Mumbai

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Busy Streets of downtown Mumbai

Contributors: Chris Holman, Ennia Gentile, Alexia Anastasopoulos, Drew Hobden

Contents

[edit] Mumbai - Introduction

Mumbai is located along the west coast of India and is the capital city of the Indian state Maharashtra. Mumbai is responsible for most of India's government revenue. It is the financial, entertainment and commercial capital of India. It is the business capital of the country as well as the country's financial and communication centre. Mumbai is the largest city in the country by population and the eighth largest city in the world (populous). Mumbai contributes 6.16% of the total GDP, the highest GDP in all South, West and Central Asia, making it the wealthiest city in the country. [1] All these factors add up to make Mumbai as the most lucrative location in India. [2]


Image:Mumbai-map.jpg

When looking at Mumbai in terms of globalization, it has come a long way over the years. Since the liberalization in 1991, Mumbai has seen much globalization and economic growth. The information technology sector is what has allowed most of this growth within the city. Because of this growth, Mumbai has become global in scale and impact and is now a Global city and the wealthiest in all Asia.

Mumbai's political geography started with the Portuguese rule when the city was still part of the seven islands. After one century passed the British rule was placed on the city. It wasn't until 1885 when Asia was on its own road to independence.

Mumbai is the most populated metropolitan area in Asia and eighth in the world. The large population boost in the city of Mumbai is due to the number of residents of Asia relocating in order to find work in Mumbai.

With a population of 15.4 million, Mumbai has diverse ethnic groups making up their social geography. Some of these groups include, Gujaratis, Marwaris, Sindhis, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, as well as Jains. The city has a lot of culture based on its age. It was once part of the seven islands and it now home to the famous Bollywood!

[edit] Globalization

Globalization is the expansion of economic, political and cultural process to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The process of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that var across places and scales. The gateway to India, the largest growing economy in the world today, Mumbai has seen large growth in globalization and economic growth since the liberalization in 1991. As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities. [3]

[edit] Agriculture

In 2003-04 India's economic growth was agricultural driven. Two-thirds of Mumbai's population relies on agriculture as a source of income, making it a large growing industry in the city. Growth in agriculture has an automatic benefit to social services and feeds the demand for goods and services. The location of Mumbai, along the west coast, makes it easy for import and exports of these goods.

[edit] Industry and Finance

In 2004-05 Mumbai experienced a 7.7% growth in the industrial sector, a 1.1% increase from the previous year. The services sector was the largest contributor to this growth, growing by 8.9%. This growth is mainly driven by the trade, hotels and communications. Mumbai contributes 40% of India's foreign trade, 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 20% of central excise tax collections and 60% of customs duty collections. Money supply growth remains sustainable, while short term interest rates moved up marginally. Mumbai is the financial capital of India being the wealthiest city in India and the largest GDP in Asia of 6.16%. [4]

[edit] Information Technology

In the last decade, the Indian software and services sector grew a substantial amount making it the highest performer within the Indian market. Mumbai has the most skilled qualified manpower, making it a preferred destination for IT companies. Approximately 20-30% of the population is currently employed in this sector.

[edit] Political Geography

[edit] Political History

[edit] Portuguese Rule

Mumbai was originally a group of seven islands on the west coast of India until the early 16th century. On December 23 1534, the city was granted to the Portuguese by the Islamic Mughal Empire with the Treaty
Map of Bombay circa 1600
Map of Bombay circa 1600
of Bassein. During the 1540's the islands were granted to several Portuguese noblemen for an annual rent. Garcia de Orta, a Portuguese physician and botanist, was granted the possession of Bombay and the seven islands in 1554 by viceroy Pedro Mascarenhas. During this time intermarriage between Portuguese and the natives flourished and the Roman Catholic religion was heavily promoted. As an outcome of the Union of the Crowns, a dynastic union between Portugal and Spain in 1580,an opportunity was created for other European powers to involve themselves with the spice routes to India. The Dutch arrived first, closely followed by the British. The first English merchants arrived in Bombay in November 1583, and traveled through the islands of Bassein, Thane, and Chaul. The Portuguese Franciscans had obtained control of Salsette and Mahim by 1585. The Battle of Swally was fought between the British and the Portuguese at Surat in 1612 for the possession of Bombay. The growing power of the Dutch by the middle of the seventeenth century forced the Surat Council of the British Empire to acquire Bombay from King John IV of Portugal in 1659. The marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Portugal on 8 May 1661 placed Bombay in British possession as a part of Catherine's dowry to Charles.[5]

