New York

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Image:New York City Skyline.jpg


Contents

[edit] Introduction

New York City is a global power city, meaning it plays an active and vital role in the global economy [1]. Located in the Northeastern United States, the City of New York encompasses a diverse range of geographical and social elements. The City’s landscape reflects the evolution of technology and the influence of urban development on the land. The 235 skyscrapers that line the City’s vast skyline reveal the substantial impact of human intervention on the land [2]. Apart from the heavily congested areas of the downtown, New York City contains 28,000 acres of municipal parkland and 14 miles of public municipal beaches [3].

The majority of New York City’s land is comprised of the three islands of Long Island. The City is divided into five boroughs, Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx. Each Borough includes unique social features, which have varying effects on the geographical elements of the boroughs area. The relationship between humans and the environment, which can be seen in the pattern of social relations and environmental features in New York City, is known as Human Geography [4]. The study of Human geography allows scholars to study social and cultural relations, globalization, politics, population, and migration, in relation to space and place. New York City contains a variety of landscape and social patterns that interplay to form a Global powerhouse of economic wealth and international respect.

Image:512px-Manhattan4_amk.jpg

[edit] Globalization

Globalization is the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact.[5] It is a process that encompasses much of the world’s spaces, and leads to increasing interconnectivity among these spaces.[6] New York City is a core city of the world economy, dominating in commercial, financial, and productive activities ; overall it has realized enormous benefits from globalization. Banks from China and Brazil, international firms, and transnational stores take up outposts all over the city.[7] Foreign investors are responsible for 10% of New York City’s economic output, also employing tens of thousands of people living in the small perimeter of space.[8] New York is also a popular tourist destination offering major attractions such as central park, the empire state building, Times Square, and the Statue of Liberty, to name a few.[9] New York City is also the home of the United Nations headquarters, where global efforts are concentrated on peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance around the world.[10]

[edit] Wall Street

Wall Street established its budding reputation after speculators and traders routinely gathered underneath a buttonwood tree that sat on the foot of Wall Street, this group not long after formed the Buttonwood Association and initiated the New York Stock exchange.[11] Wall Street has thus become the financial district of New York City and encompasses all business directly related to stock exchanges and the financial market.[12] As the world’s economies become more interrelated through globalization, dramatic changes in stock value in one market can spread quickly to others.[13] The U.S. stock market in New York, has accounted for 34% of the world market capitalization in 2010.[14]Due to this, Wall Street U.S. stock prices can change considerably when foreign companies who are in business with U.S. companies experience economic problems.[15] The U.S. stock exchange can also experience instabilities when foreign currency exchanges change.[16] The New York stock exchange is affected by events that occur distances away, a prominent theme of globalization.[17] Foreign banks are also included in many parts of New York City and Wall Street such as, Deutsche Bank, Credit Suisse, Barclays Capital and Royal Bank of Scotland, integrated with major New York operations.[18]

Image:Wal_street.png

Photo of Wall Street by Will Steacy [19]

[edit] Times Square

Times square is a commercial intersection in New York City that provides tourist’s with an endless amount of places to visit, and has recently been redeveloped as a car-free zone, so that it is pedestrian friendly space for all.[20]Time Square offers hotels, dining, shopping, entertainment and attractions, broadways, and often hosts popular and well known events such as Dick Clarks New Years Eve, “Dropping of the Ball.”[21] In 2009, New York City made $28 billion on tourists, and the number has consistently grown with time.[22]Time Square is famous for advertising; it is the monopoly of networking for corporate industries and companies.[23]Electronic neon and illuminated lights and signs surround the premises, advertising for places such as Coca-Cola, Toshiba, and NASDAQ.[24]In the early 2000s, Time Square has been said to be revitalized by the “disneyfication,” which has completed the district by making it a mecca for family-oriented tourism and entertainment.[25]

Image:Times_Square.png

Photo of Times Square, retrieved from the Wikipedia Commons[26]

[edit] World Trade Center

Just after World War Two, David Rockefeller had the idea to build a complex dedicated to international trade; he thought this would revitalize New York City.[27] By 1966, the world trade center project had begun; it included office and hotel space, an exhibit hall, a security and exchange center, and numerous shops, which all helped to spur economic growth in the city.[28] Rockefeller was determined to drive international unity, increasing trade all over the world.[29] The world trade center was the epitome of globalization; it consisted of global networks, and removed barriers of space and time. [30] Unfortunately, on September 11th of 2001, two airplanes struck the twin towers down.

