*Barcelona

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[edit] Barcelona - Introduction

Welcome to Barcelona!

Team: D'Souza, Eustace (ed11fr); Edwards, Casey (ce11pf); Tsionas, Filimon (ft11xf)

[1]

Welcome to Barcelona! "Barcelona has the dynamic and open personality so typical of Mediterranean cities. It is the perfect city to relax in, stroll around and enjoy. Barcelona has its own way of life which makes it unique. Come and experience it for yourself and enjoy a city with the best football teams in the world"[2].

When looking at Barcelona in terms of Globalization, the 1992 Olympic Games offered, to the municipal government, a double opportunity to establish an internal consensus and launch Barcelona as a happy combination of European cosmopolitanism and Mediterranean rootedness. The staging of this municipal ‘euphoric postpolitics,’ which entailed an extensive process of urban renewal, connects with the similarly exultant contexts of a reviving Catalan nation, post-transitional Spain, and post-Cold War globalization. The transformation of Barcelona, in turn, contributed to define the ideologies of globalization, as the 1992 Olympic Games were among the first global mega-events that celebrated the neoliberal end of history.’ [3]

Political geography in Spain and more specifically Barcelona is a very sensitive issue. In the fifteenth century, Madrid developed as the center of political activities in Spain and Barcelona gained significant political importance as a platform for the development of the Catalan Revolt that worked its way to make Catalonia independent from Spain. Later on, Catalonia suffered because of the Napoleonic wars. However, the rise of industrialization in the seventeenth and eighteenth century helped Barcelona recover from its loss. [4]

Barcelona’s population proper in 2014 was 1.63 M. It is the second largest city in Spain and is considered the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia that has 4 provinces[5]. The population, including all its urban towns totaled in 2014, 4.6 M. [6]. It is considered a major economic and cultural hub in southwestern Europe. Beyond that Barcelona is quite influential in education, entertainment, fashion, media arts, science and commerce as well as being one of the world's tourist exhibition/trade fair economic and tourist leader[7]. Barcelona reached its peak population statistic in 1974 when it had a citizenry of 1,906,998[8]. Barcelona has had rapid increases of migrants from Latin America and North Africa [9]. The city’s immigrant population grew from 3.5% to 17.3%, between 2002 to 2008. As of 2009, only 2.1% of immigrants were over 65 while 18% of the city’s immigrant population was youthful[10].

Barcelona has changed drastically in history from the name that originally took its place, Barcino, [11] to the people that fought and took over it like the Visigoths who were german tribes known as the goths [12] and the Moors who were referred to as Negros.[13] All the way from 100 A.D to present times, Barcelona has continued to change and develop positively to a well known city around the world. Barcelona keep and preserve their monuments and buildings that bring back the true history of its land.

Barcelona has continued to express their culture in their love for sports, media and music. They have one of the top performing football teams [14] as well as a national orchestra that continues to move people with the talent they posses. [15] The number of newspaper articles is also endless so information is a well available resource. Finally Barcelona has one of the most popular European music festivals that people consider having the greatest time of their life attending. Barcelona's culture is very diverse and very alive. [16]


Contents


Barcelona
Barcelona[17]

[edit] Barcelona - Globalization

[edit] Introduction

Barcelona has dealt with the inevitable process of globalization by paying attention to details throughout the city, by maintaining what already exists and building what is needed for the future. From protecting the historical significance of a park bench to lining a lackluster street with palm trees, every corner in the city has been touched by globalization and yet still continues to function properly and look good. Barcelona's urban design has been used as a model for city development around the globe, due to its comprehensive planning and meticulous attention to every element of the city. According to architect Lord Richard Rogers, “Barcelona is the jewel of the crown of urban regeneration” (Rossi). Globalization has been an amazing benefit to Barcelona, because of its ability to keep up with the ever-changing, constantly growing needs of a metropolitan city.[18]

[edit] Olympics

'92 Olympics
'92 Olympics[19]

In 1992 Barcelona was set to host the Olympic games for the first time, placing the city firmly back on the map and essentially ‘re-imaging’ its cultural identity.

The games were in essence a turning point for the Catalan capital where Catalan language could be portrayed freely across mass advertising, providing the city and it’s language the perfect antidote to years on the periphery.