[edit] British Rule

On 19 March 1662, an Englishman by the name of Abraham Shipman was appointed the first Governor and General of Bombay however the city still remained under Portuguese possession. In November 1664, Shipman's successor Humphrey Cooke was granted Bombay by
Breach Causeway
Breach Causeway
King Charles while, Salsette, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. Later, Cooke managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala for the English. On 21 September 1668, the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668, led to the transfer of Bombay to the English East India Company for an annual rent. A Judge-Advocate was appointed for the purpose of civil administration. George Oxenden became the first Governor of Bombay under the English East India Company on 23 September 1668.

In 1686, the Company shifted its main holdings from Surat to Bombay, which had become the administrative centre of all the west coast settlements at the time. Bombay became the most important of all the Company's establishments in India. In 1782, William Hornby assumed the office of Governor of Bombay, and initiated the Hornby Vellard engineering project which set out to connect the seven islands into a single landmass by building a causeway. The project was finished in 1838. The first political organization of the Bombay Presidency, the Bombay Association, was started on 26 August 1852, to relay public grievances to the British.[6]

[edit] Road to Independence

The political consciousness of the public started to grow after the establishment of the British Bombay Presidency Association on 31 January 1885. The first session of the Indian National Congress political party was held in Bombay from 28–31 December. The Bombay Municipal Act was established in
First meeting of the Indian National Congress 1885
First meeting of the Indian National Congress 1885
1888 which gave the British Government the power to interfere in civic matters. On 11 August 1893, a serious communal riot took place between the Hindus and Muslims, when a Shiva temple was attacked by Muslims in Bombay. The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took place in October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. This initiated the Swadeshi movement, which led to the boycotting of British goods in India in attempts to remove British power. In 1907 the Indian National Congress was split in two separate parties. One of the parties under the leadership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak became one of the most influential groups advocating for independence.[7] On 10 June 1918 the Provincial War Conference, whose objective was to seek the co-operation of Indians in the World War I was followed by huge rallies across the city. Following World War I the city was shut down several times by the Non-cooperation Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi and supported by the Indian National Congress. During World War II, the movements of troops, military and industrial goods and the fleet of the Royal Indian Navy made Bombay an important military base for the battles being fought in West Asia and South East Asia. The Quit India rebellion was initiated on 7 August 1942 by the Congress in a public meeting at Gowalia Tank. On 18 February 1946 The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in Bombay marked the first and most serious revolt by the Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy against British rule. On 15 August 1947, India was declared independent. The last British troops to leave India, passed through the Gateway of India on 28 February 1948 ending the 282-year period of the British rule in Bombay.[8]

In April 1950, Greater Bombay District came into existence with the merger of Bombay Suburbs and Bombay City. It spanned an area of 235.1 km2 and inhabited 2,339,000 of people in 1951. The Municipal Corporation limits were extended up to Jogeshwari along the Western Railway and Bhandup along the Central Railway. This limit was further extended in February 1957 up to Dahisar along the Western Railway and Mulund on the Central Railway. In the 1955 Lok Sabha discussions, when Bombay State was being re-organized along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, there was a demand from the Congress, that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. But the States Reorganization Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra-Gujarat, with Bombay as its capital. However, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed this, and insisted that Bombay be declared the capital of Maharashtra. Maharashtra State was formed with Bombay as its capital on 1 May 1960 In 1996, the newly elected Shiv Sena-led government renamed the city of Bombay to the native name Mumbai, after the Koli Goddess Mumbadevi.Colonial British names were replaced with local names, on everything from public buildings to train stations.[9]