Image:Twin_Towers.png

Photo taken by Maria Adcock of the World Trade Center. [31]

[edit] Political Geography

Political geography is concerned with why political spaces emerge in areas that they do, and how politics has affected the social, political, economic, and environmental practices in that space.[32] Lenape, Algonquin people who hunted, fished, and farmed between Delaware and the Hudson rivers, were the first natives of New York City.[33] European explorers moved into the city in the 1600s.[34] Colonialism and imperialism entered New York City, changing the dynamics of territory, sovereignty, and boundaries’ from that point on.[35]

[edit] The Colonial Era

In 1624 the Dutch West India Company sent 30 families to live and work in a tiny settlement on “Nutten Island” (today’s Govenor Island), that they called “New Amsterdam.”[36] However, in 1664, the British seized New Amsterdam, and renamed it New York City.[37] New York City grew steadily and full of diversity for the next century, and remained the capital of the United States for five years, from 1785 to 1790.[38]

Image:New_Amsterdam.png

Map of the City of New Amsterdam[39]

[edit] Post-Colonial Geography

Although the colonization of New York was over, post-colonialism still lingered, as mapping outcomes, organization of the economy, legal systems and social structures were still in the process of being implemented.[40] New York City became a hub for importing and exporting because of its prime location next to water, especially playing a significant role in the cotton industry, where textile manufacturing became widespread throughout the city.[41] The city was growing larger throughout the century due to increased immigration and economic opportunity, soon the city started to make infrastructure improvements and important establishments such as, the New York Police Department.[42] Twentieth century New York experienced some struggle. The construction of interstate highways and suburbs after World War II encouraged affluent people to leave the city, which brought on the deindustrialization and other economic changes that lowered the tax base and other social services.[43] In order to decrease this out-migration, a legislative act emerged making it more possible for immigrants from all over the world to come to the Untied States and settle in New York City, which helped revitalize many neighbourhoods.[44]

[edit] New York City today

Since the September 11th attacks on New York City’s world trade centers in 2001, the United States has spent much time at war with Afghanistan. This attack has shaped American international political relations with the Middle East. The events that took place in New York City at this time brought on war, and spiked tourism.[45] It also, enforced policies based on security and surveillance. All throughout America security screening measures have been updated to prevent and track potential attacks for the future.[46] Despite this event, the people of New York City have become more unified making the city more centripetal and prosperous.[47]

[edit] Population

The demographics of New York City make it one of the most diverse cities in the world. With a representation of every skin colour throughout the city, New York’s constantly growing population actively represents people of different races, and ethnicity. New York consists of five different boroughs – Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens, Staten Island, and Manhattan which house all of the 8,405,837 citizens. [48] The city’s population is constantly changing with several hundred thousand people entering and leaving the city on yearly basis. With a gender ratio of 53% women in comparison to 47% men, New York does face a slight gender imbalance. Due to the constant change, New York has a very fluid population that helps lower and raise the population density. As of 2014, New York has the highest population density of any city in the United States with a density of 6,924 people per km2.[49]

[edit] Population Distribution and Development

The population of New York is always changing as the city continues to grow outwards and upwards. The city’s population began to swell from an influx of immigrants with Irish, German, Jewish and Italian descent in the 1800’s.[50]The second set of immigration into New York came from domestic migration. Americans known as “Yankees” (northern statesmen i.e., Vermont, New England etc.) began to populate the city along with a small migration of African Americans in the mid-19th century. A massive wave of black migration occurred before the First World War during the time that black slaves escaped the south to seek refuge in more northern states. During the 1960’s a large growth of immigration came from the Caribbean islands with many Dominican and Puerto Rican immigrants entering the city to reside in. In the 21st century, New York has continued to grow on its multiculturalism and immigration patterns, keeping the trend of the most diverse cities in the world. Being the multicultural city that it is, it is easy to tell that New York still has a dominant white majority throughout, with concentrations of other races in different boroughs. With the five different boroughs, it is evident that most races tend to stick together and follow each other with a chain migration – pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along through kinship links (i.e., one migrant settles in a place and then writes, calls, or communicates though others to describe this place to family and friends in turn who migrate there.[51]Looking at figure 4.1, it’s clearly mapped out where most different races reside, and how most races tend to cluster together to build their own community.

