land. It's far-reaching borders influenced the modern world through the influence of Latin and Greek tradition on various other parts of the world, such as the British, the Spanish, the French, and the German, to name a few. [25]

Italy as a whole had a rich modern globalization, based out of trade and commerce. Italian trade is considered one of the world's largest in trade and exports. It has influence in the automobile industry, with Ferrari and Lambourghini, the food industry, with Ferrero, and the fashion industry, with Giorgio Armani and Dolce and Gabanna [26]. These world-renowned companies contribute to Italy's economy, which is the eighth-largest in the world [27]

[edit] Political Geography

Rome became a republic in the 5th Century BC. To be able to obtain their power in other provinces, the emperor and the Roman authority set rulers in the other provinces and territories. Being a Roman citizen was highly sought after. “Originally citizenship could only be obtained through birth, but as the empire expanded citizenship was issued to those who had accomplished some task for the empire or to those who could purchase their citizenship.” During Ancient Rome, when roaming the empire, the residents of Rome had the luxury of protection and special rights created by the Roman law. “A citizen's rights included a fair public trial, exemption for execution, and protection from specific disgraceful public punishments.” [16]

Today, Rome is the capital city of Italy. The President of the Italian Republic lives in Rome and currently reside in the Quirinal Palace. Rome is also the Rome also the home to the Prime Minister, the Italian Parliament and also the home to all the Italian ministries. Rome congregates foreign embassies to both Italy and the Vatican. In 1957, the city presented the treaty of Rome which recognized the European Economic Community, forerunner to the European Union. “Many international organizations are based out of Rome including the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.” [17]

[edit] Population

Demographics is the study of the characteristics of a population, such as race, age, sex, and ethnicity [28]. Studying demographics gives geographers insight on several aspects of a population, they can tell the populations overall health, survival rate, life expectancy and more importantly quality of life. The quality of life in an area can play a key role in why one would stay in a particular location, or leave in search of a better quality of life.

In the city of Rome, Italy the population consists of 90.5 percent Italian born citizens. Half of the remaining 9.5% of the population consists of European immigrants, with the majority coming from Romaine, Ukraine, Poland and Albania. The other half of the immigrants come from non European countries such as the Philippines, Bangladesh, Peru and China[9]. The population of the city of Rome was 2,863,000 as of January 1st 2014.[8] The Population Density refers to the measurement of the number of people per given unit of land [28]. Within the city limits of Rome the density is roughly 2,100 people per square kilometre [9]. The Population Composition entails the structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status [28]. Of the roughly 2.86 million citizens there are 1.36 million males and 1.5 million females[8].

The graph below is a population pyramid that shows the % of each age group in both males and females in Italy.
Italy Population Pyramid 2014[10]
Italy Population Pyramid 2014[10]
The graph shows that the bulk of the population is in there mid thirties to late fifties. Accounting for roughly 40% of the population. The population growth is based upon the total fertility rate within the country, having a fertility rate of over two children born per woman means that the population is increasing, however if the number is lower than two the population is decreasing. In Italy the total fertility rate is 1.42 births per woman as of August, 2014 [10}. Because of their increased migration rates in the past few years the total population in Italy has risen from 58 million in 2010 to almost 61.3 million in 2012[10]. The rate of natural increase was up by 0.42% in 2011 and up 0.38% in 2012, the highest in the past 10 years[10]. The migration levels also saw a spike in 2011-12 jumping from roughly 2 migrants/1000 population to 4 migrants /1000 population[10]. This shows that the country is relying heavily on migration rates to counteract the low fertility rate. The infant mortality rate in Italy has also decreased over the past ten years, in 2003 the infant mortality rate was 6.19 deaths per 1000 live births and has decreased to just 3.36 deaths per 1000 live births in 2012[10]. Life Expectancy is an indicator of how long, on average a person may be expected to live[28]. As of 2014 Italy's Life Expectancy is 82.03 which ranked them 10th in the world for this category[11]. Female life expectancy is 84.82 while males is 79.40. Interestingly enough, Italian longevity has been linked to their Mediterranean diet that consists of a wide variety of fish, fruits and vegetables[12].

Because Italy is a developed country, it's citizens have access to up to date medical techniques, a high level of education, sufficient amount of water supply, proper sanitation, and are able to receive the proper nutrition needed for a healthy diet. All of these factors lead to a higher and healthier population.