[edit] Government Structure

India is a federal state with a parliamentary form of government. The state of Maharashtra has 35 districts, divided into six revenue divisions for administrative purposes including Konkan, Pune, Nashik, Aurangabad, Amravati and Nagpur. The state has a long tradition of highly powerful planning bodies at district and local levels. There are local self governance
Administrative Wards of Mumbai, India
Administrative Wards of Mumbai, India

institutions in rural areas. Urban areas in the state are governed by 23 Municipal Corporations, 222 Municipal Councils, 4 Nagar Panchayats and 7 Cantonment Boards.[10] Mumbai is governed by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai also known as the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The corporation is comprised of 227 seats belonging to different parties and is headed by a Municipal commissioner from the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). The city is divided into 7 zones each containing 3-5 Wards.[11]

According to the Indian Constitution, land and housing, urban development and provision of civic infra-structure fall within the responsibility of state governments who have the power to develop and execute related policies. The central government however plays a significant role through the devolution of resources to state governments within the framework of National Five Year Plans. Statutory bodies in Mumbai include the Greater Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC/GMMC), which enjoyed significant autonomy until the mid-eighties. Its range of services includes public transport, electricity, in addition to other municipal services. It is responsible for the Master Plan of the city and enforcement of development control regulations. It is not directly involved in public housing or slum improvement. However, in a significant move towards decentralization, the 74th Amendment to the Constitution of India has empowered urban local self government by devolution of functions like urban planning, slum improvement and poverty alleviation as well as other responsibilities. [12]

The Mumbai Metropolitan Development Authority (MMRDA) is responsible for regional planning and coordinating and supervising development efforts in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. The Collector of Mumbai is a revenue executive responsible for land management aspects related to titles and deeds of ownership of land. The Office of the Collector is responsible for issuing identity cards to slum residents, the collection of service charges from them, and the granting of entitlements to government lands and removal of unauthorized structures from public land. By a notification in 1995, the Government of Maharashtra (GOM) appointed a ‘Slum Rehabilitation Authority’ (SRA) under the provisions of Maharashtra Slum Areas Act, 1971. The Authority is responsible for reviewing the slum situation, formulating schemes for rehabilitation of slum areas and implementing the Slum Rehabilitation Scheme. Private builders and developers play a very significant role not only in developing land and providing housing but also in slum rehabilitation.[13]

[edit] Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

The period after the national emergency in 1976 saw the emergence of a supportive role of NGOs. There are more than 100 NGOs in Mumbai aimed at mobilizing the urban poor to press their rights to housing. Mumbai has an impressive number of high profile NGOs like SPARC and YUVA (Youth for Unity and Voluntary Action), which are involved in a broad spectrum of activities in poor neighbourhoods and have been strong in policy advocacy. NGOs have acted as strong pressure groups against evictions of squatters and pavement dwellers and for provision of better services in slums. Apart from builders’ associations the Practicing Engineers, Architects and Planners Association (PEATA), forms another vocal and important pressure group specially for relaxation of development control norms and for repealing of Urban Land Ceiling Act as many architects, planners and engineers are involved in slum redevelopment schemes. [14]

The State Government encourages formal community organizations. Many CBOs have aligned to form the National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF). Established in 1974, it has been responsible for organizing and mobilizing the poor for fighting demolitions and securing amenities for slum dwellers. The role of politicians and political parties is important as access to strategic resources, at least for disadvantaged lower-class groups, is through political channels. Slums in Mumbai need water, electricity, schools, testimonials to good character, and the like. These are obtained largely through political pressure and contacts. The system is such that politicians need support and bargain for it through promises of patronage and favours. The Republican Party and the Shiv Sena are in part generated by this system of mutually sustaining pay-offs.[15]

[edit] International Relations

India is a member of a variety of international organizations, including the United Nations, G-20,
India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the 2014 G20 Summit in Australia
India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the 2014 G20 Summit in Australia
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization. The United States supports a reformed UN Security Council that includes India as a permanent member. India is an ASEAN dialogue partner, an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development partner under its Enhanced Engagement program, and an observer to the Organization of American States. India is also a member of the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA).[16]