[edit] Demography

The division of human geography that is focused on the measurement of human characteristics in relation to spatial patterns is Population Geography.[52] Population Geographers focus on analyzing two main themes, demography and spatial demography. Demography is the measurement of human characteristics, which includes race, gender, age, education, housing, income, and employment. Spatial demography considers measurements on a larger scale, such as measures of population density and crime rate.[53] New York City is a demographically diverse metropolis with a population that accounts for around 40% of the State’s population

  • Race: Race is defined as a categorization method of classifying groups by cultural, ethnic, genetic, geographical, linguistic, religious, and/or social affiliation.[54] New York City has a diverse racial population due to long history of immigration. In 2010, New York City’s population was 44.0% white, 25.5% black or African American, 0.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.7% Asian, and 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander. Individuals of mixed race accounted for 4.0% of New York’s population in 2010, and 37.0% of the population were foreign born.[55]
  • Gender: Gender is the state of being male or female, decided upon by social and cultures differences.[56] In 2013, New York City’s population was 52.0% female and 48% male.[57]
  • Age: The median age of a population is the mathematical expression that divides a population into two equal groups.[58] In New York City, the median age in 2013 was 35.6 years, with an estimated 21% of the population under 18 years old and 12% of the City’s population 65 years and older.[59]
  • Education: In 2009-2013 2.1 million students enrolled in New York City schools, with 232,400 children enrolling in Nursery school and kindergarten, and 1.2 students registered in high schools. An American Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau found that 14.1% of New Yorkers had completed a graduate or professional degree, 20.4% completed a bachelor’s degree, and 6.2% completed an associate’s degree. 20.2% of New York residents did not complete high school, and 14.5% had attended college but did not complete a collage degree.[60]
  • Housing Characteristics: Housing unit is defined as a living accommodation that is occupied by individuals who live and eat separately from other residents. A housing Unit can be an apartment, house, and mobile home, and single or grouped rooms.[61] In 2009-2013, New York City had 3.4 million housing units, averaging 4 rooms in each unit. Single units structures accounted for 16.1% of living quarters and 83.7% were multi-unit structures. In terms of cost, the median monthly fee for mortgage owners was $2,555, and the monthly fee for renters was $1,200.[62]
  • Income: New York City’s median income in 2009-2013 was $52,259, 17% of households received an income lower then %15,000 annually. Median wage for males was slightly above female earnings. The median earnings for Males in 2009-2013 was $48,817 and for females in median earnings was $45,302. Income sources for New york residents include, wages or salary, social security, retirement income, Supplemental Security Income, and Cash public assistance income. After employment earnings, social security is the second most prevalent income source with 24.2% of the population receiving Social Security benefits.[63]
  • Employment: In 2009-2013, 57% of New York City’s population 16 and over were employed. Types of work vary from Private wage and salary workers, to Federal, state, or local government workers. Private wage and salary workers account for 79.5% of the total employed population and 529,059 people work in government jobs. Self employed business owners accounted for 6.5 of the City’s employed residents. The industry with the highest percent of the working population was Educational services, health care and social assistance. Of the City’s employed population 16 years and older, 0.1 percent worked in agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining. 4% worked in manufacturing and 4.9% worked in construction. Other industries include, wholesale trade (2.3%), retail trade (9.9%), transportation and warehousing, and utilities (5.9%), and public administration (4.0%). Data on employment by occupations in 2009-2013 found that 38.5% of people held a position in management, business, sciences, and arts occupations. The occupations with the least percent of the working population were found to be Natural resources, construction, and maintenance (6.2%).[64]
  • Family composition: Of the 3.1 million households in New York City in 2009-2013, 36% were households of married couple families, 7.4% were nonfamily households, 32.6% were people living alone, 24.1% were other family types. Households containing one or more people 65 year or older account for 25% of total households and 31% of households had one or more people under the age of 18.[65]

[edit] Spatial Demography

  • Crime Rate: Crime rate is defined as the ratio of crimes in an area, mathematically expressed per a certain number of people in the population.[66] The United States Crime rate is 298.7 per 1000,000 people. New York City’s crime rate is below the nation’s crime rate, and as of 2012 was 256.1. In 2012, the highest rate of crime in New York City was theft with a rate of 1,398.6 per 1000,000 people. The lowest rate of prevalence for a crime was Murders with a rate of 5.1 per 1000,000 people. From 2011 to 2012, crime rates for increased for rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, and thefts. The largest increase was in thefts with a total increase of 3,071 in the number of acts. The crime rate for murder and Auto theft decreased in New York City from 2011 to 2012. The largest decrease was in the occurrences of auto thefts, which decreased from a rate of 114.9 in 2011, to 98.8 in 2012.[67]

[edit] Migration

The Flow of migration to New York only began about 200 years ago with the first noticeable wave of immigrants. There has been a Native American settler in the area for long before settlers came from over the Atlantic. The most instrumental groups in the study of migration was formed in New York, the group is called Centre for Migration Studies. The Centre as founded on Stanton Island in the late 1960’s, they are the most well know for the creation and production of the International Migration Review.[68] Which is a globally recognized journal for migration.