As well as the official posters created for the Olympic games 1992, various companies became sponsors for the event, enabling the brands to catapult themselves onto the global market whilst also creating a cultural identity for Barcelona. [20]

[21]

1992 Barcelona, Spain Olympics, Lighting of the torch

[edit] Manufacturing

The Barcelona metropolitan area comprises over 66% of the people in one of the richest regions in Europe – Catalonia, with a GDP per capita amounting to €28,400 (16% more than the EU average). The Barcelona metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $177 billion, equivalent to $34,821 in per capita terms (44% more than the EU average) making it the 4th economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world in 2009.Barcelona city had a very high GDP of €80,894 per head in 2004, according to Eurostat. Furthermore, Barcelona was Europe's fourth best business city and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year as of 2009.[22]


Industry generates 21% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of the region, with the energy, chemical and metallurgy industries accounting for 47% of industrial production. The Barcelona metropolitan area had 67% of the total number of industrial establishments in Catalonia as of 1997. As in other modern cities, the manufacturing sector has long since been overtaken by the services sector, though it remains very important. The region's leading industries are textiles, chemical, pharmaceutical, motor, electronic, printing, logistics, publishing, telecommunications and information technology services. [23]

[edit] Water front

[edit] Port Olimpic

Port Olímpic de Barcelona Marina
Port Olímpic de Barcelona Marina[24]

Well established as the emblematic area of Barcelona with 740 berths and 85 commercial establishments, the Port Olímpic de Barcelona Marina was built for the Barcelona Olympic Games in 1992. It forms part of Olympic Village's attractive sea front, set in the heart of Barcelona's maritime zone and surrounded by beaches, gardens and buildings as prominent as the Torre Mapfre and the Hotel Arts, being what might be classed as an "Urban Port" thanks to its easy access from all locations, including public transport such as the underground (Line 4 CIUDADELA) and several buses (lines 36, 45, 59 and 71) which serve Port Olímpic [25]

[edit] Port Vell

Port Vell
Port Vell[26]

(Catalan pronunciation: [ˈpɔrd ˈbeʎ], literally in English 'Old Harbor') is a waterfront harbor in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, and part of the Port of Barcelona. It was built as part of an urban renewal program prior to the 1992 Barcelona Olympics. Before this, it was a run-down area of empty warehouses, railroad yards, and factories. 16 million people visit the complex each year.

It is now a focal point of the city and tourist attraction, containing the Maremàgnum (a mall containing shops, a multiplex cinema, bars and restaurants), IMAX Port Vell and Europe's largest aquarium containing 8000 Fish and 11 sharks contained in 22 basins filled with 6 million litres (1.5 million gallons) of sea water. A pedestrian walkway, Rambla de Mar, connects La Rambla to Port Vell. It incorporates a swing bridge, in order to allow ships to enter and exit the harbour. [27]

[edit] Infrastructure Development

As a model for urban development and design, Barcelona has been praised for its ability to keep pace with the process of globalization, by revitalizing areas around the city and integrating them together into one functional community. The intensification of Barcelona's infrastructure development as well as the multi-layered use for expansion has helped the city to globalize, while affectively using every piece of available land for a planned residential development, park, square or office building.[28]

[edit] Transportation

Barcelona is served by a comprehensive local public transport network that includes a metro, a bus network, two separate modern tram networks, a separate historic tram line, and several funiculars and aerial cable cars. Most of these networks and lines form a coordinated fare system, administered by the Autoritat del Transport Metropolità (ATM), although they are operated by a number of different bodies. [29]

[edit] Barcelona - Political Geography

[edit] Introduction

Spanish political developments since the early twentieth century have been marked by the existence of peripheral nationalisms and the debate of whether Spain can be viewed as a plurinational State. Spain is a diverse country with different and contrasting regions showing varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical, political and cultural traditions. Peripheral nationalist movements have been present mainly in the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia, some advocating for a special recognition of their "national identity" within the Spanish state and others for their right of self-determination or independence [30]

[edit] Government

Constitutional monarchy is the form of government used in Spain and started getting used since 1978. The population of Spain varies in many different ways. Hence, tens of political parties have evolved to date. Popular Party, Spanish Socialist Workers Party, the United Left, the Convergence and Basque Nationalist Party are a few of the major parties in the country. Each party endeavors to get the maximum number of votes to be able to handle the reigns of the country. The three positions/ bodies that have been given the most power by the constitution include:

The Senate – Given the fact that the country consists of forty seven provinces, the senate has been formed in a way that allows each province to be represented by four senators each regardless of its geographical or population’s size. On the other hand, 16 seats are given to the three provincial islands whereas two seats each are given to the autonomous cities of Spain, Ceuta and Melilla.