[edit] Population

Mumbai is the most populated metropolitan area in India and the eighth most populated city in the world. As of 2011, the population was 20.7 million. As with other metropolitan areas in India, Mumbai's population has grown very rapidly over the past two decades, and much of its population is comprised of migrants from other regions in the country who came looking to find better employment opportunities.[17]

Mumbai has a relatively young population with 68 per cent under the age of 34. Mumbai's sex ratio is skewed; a ward-level analysis of the last Census in 2013 found that 20 of the 24 municipal wards had a decline in child sex ratio in the past decade. The Worli-Prabhadevi region had the highest drop in child sex ratio. For every 1,000 boys, there are only 899 girls. This gender imbalance is visible throughout Mumbai and it's blamed on sex-selective abortions as male children are more preferred than females. Mumbai's population has nearly doubled since 1991, when its population was just 12.5 million. This rapid expansion has led to serious health-related issues in addition to the stretching of government services.[18]

Birth Rate 13.76
Death Rate 6.89
Infant Mortality Rate 26
Population Density/Km2 29,650
Sex Ratio 960
Child Sex Ratio 899
Fertility Rate 1.8
Life Expectancy (Female) 58.1
Life Expectancy (Male) 52.6
Total Life Expectancy (India) 67.8
Population Growth Rate 4.7%

[edit] Population Pyramid

One of the prominent features is the higher concentration of males in all of the age groups. This is due in part, to two factors, firstly the high abortion rates of females and secondly the high male in-migration. It is also important to note the increasingly smaller fraction of the population at the top of the pyramid. It is rare for someone living in India to live past 85.

[edit] Population Distribution

Within Mumbai, there has been a distinct change in the population’s spatial distribution since the 1970s. Over the period of 1901-1971, the population in the island city steadily increased and was always more than that in the suburbs. But during the last three decades, the population growth in the island city was negligible. In the suburbs it increased rapidly. The Census of 1991 and 2001 indicate that the densities had declined in oldest wards while Wards F and G increased by nearly
Population Density Dot Map of Asia
Population Density Dot Map of Asia
3,000 and 2,000 people per sq km during 1981-91 and 1991-2001. In comparison to Mumbai ‘island city’, the western and eastern suburbs had lower densities of 4,169 and 3,151 persons per sq km in 1961, respectively. The change in density during the last five decades indicates the faster movement of the population from city to suburbs as well as the settlement of new immigrants in the suburban areas.[19]

[edit] Slums

Mumbai has experienced rapid growth over the past twenty years, which has resulted in the development of one of the largest slums in Asia. The Malad-Dahisar region in the west and the Cembur-Govandi region in the east have grown the fastest, at a rate of 17- 20% in the last decade.

The largest slum population was registered in the State of Maharashtra. Around 6 per cent of Maharashtra’s population lives in the slums of its capital, Greater Mumbai. The number of people living in Mumbai slums is estimated to be 9 million, which is up from 6 million just a decade ago. About 62% of
Dharavi slum, Mumbai
Dharavi slum, Mumbai
all Mumbai residents live in slums. Dharavi, the second largest slum in Asia, is located in central Mumbai and is home to around 800,000 to 1 million people in 2.39 square kilometers. This makes it one of the most densely populated areas in the world with a density of at least 334,728 people per square kilometer. It's also the most literate slum in India with a literacy rate of 69%.