[edit] Immigration

New York only started to rapidly expand 200 hundred years ago. At this time people only traveled to North America via boat. The immigrants with least amount of money were forced to travel in the cheapest section of the boat, called the steerage.[69] This was the area closest to the bottom of the boat and it was cramped and crowded, many of the people in this area would become sick during the trip. Once immigrants arrived they would be sent to Ellis Island or Castle Garden, These two locations where were the immigration offices where located.[70] When they arrived here the people in the steerage section of the boat would be screened for illness and criminal history. If the passengers failed this section they would be put back on the boats and returned to the countries they came from, fortunately only two percent of the passengers where sent back to their home countries. [71]

The first major wave of immigrants to New York was in 1815, this wave was mostly from Germany, Ireland, and Great Britain, during this time these countries where in trouble and very unstable. The Irish Potato Famine caused the next noticeable wave in the late 1840’s, the famine was a virus that spread across Ireland that turned potato’s black and killed the plants.[72] These plants were used to feed a lot of Ireland and the surrounding area. This lasted from 1845-1849.[73] From 1850-1880 there was a low but steady flow of immigrants to New York, in this time the main groups of people moving to New York where people of Norwegian, Swedish, and Chinese decent. In 1880 the next mass amount of immigrant were people from Italy, Poland, Hungary. It was at this time that the Italian population exploded close to 4.1 million Italians called the United States their home, a large majority of whom calling New York there new home. The Jewish population also flourished as in 1920 half of the entire Jewish population in America was based in New York. These immigrants came to New York to escape Prejudice and discrimination but they would run into a lot of the same issues as many different religions came to New York and gang violence became an issue. The Chinese experienced it the worse as America passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, this meant the no more people of Chinese decent would be granted access into America and the people already there would not be allowed citizenship. [74]

[edit] Emigration

New York City is extremely new on the timeline of major cities around the world, being only about 200 years ago when the first major wave of immigrants made there way there. With the creation of the city being so new the amount of people emigrating from there is extremely low. The only noticeable emigration from New York is within the country. Immigrants would arrive to America via New York then immigrate to different areas through America.[75] The population in New York has been on a steady increase for 200 years. There is an insignificant amount of people that move to different countries.

[edit] Social Geography

Social Geography is the study of social factors in relation to place and the environment. Social factors that are studied in Social Geography include, social relations, social identities, and social inequalities, and the ways in which these phenomena’s are produced. Social Geographers look at the interaction of individuals and groups and how it is manifested across different locations.[76]

[edit] Education

New York City’s public school system is the largest in the world. The New York City Department of Education contains more then 1, 700 institutions.[77] There are 405 public school programs in New York City, 115 of which received recognition in the U.S News Best High Schools Ranking.[78] According to New York City Department of Education as of 2013, there were 239, 860 students enrolled in high school in the entire City. A total of 1, 032, 314 students were enrolled in pre-kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school, alternative schooling, home schooling, or special education, in 2013.[79]

  • Brooklyn (Kings County), There are 324 high schools located in Brooklyn, with a student teacher ratio of 15.6.[80] As of the 2013-14 registration period the New York City Department of Education reports that 289,126 students in Brooklyn registered in some form and level of education.[81] An American Community Survey found that of the 1, 644, 388 people who are 25 years or older, 78.1% are high school graduates, 29.8% have a bachelors degree, and 11.5% completed a masters degree.[82]
  • Queens (Queens County), Queens has 139 high schools with a 15.9 student teach ratio [83] and seven postsecondary institutions.[84] In 2013, Queens had 280, 107 students enroll in some form or level of education.[85] An American Community Survey found that of the 1, 557, 698 people who are 25 years or older, high school graduates make up 80% of the total population, 29.9% of people have bachelors degree, and 10.5% obtained a masters or higher.[86] Queens has the highest number of individuals 25 years or older with an under graduate degree of all five boroughs.
  • Manhattan (New York County), Manhattan has 221 high schools[87] and 60 post secondary institutions[88]. In 2013, 147, 846 students enrolled in public school education in Manhattan.[89] Of individuals 25 years or older, 85.5% have a high school diploma or higher, 58.1% have an undergraduate education, and 27.9% have master degree.[90] In 2012, Manhattan had the largest population of individuals 25 years or older having received a masters education or higher.
  • The Bronx (Bronx County), There are 81, 047 students enrolled in the 167 high schools in Bronx Country.[91] The department of education reported that as of the 2014 registration period there were 205, 491 students enrolled in Bronx public schools.[92] In 2012, an American Community Survey found that 69.2% of people living in the Bronx, who were over the age of 25, completed high school. In the same year, of people 25 years or older, 18% had a bachelors degree and 6.3% had a masters degree or higher.[93] The Bronx County has the lowest percent of people 25 years or older with a secondary education, bachelors, and masters, then all five boroughs.
  • Staten island (Richmond County), Staten Island has a total of 31 high schools, 3 collages, and 1 private school.[94] The department of Education reports that 61, 110 students registered for public school in the 2014 registration period.[95] Staten Island high schools had a enrollment of 24, 646 students in 2014.[96] A United States Census found that in 2012, Staten Island had the largest percent of people 25 years and older who had a high school education or higher. In the same year, 29% of the population 25 years or older had a bachelors degree or higher and 11.5% had a masters degree or higher.[97]