The Legislative Body – After the senate comes the legislative body. It consists of deputies of the Senate and that of the Congress. In total, there are 350 seats in the legislative body.

The President – The ruling monarch of Spain nominates the president for the government. Later on, the Congress of Deputies approve of the monarch’s decision with regards to the selection of the president. It must be noted that the Congress of Deputies is put together through a democratic process. [31]

[edit] Catalonia

Is an autonomous community of Spain, designated a "nationality" by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second largest city in Spain, and the centre of one of the largest metropolitan areas in Europe, and it comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, with the remainder now part of France. Catalonia is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish regions of Aragon and the Valencian Community to west and south respectively. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish and Aranese (an Occitan dialect). [32]

Independence
Independence[33]

After Franco's death in 1975 and the adoption of a democratic constitution in Spain in 1978, Catalonia recovered and extended the powers that it had gained in the Statute of Autonomy of 1932 but lost with the fall of the Second Spanish Republic at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939.

The region has gradually achieved more autonomy since the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The Generalitat holds exclusive jurisdiction in culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, public safety and local government, and shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government in education, health and justice. In all, the current system grants Catalonia with "more self-government than almost any other corner in Europe".

A relatively large sector of the population supports the ideas and policies of Catalan nationalism, a political movement which defends the notion that Catalonia is a separate nation and advocates for either further political autonomy or full independence of Catalonia. [34]

[edit] Barcelona - Population

[edit] Introduction

[edit] Spain

Spain's Population Density
Spain's Population Density[35]

Spain’s population growth doubled in the 20th century during the 60’s and 70’s till when in the 80’s the birth rate stalled and is now currently below replacement fertility rates[36]. This is due to Spain’s lack of family planning policy[37]

Spain had a total population of 46,507,760, a 0.5% decrease since 2013. Spain's population peaked in 2012, at 46,818,216 people[38].

Spain's Demographics Profile: 2014[39]

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.4% (male 3,791,781/female 3,575,157)

15-24 years: 9.6% (male 2,370,289/female 2,212,511)

25-54 years: 45.9% (male 11,158,451/female 10,752,197)

55-64 years: 11.4% (male 2,662,055/female 2,799,379)

65 years and over: 17.6% (male 3,582,643/female 4,833,478) (2014 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.81% (2014 est.)

Birth rate: 9.88 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization: urban population: 77.4% of total population (2011)

Rate of urbanization: 0.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Barcelona Expansion
Barcelona Expansion[40]

[edit] Fertility Rates

At present, there isn't a European country above the fertility replacement rate as the main populations are aging and there are less children being born. A total fertility rate (TFR) of greater than 2.1 is required to allow the population to stabilize without the need of immigration[41]

Spain, in the late 1990's, had fertility rates of 1.15 Total Fertility Rate (TFR). This was considered one of the lowest in the world [42] By 2008, Spain recovered to 1.46 (TFR) due in part to the large numbers of immigrants. To Spain's dismay though, the Total Fertility Rate dropped drastically soon after due to the horrendous economic crisis that occurred[43]

[edit] Barcelona

Barcelona is considered a major economic and cultural hub in southwestern Europe. Beyond that Barcelona is quite influential in education, entertainment, fashion, media arts, science and commerce as well as being one of the world's tourist exhibition/trade fair economic and tourist leader[44]. Barcelona reached its peak population statistic in 1974 when it had a citizenry of 1,906,998[45]. Its growth though was astonishing during the 20th century where it was more than doubled from 537,354 to 1,081,175 in 1940 [46]. It has though fallen from its high in 1974 because of emigration to less expensive communities and reduced fertility rates. At fault for emigration included industry relocations, cheaper housing and trust options available for commuters[47].