[edit] Migration

Migration has to deal with human movement. Where we live defines who we are as people. When someone seeks to "start fresh" or begin a new life they often change location. This section looks at how migration effects the population of Rome as well as the country of Italy . As discussed in the previous section (Population) nearly 10% of Rome's population is non-italian. However, sometimes having such a high immigration rate can lead to disputes. Just recently, (Nov,16th 2014) citizens of Rome protested anti-immigration against the mayor Ignazio Marino. They claim that he abandoned the suburbs allowing to much immigration without the proper facilities and leaving the area in ruin [13]. Rome city officials began transferring refugees from a migrant reception centre after repeated attacks by residents. Even though immigration is often seen as a good thing, improving the economic growth, and bringing in cultural diversity. It can also have it's negative impact as seen by the protests in Rome.

Also previously stated under population was that people often immigrated to Rome from Bangladesh. After analysis of Bangladeshi emigration the main reasons to leave the country are do to the population density which, as of 2014 was 2,497 people per square kilometre[14] . In addition to the high population density the amount of poverty is almost 50% with around 60 million of the citizens being undernourished[14]. The attraction of Italy, and especially of Rome, is that as migration opportunities harden around the world, illegal migration is allowed to proliferate and thrive in Italy under a laissez-faire administration and in a strong submerged economy[15].Bangladeshi migrants who have been foraging the global labour market quickly reassemble in Rome because of the opportunities opened up by the Martelli Law[15].

When looking at Italy's migration as a whole, 8% of the total population is made up of non-italians which is about five million people[18]. However this was not always the case. At one point Italy was a country with a high emigration rate and low immigration rate. The Italian Diaspora marked the large scale migration of Italians away from Italy[19]. The first large wave of emigration occurred during the unification of Italy. From 1861 to 1900 the population of roughly 24 million fell to just 17 million[19]. Another wave of large migration took place just prior to World War 1. During this time more than 9 million Italians left for north or south america[19]. The last wave of emigration took place after World War 2, Italians were looking for a fresh start after six years of war[19]. Poverty, war and crime were the main reasons why Italians migrated during these times.

Today, Italy is becoming home to more and more illegal immigrants that flee from the Mediterranean. In an article from Kirstin Hausen of DW she explains "Italy is the main destination for migrants coming across the Mediterranean. If they make it, they often end up in refugee camps and are likely to be sent back[20]". Hundreds of migrants are often found trying to cross the oceans on large unseaworthy boats risking their lives searching for a better life[20]. Many escape and lead desperate lives as illegal immigrants[20]. There are hundreds of thousands of undocumented illegal migrants in Italy as well as other european countries[20].

[edit] Social Geography

Social geography can be defined as a division of human geography that is connected to “the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular” [1], specifying the relationship between social wonders and occurrences and space. As humans, our bodies are created as social spatial beings because we are constantly trying to develop our identities and define ourselves. We do this by trying to understand and recognize ourselves and our bodies as we venture through the world. By creating images of ourselves either through the clothing we wear or the way we mark ourselves with ink, etc., these features are things social geographers study. With regards to the city of Rome, social geographers view Rome as an urban city that is still continuing to grow as a contemporary city. Rome was an extremely ranked and class-conscious civilization, “but there was the possibility of mobility between most classes because by the second century BCE class was no longer determined solely by birth…though certain elements of dress and religious positions and rituals were still reserved for patricians, there was a large gulf between the wealthy upper classes, and the poorer lower classes.” [2]. The Roman Culture is full of richness, there are many renowned artists, fashion houses and architecture that was developed in Rome. Rome is also known for its delicious cuisine and is the most visited city in the world by Christians. Rome was founded in 753 BC and was the capital of the Roman Empire, due to its historical and public standing, Rome has been dubbed the "capital of the world".

Photo Taken By Vanessa Marie, 2014
Photo Taken By Vanessa Marie, 2014

The Vatican is a renowned self regulated state ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope. The Vatican is home of three cultural sites; St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the world's most famous paintings and sculptures. The Vatican receives thousands of tourists each day, and is a common stop for many Christian Pilgrimages. The Italian Renaissance Era was a time of “great cultural change and achievement that began during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe”.[3]. During this time we were introduced to now famous artists such as Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Raphael, to name a few. However, Rome may be most known culturally for its ancient ruins, and ancient history. Ancient Rome began the 8th century BC and expanded to become one of the largest empires [4] and most powerful empires in the ancient world “with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants. Ancient Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. [5] Finding identity is another aspect of social geography. Identity can be defined as condition or character as to who a person or what a thing is [6]. In recent decades, studies had a growing interest regarding the identity issues in Rome. As discussed earlier, Rome is an extremely historical city, however Rome is also very modern and contemporary. To solve any identity issues Rome faces, both the historical and modern city must progress together. “The city, for its part, does not intend to renounce any of its prerogatives: historical identity and modernisation must move forward hand in hand, seeing this complementary relationship as the true key to development.” [7]

[edit] Cultural Geography

Section by Noah Shafir[2]

Cultural geography is the landscape of arts, high culture, language, religion, politics, libraries, cuisine, architecture and fashion. The cultural geography of the city of Rome is vast, as it has much history in it's borders. Rome is often nicknamed Caput Mundi, "capital of the world.", from it's vast historical significance [21].