[edit] Employment

An Unemployment rate is defined as the percent of people who are unemployed in a certain area and are actively seeking work.[98] New York City’s unemployment rate declined from 2013 to 2014 in all 23 counties. In 2014, New York City had an unemployment rate of 8.0, with Bronx County having the highest unemployment rate (11.2) and Manhattan having the lowest (6.4).[99] Unemployment rates for the other 3 boroughs were, Brooklyn with 8.6, Staten Island with 7.8, and Queens with 7.[100] In October of 2014, New York City had an employment level of 3,838,188 people and an unemployment level of 262,820.[101] There is variability in the distribution of gender and race among different types of occupations.

  • Gender: In 2013, of the total employed in New York City, 4.8% worked in construction, 7.8% in manufacturing, 11.1% in retail, 5.9% in transportation, 3.5% in information services, 10.7% in financial, 14.9% worked in professional or business services, 10.7% worked in the leisure and hospitality industry, 4% worked in public administration, and 4.9% were employed in other services.[102] Of all employed men in the city, the majority worked in professional or business services (15.4%). The least percent of men worked in durable manufacturing, which is the manufacturing of consumable goods.[103] Of all employed females in New York City, the majority of women work in education and health services (39.1%). Only .5% of employed women work in the construction industry. The second most heavily occupied job for women is the professional or business industry.[104]
  • Race: In New York City, the majority of Caucasian people work in Education and Health services (22%), while 36.8% of employed black or African American people, 20.1% of employed Asian people, and 23% of employed Hispanic or Latino people also work in this industry.[105] Of all Black and African American people in the work force, the least occupied job is in Nondurable Manufacturing. The job with the least percent of employed whites is Durable Manufacturing with 1.9%. The second most employed industry for Asian people is the Business or Professional field with 17.3% of all Asians in the workforce. Education and Health Services is the most heavily employed industry for Caucasians, blacks or African American’s, Asians and, Hispanic and Latino people.[106]

[edit] Racial Composition

Racial identity is an assigned characteristic that is based on a set of physical traits that are considered to be socially significant.[107] New York City contains the greatest number of immigrants in the United States; consequently the city’s racial presence is among the most diverse in the country.[108] With a population of 8, 175, 133 in 2010, 44% of people were White, 25% were Black, 12.77% were Asian, 28.58% were Hispanic or Latino, and 17.68% were of a different race or mixed.[109] Multiracial residents account for 4% of the population.[110]

Demographic characteristics in New York City vary among the five boroughs. Within each borough there are neighborhoods in which certain racial groups predominate. Below is a break down of the distribution of race in each of the five boroughs.