Barcelona’s population proper in 2014 was 1.63 M. It is the second largest city in Spain and is considered the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia that has 4 provinces[48]. The population, including all its urban towns totaled in 2014, 4.6 M. [49]. The 4 provinces are: Province of Barcelona: population. Province of Girona: 752,026 population. Province of Lleida: 439,253 population. Province of Tarragona: 805,789 population[50]. It is the most populated area in the Mediterranean and the most populated European metropolis [51].

Barcelona TFR
Barcelona TFR[52]

Barcelona's Total Fertility Rate has been stable for considerable time now. Between 1986 and 2010, it has fluctuated between 1.275 and 1.1 approximately(TFR)[53]. Considering that the city of Barcelona has an area of 100 Km2, this has been a reason for its stable (TFR) as compared to the rest of the province[54]. Other factors that influence Barcelona's (TFR) has been related to three concerning factors. They are: suburbanization, foreign immigration and residential mobility[55].


It has been unfortunate though, but Barcelona is not considered a favourable city to grow a family for foreigners[56]. Contributing to this statistic is residential spatial specialization that is contributing to fertility differences between metropolitan areas[57].

There is one factor that has created an anomaly in the TFR for Barcelona. It seems that when Barcelona won a major soccer game in May 2009, the birth rate jumped by 16%, not 45% as initially indicated[58]. For that matter, it has been stated that any type of socioeconomic factors, wars, epidemics, famines, migrations and cultural and religious events can impede or drive birth rates[59].

[edit] Demography

Barcelona Age Structure
Barcelona Age Structure[60]

Studying the demographic characteristics of the residents [61], in Barcelona, 62% were born in Catalonia. 24% of the inhabitants of Barcelona came from other areas of Spain. Now, Barcelona has over 17% residents that have come from Pakistan, China, Italy, Ecuador Morocco and Bolivia. This is significant, considering it was less than 4% in 2001. [62]

Barcelona Ethnicity Structure
Barcelona Ethnicity Structure[63]
Barcelona Demography
Barcelona Demography[64]

[edit] Population Density

The city proper of Barcelona had a population density of 15,991 per square kilometer [65]. In Barcelona, the lowest population densities are the areas with the highest incomes, 4,500 per square kilometer in Pedralbes and 7,300 per square kilometer in Sarria[66].

Within Barcelona, the Eixample community has a density of 36,000 people per square kilometre, [67]. and the neighborhood of la Sagrada Familia has over 50,000 people per square kilometre[68], both contain significant slum conditions.

One of the lowest population densities in the world was in Canada in 2005 with a density of only 3.5 people per square kilometer. In comparison, the U.S. has a population density of 31 people per square kilometer; while France's density per square kilometer was 109 people [69].

[edit] Population Distribution-Slums

Slum Locations
Slum Locations[70]

Thanks to the ongoing urban regeneration for the 1992 Olympics, clean up of run down shanty locations started back as far as the 1980's[71]. Even though there was the creation of the Olympic town, beach revitalization and restructuring of industrial lands, heavy densities of peoples are still located in slum areas. There are 4 distinct types of slums in Barcelona[72]. They are considered: old city degraded housing, shantytown housing in underdeveloped areas, multi-family residential blocks used for new immigrants and the 4th area are the temporary gypsy camps locations in wastelands around and in Barcelona[73].

[edit] Old City Degraded Housing

Houses that are beyond repair in the old parts of Barcelona make for attractive housing for marginal peoples, transients, and new immigrants that cannot afford decent accommodations. Illicit activities such as drugs and prostitution take part in the many hostels in these areas[74].

[edit] Shantytown Housing

Reconstruction Housing
Reconstruction Housing[75]
Homes in these areas, that are located in the outskirts of Barcelona, are usually developed on waste land. They are commonly built by hand with any odds and ends and are not built to any building code. Some are quite advanced and might not be considered decrepit[76].

[edit] Multi-Family Residential Blocks

These poorly built and poorly maintained areas, located in the isolated areas of Barcelona, house marginal peoples that have relocated from shanty towns and contain many petty crimes consisting of drug dealing and prostitution because of high levels of unemployment and poverty[77].