A portrait of well-known Renaissance man, Leonardo da Vinci
A portrait of well-known Renaissance man, Leonardo da Vinci

The culture of the city of Rome is all interconnected in it's history, and its history affects how it's contemporary views. The art of Rome is very much based out of the Roman Renaissance, a twenty-year period in which Rome became the most important artistic center of the world in the late-15th to mid-16th century [3]. Famous artists of the period are Michaelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Donatello, all of whom were artists, as well as some being in diverse fields, such as engineering, poetry, and architecture [22]. It was a period of enlightenment for the area, and it has influenced the cultural landscape of the city ever since.

This time period in Rome was also very influenced by the Roman Catholic Church, as many of the art pieces of the time were inspired by the Bible, or commissioned by the church. Currently, Rome houses Vatican City, the international center of the Roman Catholic Church. The Vatican is also the home of the Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope. There are almost 900 separate churches in Rome, including the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Rome's official cathedral.

The official language of the city of Rome is Italian, which evolved from the former language of Latin.

The cuisine of the city is very simple, and based on Rome's own seasonal ingredients. Part of the Roman culture is having certain dishes saved for certain days of the week, such as having gnocchi; small, thick, dough dumplings [23], on Thursdays. Another important dish in the city of Rome is pasta, and the city is home to the Museo Nazionale della Paste Alimentari, or the National Museum of Pasta [24].

[edit] Resources

[1] Smith, Susan J. et al. (2010): Introduction: Situating Social Geographies. In: Smith, Susan J. et al. (eds.): The Sage Handbook of Social Geographies. London (Sage): 1-39 [5-7].

[2] Pacione, Michael. "The Social Geography of Rome." Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 89.4 (1998): 359-70. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <>.

[3] "The Renaissance." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014.

[4]Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995).

[5]Census Bureau's Historical Estimates of World Population;. "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990" in The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108(3): 681–716.

[6] "Identity.", n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2014

[7] Morassut, Roberto “Rome and the New Master Plan”: Rome, Identity and Development

[8]ISTAT. (2014, January 1). Retrieved November 14, 2014, from

[9]"Rome Population (WRP) 2014." World Population Review. 19 Oct. 2014. Web. 11 Nov. 2014.

[10]The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2014, from

[11] Italy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2014, from

[12] Walsh, F. (2013, March 6). Why do the Italians live longer than us? Retrieved November 16, 2014, from

[13] Euronews. (2014, November 15) Rome: Clashes between refugees and residents. Retrieved on November 16, 2014, from

[14]"Bangladesh Population (WRP) 2014." World Population Review. 19 Oct. 2014. Web. 11 Nov. 2014.

[15]Knights, M., & King, R. (1997, November 20). The Geography of Bangladeshi Migration to Rome. Retrieved November 16, 2014, from

[16]Roman Politics in the First Century." Roman Politics. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.

[17]"Overview of Rome." Politics of Rome, Overview of Italy. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <>.

[18] (IOM) Italy. (2014, September 1). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from

[19] Italian Immigration: The Great Italian Diaspora. (n.d.). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from

[20] Hausen, K. (2013, October 18). Migrants in Italy struggle against illegal status, exploitation. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from

[21] "About Roma..." About Rome: The Eternal City, Caput Mundi. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.

[22] Heydenreich, Ludwig Heinrich. "Leonardo Da Vinci (Italian Artist, Engineer, and Scientist)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2014.

[23] "Gnocchi." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Apr. 2014. Web. 04 Dec. 2014.

[24] Ercoli, Olivia, Ros Belford, and Roberta Mitchell. Rome. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2006. Print.

[25] "Roman Emperors." Roman Emperors. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.

[26] International Copyright, U.s. & Foreign Commercial Service And U.s., Department Of State, 2013. All Rights Reserved Outside Of The United, and States. "Doing Business in Italy: 2014 Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies." (n.d.): n. pag. U.S. & FOREIGN COMMERCIAL SERVICE AND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE. Web. <>.

[27] "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects." Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2014. <>.

[28] Fouberg, E., Murphy, A., Blij, H. D., & Nash, C. (2012). Human Geography. Mississauga: Wiley

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