  • Brooklyn: Brooklyn has the largest population with about 2.6 million occupants.[111] A 2010 consensus found that 42.80% of people living in Brooklyn were White, 34.34% were Black, 10.52% were Asian, 19.81% were Hispanic or Latino, and 12.34% were mixed or other.[112] The largest immigrant concentration in New York City is located in Brighton Beach, Brooklyn. Brighton Beach has a population of 75,692 [113] and is 84% Ukranian, Russian, and, Uzbek immigrants.[114] The neighborhood with the most Pakistani immigrants and the neighbourhood with the greatest number of Haitian immigrants are also in Brooklyn. Located in the north central portion of Brooklyn, Bedford-Stuyvesant is the neighborhood with the largest concentration of native-born black citizens in the city with 89%. Bedford-Stuyvesant has the largest concentration of native-born black citizens in the City with 89%. [115]
  • Queens: With a population of 2,230,722, Queens has the second largest population of the five boroughs. In 2010 the borough’s population was 45.72% White, 19.13% Black, 23.01% Asian, 27.51% Hispanic or Latino, and 18.14% were other or mixed.[116] In terms of the entire borough, Queens has the largest population of Colombians, Ecuadorians, and Peruvians, in the city.[117] When looking at specific neighborhoods, Queens contains the neighborhoods with the largest concentration of Mexican and Filipino immigrants.[118] Corona, Queens has the largest concentration of Mexican immigrants with a total of 1, 885 and Forest Hills has the largest concentration of Filipino immigrants making up 44% of the neighborhoods total residents.[119] With an estimated population of 13, 286 [120], Fresh Meadows has the largest number of Korean immigrants with a total of 2, 149. Historically, Fresh Meadows is known for a large Jewish population, whom at one time made up as much as 90% of the neighborhood’s population.[121]
  • Manhattan: Home to an estimated 1,626,159 in 2013; Manhattan is the third most heavily populated borough in New York City.[122] According to the US Census Bureau estimates in 2010, 57.45% of the population was White, 15.55% was Black, 11.38% was Asian, 25.45% was Hispanic or Latino, and 15.62% was other or mixed.[123] A 2013 census found an increase in the White and Black population with a total of 65% of the population being White and 18.4% of the population being black or African American.[124] Manhattan is home to the largest concentration of Chinese people in New York City, as well as the entire Western Hemisphere.[125] Chinatown has an estimated population of 90,000 to 100,000 people, 63% of which are Chinese immigrants. Washington Heights, Manhattan, has the largest enclave of Dominican Immigrants with just under half of its entire population being of Dominican decent.[126]
  • The Bronx: Out of an estimated population of 1,385,108 in 2010, 27.90% of people were White, 26.47% were Black, 3.68% were Asian, 53.53% were Hispanic or Latino, and 31.95% were mixed or other.[127] In 2013, the US Census Bureau found a 17% increase in the White population.[128] There is a small minority of Native Americans in the Bronx, making up only 0.4% of the boroughs population. The majority of the population is Hispanic and Latino American’s, making up 52% of the borough’s total population.[129]
  • Staten Island: In 2010, Staten Island had a population of 468, 370, 72.89% of which were White, 10.64% were Black, 7.55% were Asian, 17.27% were Hispanic or Latino, and 8.92% were mixed or other.[130] North of Staten Island Expressway are were the majority of African Americans and Hispanic residents reside. In 2009, 80% of the population was native-born and 20% were immigrants.[131]

[edit] Cultural Geography

Culture is an established set of beliefs based on systems, norms, and values, which is shared by a group of people. Cultural geography is the study of the impact that human culture has on the landscape of an area and how the cultural values and norms are reflected in the built environment.[132] When natural landscape is influenced by the dominant cultural beliefs and norms of the area it is know as Cultural Landscape.[133] Human activity has altered the landscape of New York City throughout the years; the cities skyline has become larger due to technological innovations. Culture has also had an impact on the cities landscape through the development of cultural buildings and religious structures. The study of Cultural geography focuses on such topics as, religion, language, and popular culture. New York City has been known as a primary gateway for American Immigrants for centuries. Foreign-born residents make up 37% of the city’s total population.[134] The heavy presence of immigrants can be seen through the diverse range of cultural norms and values reflected on the cities landscape and popular culture.

[edit] Language

The English speaking population of New York City in 2000 was 3,920,800. A 2000 Census found that 47.54% of New York’s population ages 5 years or older spoke a language other then English. Behind English, the second most fluently spoken language was Spanish, followed by Chinese (3.52%), Russian (2.61%), Italian (1.87%), and French (1.53%). Mandarin was the language spoken the least in the Census representative.[135]

The bottom 6 languages used in New York City in 2000 were;'[136]

  1. Mandarin: 0.20%
  2. Romanian: 0.19%
  3. Persian: 0.17%
  4. Hungarian: 0.15%
  5. Vietnamese: 0.14%
  6. Serbo-Croatian: 0.13%

Language Prevalence in Borough Populations;[137]

Bronx

  1. Languages other then English: 55.98%
  2. Spanish: 46.29%
  3. English: 44.02%
  4. African languages: 2.48%

Manhattan

  1. English: 59.98%
  2. Languages other then English: 40.02%
  3. Spanish: 23.07%
  4. Chinese: 5.33%

Queens

  1. Languages other then English: 56.16%
  2. English: 43.84%
  3. Spanish: 23.88%
  4. Chinese: 8.06%
  5. Other Indic Languages: 3.44%

Staten Island

  1. English: 70.39%
  2. All languages other then English: 29.61%
  3. Spanish: 10.02%
  4. Russian: 3.14%
  5. Italian: 3.11%