[edit] Gypsy Camps

Gypsy Camps
Gypsy Camps[78]

Gypsy camps are comprised of temporary campsites that are usually made of trailers or abandoned buildings that housed manufacturing and are located throughout waste lands of Barcelona[79].

[edit] Population Change

Demographic Evolution
Demographic Evolution[80]

The degree of population change is effected by issues related to the level of wealth, social dislocation and family planning. As a city's population of urbanization increases, generally, the population natural increase is lessened [81]. Alternative issues that add to these changes in population can also include genetic, infectious and chronic diseases – “these are diseases of global cities” [82].

[edit] Barcelona - Migration

[edit] Introduction

[edit] Spain

Immigration
Immigration[83]

Spain has always had immigrants coming to the country but not until 1985 did it become part of the governments agenda and a regional phenomena[84]. Not until the 90’s though has the influx amounted to substantial economic change. As of 2012, there are 5,294,710 immigrants in Spain[85]. Immigration creating significant contributions originated from Romania, Morocco, Ecuador and Colombia, followed by residents from Great Britain, Italy, Bulgaria, China and Bolivia[86].

[edit] Barcelona

Barcelona has had rapid increases of migrants from Latin America and North Africa [87]. The city’s immigrant population grew from 3.5% to 17.3%, between 2002 to 2008. As of 2009, only 2.1% of immigrants were over 65 while 18% of the city’s immigrant population was youthful[88].

[edit] Human Mobility

The Provinces of Catalonia
The Provinces of Catalonia[89]

Human mobility has had serious effects on marginal peoples due to its various regulations in place. Many immigrants risk their lives and life savings to come to a country [90]. To help in the issue of declining birth rates, new immigrants are now welcomed via various new strategies in order to attract them in hope for support in the labour force and various investment and economic growth initiatives [91]. As the mobility of peoples increase beyond state boarders, continents and hemispheres, cities and towns are experiencing increasing integration and interconnectivity among people and places' [92]. Of the foreigners living in Barcelona, 55% are of the working age group 25-44 years old[93]. In Barcelona, there are no immigration specific support services other than original formalities. Even though there are only 18% immigrants in Barcelona, nearly 1/3 of the immigrants are entrepreneurs and are helping to support economic entrepreneurship expansion[94].

[edit] Guest Workers

Migrant Worker Camp
Migrant Worker Camp[95]

In time of hardship for many, many workers from poorer European countries migrated to wealthier European countries that were experiencing solid growth [96] looking for opportunities. In order to help with this new influx of migrant workers, Spain created new immigration and labour laws in 2000 [97]. In 2002 though, labour quota reform was established for foreign workers in order to support native and non-native employment opportunities and try and establish stability for the government and its economies[98].

The following requirements must be met in order to successfully be allowed to work in Spain with a temporary work visa[99]:

1. The foreigner is sixteen years or older.

2. The foreigner is enrolled in the Social Security system.

3. The foreigner has a labor contract guaranteeing employment for the period of time authorized in the work permit issued to him or her.

4. The vacancy for the position has not been filled by nationals and the national labor market is in need of foreign workers.

5. The foreigner is not a citizen of any European Union country, which would be governed by EU regulations.

6. The foreigner is not in the country in violation of the immigration laws.

7. The foreigner has not been forbidden to enter the country

8. The foreigner has a certificate of good health.

9. The foreigner does not have a criminal background in Spain or any other country where he or she has resided in the last five years.

10. The “no return” period agreed upon in the voluntary return program has expired.

11. The labor contract conditions meet the Spanish labor law standards.

12. The employer has the economic and personal means to fulfill the labor contract obligations.

13. The foreigner has the skills or competence needed to fulfill the labor contract obligations.

Spain allowed temporary workers' families resident visas as long as they proved to the state that they had the resources to house them and as long as the temporary worker had a work permit to work in Spain for at least one year[100].

As hardship fell during the economic downturn, the unemployment rate in Spain increased to 24.63% as of 2012. The effected sectors that were mainly composed of migrant or guest workers that included construction and the service industry were hit hardest[101].