Because the price of land in the area is so high, residents of Mumbai frequently live in cheap, cramped housing far from work, which results in long commutes usually on its over- crowded transit system. The north is growing much more populous as the southern regions become less inhabited, and the fast-growing areas are seeing massive development of ghettos with the fastest growth in the poorest areas.[20]

[edit] Plague and Disease

In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. In Bombay City alone, the death toll rose to 183,984 between 1896 and 1914. Around 850,000, amounting to half of the population, fled Bombay during this time. In the early years of the plague the epidemic had been more or less concentrated in the cities where population densities were the highest.[21]

[edit] Migration

In-migration contributes in a large measure to the city's growth. The gap between male and female populations is partly due to the fact that in- migration is largely male dominated. This can be explained as the male is the first one to come to Mumbai from his family, looking for work and housing. This process can take several years before he settles down enough to bring his family into the city. Mumbai continues to see population increases although it no longer has the capacity to hold them. Migration continues to be a significant issue as people cannot be physically stopped from relocating because it would violate India's constitutional rights. The city’s services like drinking water, sanitation, and transportation etc. are stretched. Overcrowding has its own negative impact from sanitation to the development of neighbourhoods. The city which is getting denser by the year continues to be the main draw for the migrants from other regions. [22]

[edit] City Development

Mumbai consists of two distinct areas, one being the ‘island city’, and the other, ‘the suburbs’, sub-divided into eastern and western suburbs. The island city is referred to as the section emerged from the merging of the seven islands. The suburbs are the areas towards the north , but they are not suburbs in the classical sense of being simply residential areas which are on the outskirts of a city; they are now part of the larger city, the landscape having changed over the decades. These areas have their own trading, shopping, office spaces, industrial activity and with the recent increasing relocation of corporate businesses, the suburbs are now an extension of the city. However, the city and the suburbs are two distinct revenue districts of Maharashtra—Mumbai and
Mumbai skyline
Mumbai skyline
Mumbai Suburban, together forming ‘Greater Mumbai’, serviced by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. The population trends have had a significant effect on the evolution of Mumbai not only economically and socially, but it has affected housing, health care, transportation as well as the urban planning of the city. The geographic limits were extended towards the north twice, first in 1950 and later in 1957, which enabled planned development of infrastructure and provision of basic services. Mumbai has been a good example of periphery urbanization, a process by which people move away from the city’s main hub towards the periphery to less-congested areas, thus expanding the original area. The natural geographic boundaries of Mumbai i.e. the sea, inhibit it from expanding any further. In one sense, given the land mass and population density, Mumbai can be seen as already having reached its capacity. Efforts are underway to enable vertical growth by increasing floor space index (FSI) other attempts to increase living space involve reconstructing the low lying slums into multi- level units. [23]

[edit] Government Intervention

The Indian government is currently working to boost the population of the Parsi community, as they have the highest literacy rates and sex ratio in India, but their numbers are rapidly declining. Out of 1.2 billion people in India, only 69,0000 are Parsis, and their numbers have been declining 12% a decade. Mumbai is still home to the largest Parsis population in the world.
Family planning centre, India
Family planning centre, India

Despite its growth over the past twenty years, Mumbai has recorded its slowest population growth in nearly a century, and its population actually shrunk from 2001 to 2011. Demographers have differing views on this, as some believe the decline in growth is due to people choosing smaller families while others think it's cased by the shrinkage of homes and job opportunities. By 2020, Mumbai will have an estimated 24 million people with the highest population density in the world. While Greater Mumbai now has a density of 29,650 people per square kilometer, this will reach a peak of 39,021 poeple per square kilometer.[24]

[edit] Migration

[edit] Immigration

The population of Mumbai has grown very fast and the primary cause is migration. The city itself has a growth rate that is 2.5 times higher than the whole of India. Most of the population now resides in the suburbs unlike in 1911 when there were more people in the urban areas. People come to Mumbai looking for work because of the economic growth it has gone through. Availability of employment accounts for 50% of the immigration to Mumbai. Immigrants themselves made up 15% of the population between 1991 and 2001.

Almost 70% of the people moving to Mumbai originally lived within the state of Maharasha. Many people move from rural areas in the state to benefit from the growing businesses. However as the number employment opportunities go down so does immigration. The rate at which people are moving to Mumbai has decrease over the last few years. With more cities in India going through urbanization, more migrants have been moving to places like Delhi and Punjab over Maharashta.

Migration has greatly impacted the growth of the city. Mumbai has grown faster than the natural rate of increase could cause it to grow. Due to this increase it has been able experience the economic growth that it has which in turn causes more immigrants to come to Mumbai.