Brooklyn

  1. English: 54.12%
  2. All other languages: 45.88%
  3. Spanish: 17.16%
  4. Chinese: 6.46%
  5. Russian: 5.31%
  6. Yiddish: 3.47%

New York Language Center Established in 1985, the New York Language Center (NYLC) has four branches around New York City. The center offers English instruction to students from over 100 countries around the world. The center is located in Manhattan Midtown, Manhattan Upper West Side, Jackson Heights Queens, and The Bronx. When students complete the language course, the NYLC gives students a certificate of completion.[138]

[edit] Religion

New York City’s religious presence accounts for 51.21% of the population.[139] The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious group in New York City.[140] Catholic’s account for 33.17% of the population. The second largest religious population is Jewish and the third largest is of other Christian faith. The religious population in New York City varies between the five boroughs. In 2010, Queens had the greatest number of Catholics with 677,520 people out of the entire population. Queens also had the largest population of individuals who did not identify with a religious faith. Staten Island had the least number of Catholics among all five boroughs, below is the number of people who identify with each category or religious faith in each borough; In 2010, the Association of Religious Data Archives collected samples from all five boroughs. [141]


Bronx

  • Unclaimed: 867, 105
  • Catholic: 353, 098
  • Evangelical Protestant: 59, 530
  • Black Protestant: 12,275
  • Mainline Protestant: 28,611
  • Orthodox: 2,350
  • Other: 62,139

Queens

  • Unclaimed: 1,128,204
  • Catholic: 677,520
  • Evangelical Protestant: 84,683
  • Black Protestant: 40,630
  • Mainline Protestant: 47,425
  • Orthodox: 35,765
  • Other: 216,495

Manhattan

  • Unclaimed: 461,820
  • Catholic: 564,505
  • Evangelical Protestant: 32,144
  • Mainline Protestant: 99,916
  • Orthodox: 19,705
  • Other: 359,105

Staten Island

  • Unclaimed: 162,048
  • Catholic: 254,170
  • Evangelical Protestant: 15,270
  • Black Protestant: 331
  • Mainline Protestant: 12,037
  • Orthodox: 7,311
  • Other: 17,563

Brooklyn

  • Unclaimed: 1,212,850
  • Catholic: 623,796
  • Evangelical Protestant: 131,374
  • Black Protestant: 38,019
  • Mainline Protestant: 85,439
  • Orthodox: 15,945
  • Other: 397,277


[edit] Popular Culture

Mainstream ideas, attitudes, images, and values are known as popular culture. Popular culture incorporates heterogeneous populations and rapidly changing ideas that favor the values of western societies.[142] Examples of popular culture are, music, sports, entertainment, fashion, and television. All five New York City boroughs have diverse elements of popular culture to contribute to the cities unique urban feel.