[edit] Why Migrate

People migrate either on a volunteer basis or are forced to migrate[102]. During the 19th and 20th centuries, people from European countries migrated to North America[103]. Thanks to the Olympics of 1992, Barcelona was home to 40,000 immigrants. In 2000, that number jumped to 300,000 and now Spain as a country has over 14% immigrants – the largest in Europe[104].

View of Barcelona
View of Barcelona[105]

[edit] How Do Governments Affect Migration

Governments throughout the world evoke various regulations to help support a controlled population movement [106]. Examples include: subsided abortions, expansive population policies, eugenic population policies (favouring one racial sector over another), restrictive population policies, birth control (one child policy)[107]control the movement of people across their borders

It is critical that governments at all levels promote diversity, considering that it helps support economic health and vibrancy of the cities. Diversity though comes with its issues. Ethnic segregation and social polarization increase undue hardships on urban and suburbanization [108].

Spain, as a country, is trying to create reintegration programs for those in social exclusion situations via voluntary assistance programs [109]. To help support an interculurality plan and coexistence in Barcelona, the city council has established a working plan for immigrant integration through changes to city policies across all services and departments[110].


[edit] Barcelona - Social Geography

[edit] Introduction

Social geography is the study of people and their environments with a stronger emphasis on social factors. Social geography within Barcelona, Spain is very fascinating to say the least and very diverse. It had a history that no other city had experienced and had its fair share of positive as well as negative moments in history.

[edit] History

Barcelona 100 AD compared 2013
Barcelona 100 AD compared 2013[111]

Barcelona was originally called Barcino, named after the Carthaginian rule Hamilcar Barca. It was taken by the Romans who arrived there around the 3rd century A.D.[112] Artifacts and remaining’s of that period can be found in the Placa del Rei. The Placa del Rei arguably includes the most gothic in nature type of architecture which best shows the cities medieval past[113]. It still includes the former main Royal Palace and its watch tower that was built for the 16th century[114]. Even though it one of the oldest parts of Barcelona, it is actually one of the most urban spaces of old Barcelona. Aside from the Royal Palace it includes the Palau Reial Mayor which contains a famous banqueting hall and the Chapel of Santa Agatha[115].



Visigoths
Visigoths[116]
In the 5th century A.D, a group of 2014) people called the Visigoths (one of the two main German tribes known as the “goths”)[117] occupied Barcino and changed the name to Barcinona. In the 8th century a new group of people called the Moors (commonly viewed as being mostly black and swarthy, hence a word used often to describe them as Negro)[118] gained and held control of Barcinona for 100 years until it was conquered by the “Franks”[119]. During the period known as the Spanish Marches (La Marca Hispanica), the region was divided into counties, the most important one being the county of Barcelona. In the year 988, the county of Barcelona gained independence from the Carolingian empire and expanded forming what would be known as Catalonia[120]. Catalonia started losing importance and power after they became a part of the Crown of Aragon[121]. Once they were banned from trading with American colonies around the 17th century they went to war with Spain with the support of France to declare their independence. The result, Spain lost the region of Roussillon and some other parts of Catalonia which are now French territories but after Catalonia was invaded by the very famous; Napoleon and his French troops, the territories lost to the French were returned to Spain once the French empire had fallen[122].
Map of Catalonia, Spain
Map of Catalonia, Spain[123]
Around the 19th century Catalonia started to gain its importance during the Industrial revolution and finally once its influence was recovered from the mistakes from their past, more political freedom and cultural identity was demanded[124]. Unfortunately in the 20th century there was a political repression during the dictatorship of Franco, Catalonia. Once the government of Franco recovered[125], the city of Barcelona also known as one of the 4 provinces of Catalonia become one of the most important and attractive cities in Spain.
Roussilon
Roussilon[126]

[edit] Barcelona - Cultural Geography

[edit] Introduction

Cultural Geography is the subfield of Human Geography which focuses on the pattern and interactions of human culture, both material and non-material, in relation to the environment. Culture within Barcelona, Spain branches all the way from 2000 years ago when it was a mostly dominated by those who spoke Catalan. In present times, Barcelona is a bilingual city which includes Catalan and Spanish as their official languages.