Image:mumbai.gif

[edit] Emigration

The government of India has put together a list of countries that require clearance to work in. To work in 1 of these 17 countries a potential emigrant would need to get clearance from the Protector of Emigrants. However, females who are younger than 30 are unable to get clearance for work.

[edit] Social Geography

[edit] Introduction

Social geography is responsible for describing the ways by which social relations, identities, and inequalities are formed within a place. Sociology and social geography are very similar. The difference is that sociology is concerned with how these three social creations differ throughout different locations and social geography explains how space can effect these three social creations. [25]

[edit] People

Mumbai, also know as Bombay, has a population of 9.9 million within in the central portion of the city, but with a total of 15.4 million inhabitants living in the greater Mumbai area making it the third largest city in the world. The people of Mumbai make up a diverse ethic mix of Gujaratis, Marwaris, Sindhis, in addition to other people from other Indian states. Some of the religious minorities in the city include; Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, as well as Jains. [26]

Local Mumbai men riding the train
Local Mumbai men riding the train

[edit] Neighbourhoods

The city of Mumbai is made up a variety of neighbourhoods, which shape the social interactions that occurs occurs everyday in these different neighbourhoods. Starting in the southern portion of Mumbai Island is a neighbourhood known as Colaba and is considered as the gateway to India. This area is signified by a yellow basalt arch which was built in 1924 in order to celebrate the British Presence in India. The Colaba is causeway is well known in the city for excellent shopping as well. It caters to not only locals, but tourists as well. This is a part of the city that still has avery english feel to it. [27]
The Colaba Archway, built in 1924 by the British
The Colaba Archway, built in 1924 by the British
The British have also left their mark in a Neighbourhood that lies just north of Colaba called Fort Area. Fort Area is an old British Fort where the core of Mumbai was built around. Its known for its victorian style gothic buildings such as Victoria Terminus as well as High Court. These areas of the city remind locals as well as visitors how important the cities colonial past really is.
Fort Area, built by the British East India Company in 1644
Fort Area, built by the British East India Company in 1644
The city is also highly saturated with high rise apartments which are primarily located along marine drive which runs along the shoreline of back bay from Nariman point to Chowpatty Bay. To the Northwest portion of Back Bay is you can find Malabar Hill which holds many exclusive residential neighbourhoods and is known for its hanging gardens. The Taj Mahal Hotel is another famous landmark in Mumbai. This hotel was the first landmark of the harbour area and was built 21 years before the Colaba Archway (Gateway to India). As you move north on Mumbai Island you get into large suburban neighbourhoods where much of the population of Mumbai live. [28]


[edit] Crime

Considering Mumbai has a population of around 20 million people, Mumbai is considered as safe for foreigners to travel to. One of the crimes that have been on a rise in the city is crime against woman. crimes such as sexual assault and rape have been on a rise within the local Indian community. Local authorities have said that more woman are coming forward and reporting such crimes which is why these types of crimes seem to be increasing. Rape is one of the fastest growing crimes in India and foreigners have also been effected by these crimes. [29]The information and technology sector in Mumbai has been expanding rapidly which has caused the instances of cyber crimes in the city to increase. In recent years it has been noted that African and Nigerian fraud groups have been active in Mumbai and have been targeting lower income Indian citizens. Residential theft within the city occurs regularly but is not considered a big problem. Serious injury or death from home invasions rarely occurs.[30]

[edit] Cultural Geography

[edit] Introduction

Cultural geography is concerned with how language, religion, economy, and government vary or stay the same from one place to another. It is a subfield of human geography which looks at both the material and non-material patterns and interactions of human culture. [31]

[edit] Popular Culture

The city of Mumbai is made up of many different cultures which have a visible imprint on the landscape of the city. However, popular culture is an element that is everywhere within the city. Things such as fashion, music, food, and sports find their way into almost every corner of the city.