[edit] Brooklyn
  • The Arts: Two renowned arts buildings are located in Brooklyn, Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM), and Brooklyn Museum.[143] BAM began in 1861 and continues to operate today, providing New Yorkers with a large variety of aesthetic and cultural programs. The second largest public art collective in the United States is located in Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Museum is the second largest in size in the City and contains roughly 1.5 million pieces.[144] Brooklyn was home to the Brooklyn Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra, which performed classical music, as well as 65 original works.[145]
  • Sports: Brooklyn Nets are the boroughs only professional sports franchise. The NBA team originated in 1967 in Teaneck, New Jersey. Basketball legend Michael Jordan was born in Brooklyn, along with many other famous sports icons such as, Vince Lombardi, Mike Tyson, and Joe Torre.[146]
  • Events: Coney Island, a neighborhood in Brooklyn, features an amusement park with over 50 rides and attractions. The neighborhood also hosts the annual Coney Island Mermaid Parade and the annual Nathan’s Hot Dog Eating Contest. In Crown Heights the Labor Day Carnival takes place every year along Eastern Parkway.[147]
[edit] Queens
  • Cuisine: there are a variety of different types of restaurants in Queens; most reflect the area’s demographics. There are options for Vegetarians and meat lovers, as well as a diverse range of restaurants representing different cultures from around the world.[148]
  • Cultural Institutions: The John Browne House is a historical site that offers a look into life prior to the American Civil War.[149] Also located in Queens is the New York Hall of Science, which is the City’s only hands-on science and technology center.[150] Art Institutions in Queens include the Noguchi Museum and 5 Pointz, both of which offer very different outlooks on the visual arts. The Noguchi displays the sculptures and work of artist Isamu Noguchi[151], and 5 points is an outdoor art gallery that depicts the works of many graffiti styles.[152]
  • Notable People: Businesses man, investor, author, and Television personality, Donald Trump, was born in Queens, New York City. Trump is the president of The Trump Organization, and stared on the NBC show The Apprentice. In 2011, Forbes Magazine rated Trump No. 17 in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list.[153]
[edit] Manhattan
  • Media: Within Manhattan is the headquarters of the New York Times, New York Daily News, and New York Post. Manhattan is home to the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, The Wall Street Journal.[154] The Village Voice, the first tabloid-format newspaper, is the oldest and largest of it’s kind in the Country and is based in the borough of Manhattan.[155]
  • Television: Founded in 1971, the Manhattan Neighborhood Network is the oldest public-access cable TV channel in the United States (4). The headquarters of ABC, NBC, CBS, and Fox are all located in the borough. Several cable channels are located in Manhattan such as, MTV, Fox News, HBO, and Comedy Central.[156]
  • Music: Manhattan radio station, WNYC, has the largest public audience in the nation.[157] Located in Manhattans Upper East Side is The Manhattan School of Music. The school was founded in 1917 with the purpose of teaching immigrant communities. In 2013, the school trained students from more then 40 countries around the world.[158]
  • Sports: Madison Square Gardens is home to 3 professional sports teams, the NHL’s New York Rangers, the NBA’s New York Knicks, and the WBNA’s New York Liberty. Opened in 1890, The Polo Grounds was a series of three stadiums in Upper Manhattan.[159] Before it closed in 1963, the Polo Grounds was home to four professional baseball teams, the New York Metropolitans, the New York Giants, the New York Yankees, and the New York Mets. The stadiums were also home to two football teams, the New York Brickley Giants, and the New York Jets.[160]
  • Theatre: The 40 theatres in Manhattan’s Broadway district are located between sixth Avenue and Ninth Avenue. Collectively, Broadway performances sell around 12 million tickets every year. New York City benefits from the billions of dollars Broadway spend on the City each year, as well as the 86,000 jobs that the theatre company supports.[161]
[edit] The Bronx
  • The Hip Hop Culture: One of the most evolutionary moments in Hip Hop occurred in the Bronx in 1973. The music genre emerged when Bronx DJs began to combine funk, disco, and soul songs to create an entirely new beat. DJ’s who can be accredited for this new revelation are Grandmaster Flash, Africa Bambaataa, and DJ Kool Herc. The tour company, Hush Hip Hop, guides guests around the Bronx, showcasing milestones and significant locations in the evolution of Hip Hop music.[162]
  • African American Culture: The Bronx has a influential role in the history of African American migration to the United States. The Bronx African American History Project (BAAHP) is an organization that works to uncover historical cultural, political, economical, and religious data of the African American members in the community.[163]
  • Literature: The novel ‘Herman Wouk’s City Boy: The Adventures of Herbie Bookbinder (1948), ‘Bronx Primitive: Portraits of a childhood’, and ‘The Grand Concourse’ (2007), are all mainly based on settings within the Bronx (21). In the book Hard-Lines (1931), Ogden Nash wrote one of the worlds shortest couplets. On reflecting on Nash’s work, The New York Times said his” droll verse with its unconventional rhymes made him the country’s best-known producer of humorous poetry”. [164]
“The Bronx
No Thonx”
Ogden Nash, Hard-Lines (1931)
[edit] Staten Island
  • Attractions: Historic Richmond Town, New York City’s only living History village is located in Staten Island. The living village and museum began in 1958 with help from The City of New York, Staten Island Historical Society, and an independent nonprofit cultural organization. Historic Richmond Town is based on the social and environmental elements of the 19th century. The site comprises of around 15 buildings, including commercial and civic structures, 19th century homes, and a museum.[165] Staten Island Zoo is a historically significant Zoo located in Barrett Park, Staten Island. The home of Colonel Edward Harden, who fought it the Spanish American War, formally occupied the zoo grounds. In 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps built the park.[166]
  • Art Institutions: Located in the Northeastern side of Staten Island, the St. George Theatre provides educational programs, architectural tours, television and film shoots, concerts, comedy, Broadway touring companies, and children’s shows. The Theatre opened in 1929 as a cultural arts building.[167] Also located in the neighborhood of St. George is the Staten Island Institution of Arts & Sciences, which showcases natural science, arts, and local history.
  • Media: Several movie scenes were shot in Staten Island, including a scene from the film “Sisters” (1973) and the opening scene of film “Wolfen” (1981). The 21st century film “School of Rock” (2003) shot the finale scene in the St. George Theatre.[168]

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