[edit] Sports

1992 Olympics held in Barcelona,Spain
1992 Olympics held in Barcelona,Spain[127]
Barcelona has a very diverse culture but something that unites itself with the rest of its country is its love for football (North American Soccer). FC Barcelona is the 2nd richest soccer club in the world and one of the best if not the best soccer club in the world. [128] Barcelona has also hosted the summer Olympics in 1992 as well as several matches of the 1982 world cup which they have gain great prestige from.[129] They also have a basketball, handball, roller hockey, ice hockey and other professional teams[130] that have been very successful but with their football stadium holding a capacity of 100,000 screaming football fans, none of these sports stand up in fan size to football. The Camp Nou which supports a capacity of 100,000 is the largest stadium in Europe.[131] Just recently in 2013 Barcelona was the host of the World Aquatic championships which was also very successful. Finally there are several road-running competitions[132] that are held all-year round in Barcelona for example the Barcelona marathon which actually had over 10,000 participants in 2010. It is truly very easy to notice the intensity and passion the Catalans and Spaniards have in sports and what it means to them.
Camp Nou - Home field to FC Barcelona
Camp Nou - Home field to FC Barcelona[133]

[edit] Media

El Periódico de Catalunya
El Periódico de Catalunya[134]
Barcelona has 3 major daily newspapers, El Periódico de Catalunya, La Vanguardia and Ara , 2 of them have Catalan and Spanish editions and the last 1 only has a Catalan edition respectively.[135] Just like most 1st world, up kept cities, Barcelona is well equipped with local newspapers, radio stations and online sites This is another hint and suggestion that Barcelona is Catalan dominated but does have a substantiary amount of Spanish citizens as well because their 2 major sports news articles come in Spanish editions only and are published by the same company. They also have an online news site called VilaWeb[136] which is the oldest news site but still remains to be the main source for most of the pedestrians. This will be found in Catalan and English editions. Finally they also have FM radio stations called RAC 1, cadena SER, etc, that are owned by city council. The main HQ for Catalonia’s public network is located in Sant John Despi, called Televisio de Catalunya.[137] Just like most 1st world, up kept cities, Barcelona is well equipped with local newspapers, radio stations and online sites to keep their citizens updated with recent events and information valid for there every day and the future.[138]
Vilaweb
Vilaweb[139]

[edit] Entertainment

One of the most popular theaters located in Barcelona
One of the most popular theaters located in Barcelona[140]
Barcelona has many types of entertainment to keep its citizens occupied and lively. One of these types of entertainment is the thrilling adventure of their performing arts.[141] Within the walls of the Gran Teatre del Liceu opera house, the Teatre Nacional de Catalunya, the Teatre Lliure and the Palau de la Música Catalana concert hall, which are all world-renowned, they have many venues with live music and theatre.[142]

Barcelona also has its own national Catalonia Symphonic Orchestra which is usually known as OBC and is the largest Catalonia orchestra. They play around 75 times in a season in their brand new Auditorium. Barcelona has 2 annual festivals that take place surrounding the theme of performing arts called Sónar Festival and the Primavera Sound Festival.[143] The Sonar Festival has been growing ever since it started in 1994 and is now established as Europe’s most well-known music festival. [144] For one weekend in June, thousands of people from around Europe come to Barcelona for this 3 day event to party and listen to different types of music like, “playful nature”, Avant-garde and electronic. They describe it as Sonar being “constantly on the pulse on the current electronic landscape. Sonar has becoming increasing popular and more successful year after year so in 2002 onwards it has organized over 50 venues around the globe that are similar in style to the Sonar music festival. Incredibly popular musicians show up at the Sonar including, Flux Pavilion and Royksopp and Robyn.[145]


Sonar Festival
Sonar Festival[146]

[edit] Notes and References

  1. Barcelona A walking tour around the city 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2YWC1N_WVv8
  2. Barcelona Turisme (n.d.). Useful information about Barcelona. Retrieved December 7, 2014 from http://www.turismedebarcelona.net/Useful-information-about-Barcelona/_3Ngb8YjSpL2_bRITYtt91GzyrtM-9ciyjRYGjRXQS1c
  3. Edgar Illas. (2014). Liverpool University Press. In Thinking Barcelon: Idologies of a Global City. Retrieved November 15, 2014, from http://www.liverpooluniversitypress.co.uk/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=11&AS1=9781846318320.
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