[edit] Food

One of the main things that one would most likely smell if they were to visit Mumbai is the smell of Chai Coffee or Tea. This is a drink that first originated in India, and some people argue that it originated in Mumbai. Also known as a Masala Chai, it is brewed with black tea along with a wide array of indian spices and herbs. The abundance of chai coffee stands in the city is quite impressive. Chai beverages are made hot and fresh at stands around the city for people to enjoy every morning or throughout the day, just like Tim Hortons here in Canada. [32]
A boiling vat of chai is poured by a local Mumbai owner
A boiling vat of chai is poured by a local Mumbai owner
Street food is also another popular option for my people of Mumbai. Street food is a luxury that all economic classes can afford in Mumbai. It is something people do in the morning on the way to work, on their lunch break, or on the way home from work. It is the cheapest way to get a bite to eat in the city compared to restaurants. Side streets within the city that hold most of street food are called Kahau Gallis by the locals. Five star restaurants within the city have even included some of the more famous street food items on their menu. One of the most popular street food item for local Mumbaikars is called Vada Pav. They are a popular snack for people who are on the go. [33]

[edit] Sport

Sports is a huge part of the city of Mumbai as well as the entire country of India. Cricket is by far the most popular sport that would be played in Mumbai. Its popularity in India would be very much the same as hockey in Canada. The game of cricket is played on a field about the size of a football field, with a hard leather ball and flat wooden bat. [34] There are international cricket matches held between india and other countries at the Wankhede Stadium in downtown Mumbai. You can also find cricket being played at any of Mumbai's parks or open spaces. In addition to cricket, soccer, field hockey, and Kabbadi (indian wrestling) are also popular local sports. [35]
Indian international cricket player
Indian international cricket player

[edit] Music

Mumbai has always been known to many people as the home of Bollywood music in the country. This type of music is also known as Hindi Film music and originated in India in 1931 with a film called Alam Ara by Ardeshir Irani. The original music of the city however is the Marathi Songs which can still be heard in many costal areas of the city in its original form. Indi-pop is also another popular form of music within the city as well as Hindi music, Indian classical, and even some international pop music has found its way into the city. [36]






[edit] Notes and References

  1. Wikipedia, (2014), Mumbai. Retrieved December 07, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumbai
  2. Times of India, (2014), Mumbai. Retrieved December 09, 2014, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/Mumbai-a-land-of-opportunities/articleshow/9292526.cms?referral=PM
  3. Wikipedia, (2014), Mumbai. Retrieved December 07, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumbai
  4. Wikipedia, (2014), Mumbai. Retrieved December 07, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumbai
  5. Wikipedia, (2014). History of Bombay under Portuguese rule (1534–1661). Retrieved December 01, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bombay_under_Portuguese_rule_%281534%E2%80%931661%29
  6. Wikipedia, (2014). History of Bombay under British rule. Retrieved December 01, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bombay_under_British_rule
  7. Encyclopedia Britannica, (2014). Indian National Congress. Retrieved December 04, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/285841/Indian-National-Congress
  8. Wikipedia, (2014). Indian independence movement. Retrieved December 04, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_independence_movement
  9. Wikipedia, (2014). Indian independence movement. Retrieved December 04, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_independence_movement
  10. Population Demographics. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/india/Population_Demographics.pdf
  11. Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Overview. Retrieved on December 05, 2014 from http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous?NavigationTarget=navurl://35c3d6226ea0411f54de929d60eabd06
  12. Risbud, Neelima. (2002). The Case of Mumbai India. Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Mumbai.pdf
  13. Risbud, Neelima. (2002). The Case of Mumbai India. Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Mumbai.pdf
  14. Risbud, Neelima. (2002). The Case of Mumbai India. Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Mumbai.pdf
  15. Risbud, Neelima. (2002). The Case of Mumbai India. Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Mumbai.pdf
  16. US Department of State. US Relations with India. Retrieved on December 05, 2014 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454.htm
  17. Mumbai Human Development Report 2009. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://mhupa.gov.in/W_new/Mumbai%20HDR%20Complete.pdf
  18. Mumbai Human Development Report 2009. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://mhupa.gov.in/W_new/Mumbai%20HDR%20Complete.pdf
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